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6000144867 




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MERCHANTS' HANDBOOK 



THE money; weights, and measures 

OF ALt NATIONS, 



WITH TFram biutish squivA;^bjit3. 



BT 



W. A. BROWNE, LL.D. 



Second E 




LONDON : 
fiOWARD STANFORD, 6, CHARING CROSS. 



187^. 



£3^. 



/■ 



/U. 



eEOBGE HILL, 
8TBAM PRINTER, WESTMINSTER BRIDGE ROAD, 

LAMBETH. 



PREFACE, 



A VERY few itords will explain the Object of this 
treatise. It purports to be a book of reference for 
the use of these engaged in domestic and foreign 
commerce. It states un4er each country the deno- 
minations of money used in Iceepinj; accounts, and 
shows their British value. It enumerates under 
distinct heads the gold", silver, and- i:opper, or 
bronze coins, and the measures and weights of 
each country, and gives their English, as also their 
French or Metric values. This information is, to 
a great extent, official. It is mainly baaed upon 
the authority of gentlemen who have long resided 
in the countries treated of. A series of questions^ 
on the coinage and metrology of the several 
countries was addressed to the Foreign Ministers 
and Consuls in the United Kingdom, and to the 
English Ministers and Consuls abroad. In almost 
all cases clear and satisfactory answers were 
promptly and courteously afforded. . The author is 
fully aware that such a species of labour does not 
fall within the range of either Ministerial or 
Consular duties, and it is for that reason that he 
feels and acknowledges himself so much indebted 
to the members of the Diplomatic and Consular 
Services at home and abroad. 



COKTSSKTS. 



Honey, and Oenenl Obiervfttioiii on the Cnrrenoy 

fizchangee 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 

Standard of British Gold and Silyer Coins 

Changes in Bnslish Coins from 1006 to 1873 

Old English Corns no longer in Ciraolation 

Ireland 

The Channel Islands 

France 

Bttssia 

Finland 

Aostria • 

NOBTB OnUfAHT 

J^mssia 

Saxony 

Leipsic 

HanoTer , 

Saxe Altenhnrg 

Saxe Cobnrg-Oofha 

Bmnswiok 

Oldenburg 

Birkenfeld 

Anhalt 

Sohwarsbnrg-Sonderbansen 

Bohwansbtutf-Badolstadt 

Waldeck and Pyrmont 

Benss 

Sohanmbnrg-Lippe (or Lippe Bnckebnrg) 

Llppe 

Son^B OXRMANT 

Baden 

Bavaria 

Wtirtembnrg 

Hesse-Darmstadt 

Hesse-Cassel 

Meoklenbtirgh-Sohweria and Btrelitz 

Hamburg 

Bremen 

Lubec 

Spain 

Cflbraltar 

Portngal 

The Netherlands (Holland) 

Belgium 

Denmark 

Sweden 

Norway 

Switserland 



FAQIS. 



Mean, ''ffi^, 



1 
8 
7 

18 
14 
16 
16 
16 
17 
18 
90 



110 



119 
119 
195 



91 


198 


94 


181 


94 


181 


94 


, 186 


94 


1 186 


94 


187 


94 


140 


94 


141 


9ft 


142 


94 


144 


94 


145 


94 


145 


94 


146 


94 


147 


94 


148 


94 


149 


94 


150 


24 


151 


94 


162 


24 


152 


94 


158 


84 


155 


94 


167 


94 


189 


37 


158 


28 


160 


29 


164 


80 


166 


80 


167 


88 


170 


86 


171 


88 


171 


89 


178 


41 


178 


42 


177 


48 


180 


45 


180 



u. 



CONTENTS. 



• » 



> « 



• « 



JWALY 

Sardinia (Island of) 

Rome 

§2l5r :: ;: ;: :; :: 

Sicily 

Tnscaoy , 

Lombardy .. 

Malta .. 

Tuitey 

Oandla, or Crete .. .. '.'. 
Greece .. 

The Ionian Islandi .. .. '.'. 
China 

Hong*Eong 

India 

Bengal .. ., ,', 

Madras 

Bombay 

Ceylon 

Ooa (in Portugese India) 

Malaya .. w 

Bnnnab 

Slam 

Anom, 0r Cochin China 

Persia 

Arabia .. .. 

Japan 

Singapore 

Malacca 

Penang, or Prince of Wales' Island 
Java 

Snmatra 

Philippine Islands 

E^pt : Knbia, Sendar, Kordofan, Darfnr 

tSEi '.'. 

Algeria [', 

Morocco 

Abyssinia 

West Coast of Africa ^ tIz., Bathnrst, Sierra Leone, Cape Coast 

Castle, and Onlnea 

East Coast of Africa; viz., Mozamblqae and Sofala, Madagascar, 

Boarbon 

Manritlus .. 

Cape of Good Hope 

St. Helena 



PAGES. 



AMERICA-NORTH. 



Canada .. 
Nova Scotia . . 
New Brunswick 
Labrador 
The Bermudas 
Newfoundland 
British Columbia 



M01VB7. 

46 
47 
47 

49 
49 
49 



61 
52 
66 
66 
67 
67 
62 
64 
64 
64 
64 
67 
68 



70 
71 
72 
78 

74 
77 
77 
77 
78 



78 
79 
79 
80 
80 
81 



82 

68 
88 
84 
86 



86 
88 
89 



Welffhtf 
Ao. 



188 
196 
186 
187 
188 
191 
198 
196 
196 
199 
202 

m 

206 
206 
216 
216 
217 
222 
226 

282 
288 
286 I 

286 ; 

286 I 

240 

242 

248 

244 

288 



90 
91 



216 
247 
247 
249 
261 
268 
264 
266 
266 

266 

267 
268 
261 
264 



264 

264 
264 
264 
264 
264 
264 



CONTINTB. 



iii. 



United SUtes of North Ameilo* 
Mezioo 



CENTRAL AMBRIOA. 
Oentnl AmerioA, or Oiutlinalft and British Honduras 



WEST INDDSB. 



Wett Indies, BrltUh 
West Indies. Spanish 
West Indies, Dutch . . 
West Indies, Danish 
West Indies, Swedish 
Hayti, or St, Domingo 



SOUTH AMERICA. 



Colombia, Ylz. : Oranada .. 
Venezaela 
Ecuador, or Quito 

Oniana, British 

Goiana, (French) or Cayenne 

Oaiana (batch) or Surinam 

Braail 

Pern 

Chill 



BoUvia 

Argentine Republic . . 

Urngoay (Montevideo) 

Paragnaj 

The FalUand Islands 



AUSTRALU. 



FAQEB. 



lloo«j.,^*ft*«» 



New South Wales 

Victoria 

South Australia 

West Australia 

Tasmania, or Van Diemen's Land 

New Zealand 

New Caledoniaf the Rotnmah Islands, Wallia Islano, Gamblers 

Islands, Marauaaa, or Mandana Islands 

The Sandwich Islands 

The Marian Islands and Tinian 

Otaheiie or Tohiti 

Average Course of Exchange for the years 1664-1872 

Indian Coinage and Accounts— Appendix I 

Currency. Weights, and Measures of Borneo— Appendix IT. 
Monetary Conyentlon between France, Italy. Belgium, and Swit- 

serland— Appendix III 

Ayerage Course of Exchange in 1800— Appendix lY 

Currency of Greece prior to the 18th January, 1872— Appendix V. 



M 

94 



86 



Ac. 



Iu9 



904 
900 



900 



96 


900 


97 


907 


97 


907 


97 


967 


97 


967 


97 


967 


98 


968 


9B 


968 


96 


968 


99 


968 


100 


968 


100 


908 


100 


90S 


101 


972 


loa 


978 


108 


974 


104 


974 


106 


976 


100 


977 


108 


977 


106 


91t 


100 


97t 


100 


978 


100 


978 


100 


978 


106 


278 


100 


978 


107 


278 


108 


278 


• • 


278 



4 

I 



i> 



PART I. 

MONET. 

GBITEBAL OBSEBVATIONS. ' 

« • 

MoNXT or the " cnrrenoy ** is the standard measure of the 
yalue of commodities and the medium of exchanging them one 
for another. It is called a measure of value hecanse the price 
of everything bought and sold is measured bj it. The word 
money comes to us from the Latin moneta^ a surname of Juno, 
in whose temple, at Rome, money was coined. In its original 
sense money meant stamped coin, and afterwards anything 
that takes tiie place of stamped coin in buying or selling, and 
serves as its equivalent, such as bank notes. 

The earliest record of money, as a medium of exchange, is 
the purchase (about B.O. 1859) of the field and cave of Mach< 
pelah, by Abraham, from Ephron, the Hittite, for " 400 shekels 
of silver current money with the merchants." — (Gen. xxiii. 16.) 
Homer speaks of brass money as existing in 1184 B.C. 
Herodotus states (I. 94) that the Lydians, at ^gina, in B.C. 
IBS, were the first who coined gold and silver money, but the 
Parian chronicle attributes the coinage of both gold and silver 
money to Pheidon, of Argos, B.O. 895. 

Anything which everybody consents to use as a medium of 
exchange, and a measure of value in buying and selling may 
be considered as money. The members of the same commu- 
nity in buying and selHng among themselves may use as a 
medium of exchange and a standard of value anything in which 
they all have entire confidence. But the medium selected, 
whatever it may be, must possess all the constituents of value. 
It must be limited in supply^ useful and trantferable. If a 
thing selected to serve as money can be arbitrarily increased 
or diminished, the prieei of all things bought and sold by it will 
rise with its increase and fall with its diminution in quantity. 
Prices are said to rise when more money is required to pay for 
a given quantity of any article, abd to fall when a smaller 
amount of money pays for the same quantity. In different 
stages of civilization various articles have been used as money, 
such as elephants* teeth, furs, small white glossy shells called 
cowries, tobacco, silk, hides, iron rings. Iron money was used 
in Sparta, and iron and tin in Britain; money was madA of 



2 HOKET. 

pasteboard by the Hollanders so late as 1574. Bnt gold and 
silver — ^the precious metals, as they are called,— are now nsed 
as money in almost all parts of the world. This preference 
has been given to them becanse they possess, in a high degree, 
the requisite conditions of a medium of exchanpfe and a measure 
of the value ; those namely of usefulness, limited supply, trans- 
ferableness, portability, divisibility, and durability. In other 
words, the precious metals command universal confidence in 
their value, they are easily carried, and they cannot be arbi- 
irarily increased or diminished in quantity. In early ages gold 
and silvef, usually in ingots, circulated by weight ; and the 
•denominations of x^oney were the stme as those of weight. 
Possibly even as early as the Trojan war gold was used as a 
medium of exchange or a common measure of commodities. 
In the Homeric poems an ox seems to approximate to a 
standard of value, and gold is mentioned as an article of 
stored wealth, although it is not spoken of as a measure of 
other commodities. Mr. Gladstone* thinks that he finds the 
germ of the practice of using gold as money in the payment of 
the judge's fee or prize in gold on the shield of AchUlesf The 
gold coins of Miletus, in Asia Minor, which were probably 
made about the year B.C. 800, are supposed to be the earliest 
gold coins. The gold darics of Persia began to be issued about 
the year 638 B.C., and the Sicilians established a gold coinage 
as early as 400 B.C. The Romans first used gold coins in 
B.C. 206. The modem gold coinage of Europe was commenced 
by the Florentines in A.D. 1252. As early as the reign of 
Romulus, the Romans used copper, by weight, as a circulating 
medium. The square " As," in copper, was issued previous to 
the reign of Scrvius TuUius, B.C. 578, and the circular '* As " 
about B.C. 885. As commerce extended the incouvenience of 
weighing the gold and silver, and testing their purity, led to 
the introduction of coins. Coins are pieces of metal, usually 
gold, silver, platinum, copper, or nickel, impressed i^ith a 
stamp as a guarantee of their purity and weight, ^schylus 
mentions that the earliest sign impressed on money was the 
figure of an ox, the sign being probably intended to represent 
the animal's equivalent value in the metal. { Coins became 
the medium of exchange and the measure of value among the 
members of the same political community ; but for transac- 
tions between different political communities bars or ingots of 
gold and sUver, estimated by weight, art still occasionally used. 
Pure gold and silver are too soft to serve as media of ex- 



* Javentng Mtudi, p. 446. 

f Clad XXUI. 702-6. Clad XXI. 79. Od. 1. 481. 

t Aes. Ag., 87. ** Javentns If ondl/' 686. 



szoHiirois. 3 

change, and for that reason they are unuUly allofffd, that Is, 
mixed with • small proportion of harder or leM valaabl* 
metals. 

The quantity of alloy varies in different conntrieSf and In all 
cases the ttandard of a coin, that, is, its degree of parity or 
fineness, as well as its weight mnst be taken into account. 
The value of the alloy is always disregarded in estimating th^ 
worth of a coin. 

In some countries one metal only is used in the coinage as a 
standard of value, that is, as a legal tender of payment withoui 
limitation. In other countries both gold and silver hre used, 
their relative value beiOK settled at a iii|^d rate. A dcnblt* 
standard of value is objectionable, because gold and silver 
fluctuate in price like other marketable commodities. If 
the price of one of them at any time is raised dispropor' 
tionately above that of the other, the undervalued metal i^ 
immediately driven out of the circulation, and is exported 
because it will realise a higher price in other countries in pru> 
portion to the other metal. 

The phrase "moneys of account*' means the denominations 
and divisions of money in which accounts are kept. The 
moneys of account may either be identical with the current 
coins, or may bear definite proportions to them. 

Silver coin has long been the basis of the money of account 
of the greatest part of the world, and silver is almost universally 
the standard measure of commerce in most countries. 

In Great Britain gold has long been the principal measure 
of property and the standard of value. 



EXCHANGES. 

Exchange signifies the giving or receiving, in return for a 
sum of money in the currency of one country, an equivalent 
sum in the currency of another country. The term Exchange 
is used in two senses by merchants. It denotes the securities 
(Bills of Exhange) by means of which debts to creditors in 
distant countries are liquidated without the transmission of gold 
and silver. It also denotes the varying price (course of ex- 
change) of such securities in the market. 

Bills of Exchanor are written orders for the payment of 
money at some date fixed or ascertainable by the Bill. They 
fire written documents, by means of which traders settle their 
liabilitieB without the transmission of gold and silver. 



4 KOVET. 

Tha person who gires the order is ealled the Drawbb ; the 
person to whom the hill is addressed is called the Drawbs or 
(when he has written his name across the bill) the Accbptob ; 
and the person who has the bill in his possession is called the 

HOLDEB. 

The holder of a bill, when he transfers it, writes his name 
across the back of it. This is called endoming it. Thus the 
holder in transferring a bill becomes the Endobsxr, and the 
person to whom he transfers it is called the Eudobsbb. 

A Bill may pass in this way throngh the hands of any nnm- 
her of perRons, and each of snch persons is ponjointly respon- 
sible with the othe](endorsers, and with the drawer and acceptor 
of the bill for payment of the amount named in it. 

Endorsement is the signature of the person who transfers 
the bill. Special endorsement is an order from the endorser 
making the bill payable to the order of the holder. 

The periods for which bills are drawn vary with the purposes 
of the bills, and the nsages of different places. Some are 
drawn at sight, some at so many days. The term uBance de- 
notes the usual or customary period for which bills are drawn 
at one place upon another. 

The term Esteotitb is used in Bills of Exchange to indicate 
coin or specie as distinguished from paper money. • 

Bills of Exchange are classed as Inland and Foreign, An 
Inland Biil of Exchange is one drawn and payable in the same 
country. A Foreign BUI of Exchange is a document autho- 
rising the payment in a foreign country of a sum of money 
specified in the Bill ; for instance, a BUI on Paris, whererer 
drawn, is, as regards London, a Foreign Bill.* 

The amount of Foreign Money to be paid to the person iu 
whose favor the Bill is drawn is fixed by the Bill, but the price 
of the Bill, that is, the sum of money that is to be given for it 
in the curreucy of the country where the Bill is drawn, is per. 
petnally fluctuating. The constant rariations in the price of 
Bills of Exchange depend upon the supply of Bills in the 
market compared with the demand for them, and upon the 
comparative value of the currencies of different countries. 

The phrase Nominal Exohamob refers to the value of the 
currency in which Bills of Exchange are to be paid, as com- 
pared with the money in which they are bought ; and Beal 
£iXCHANOE has reference to their abundance or scarcity com- 
pared with the demand for them. 

The relative intrinsic value of the currencies of different 
countries depends upon the quantity of pure gold or pure silver 



* Bills dnwn in a foreign oonotry on London sra sometimes, but 
Inoorrectlj called, in London, Foreign Bills. 



contained in those cnrrencies, the yalne of the alloy being 
always disregarded. 

The Pab of Exchanob between two conntries nsing the 
same metal as their standard of valne is that snm of money of 
either country which contains an exactly eqnal weight of gold 
or silver of the same pnrity. 

Political economists object to this definition, as disregarding 
the difference in yalae of the precious metals in some conntries 
where mines exist and gold and silver are in abundance as com- 
pared with other countries not similarly situated. But for all 
practical purposes this difference is so trifling that it may be 
left out of account. It has been calculated that throughout 
Europe gold " finds its level to within | per cent." 

We may therefore regard the Par of Exchange as the equiva- 
lent intrinsic value of a giyen unit of the currency of one 
country estimated in the currency of anotlier country, both 
nsing ihe same metal as a standard. 

The relative value of gold and silver is liable to slight fluctua- 
tions ; and when two countries use, the one gold and the 
other silver, there can be no invariable Par of JSrchanffeheiween 
those countries. In such cases an approximate par is calcu- 
lated from the average price of gold and silver in Uie market. 
Hence we have a third definition of the Pab or Exchangb : it 
is the fixed standard rate of exchange between different 
countries, and is determined by the weight, purity, and market 
prices of the precious metals in the coinage of the respective 
countries. 

The relative value of gold and silver in the general market 
of the commercial world is in the proportion of about 15| 
tol. 

Inland Exchange is the liquidation of liabilities by means 
of Bills of Exchange between members of the same political 
community. 

FoBEioN Exchangb is the remittance of Bills to foraign 
countries in discharge of liabilities. 

In Foreign Exchanges when one place gives another a fixed 
sum, such as £1 sterling for a variable sum expressed in other 
coins, the fixed sum is called the certain or fixed pricey and the 
variable, the uncertain or variable price. The place whose 
money is reckoned at the fixed price is said to receive and the 
other is said to give the variable prices. 

When the rate of exchange between two places is high it 
is more favourable to the place that receives the variable 
price ; the lower the rate of exchange the more it is in favour 
of the place that gives the variable price and vice versa. For 
instance, exchange with Vienna is said to be favourable to 
London when a given sum in British sterling money would 
purchase more Austrian money (florins and kreuzers) than usual. 



6 MONET. 

** Flactuaiions in the nominal price of bills drawn by one 
conntry npon another will arise principally from an alteration 
in the weig^ht or firmnesB of the coins of either of the countries, 
or an alteration in the total amonnt of the currency of either 
oountry without a corresponding alteration in the commodities 
to be circulated. When the currency of a country is depre- 
ciated, either from degradation of the coin or from relatiTe 
over issue," it will purchase less foreign money, and foreign 
bills will sell for an increased amount of the depreciated 
currency, the increase being proportionate to the depreciation ; 
that is, foreign bills will sell at a premium. On the other hand, 
a bill drawn upon the country whose currency is depreciated will 
be ** bought abroad, where money retains its value, for a much 
less nominal sum than the amount for which it is drawn ; ** that 
is, such bills wiU sell at a discount. 

When two countries are each other's customers in buying and 
selling, and the one export* goods to the other to an amount 
equal to the value of the goods she imports from that other, 
then the transactions balance each other and are settled by 
Bills of Exchange. The bills drawn by the merchants export- 
ing are exactly equal to those drawn by the merchants import- 
inffi and the transmission of specie or bullion is unnecessary. 
Bat when one country imports goods from the other beyond 
the amount of her exports to it, a balance — that is, the excess 
of the imports over the exports — remains to be paid for. This 
is called the balance of trade* To pay for this balance a 
merchant in the debtor country, rather than transmit specie, 
will give for a Bill of Exchange on the creditor country more 
than the sum for which it is drawn. Hence bills upon the 
creditor country, will be at a premium. On the other hand, in 
the creditor country, bills will be abundant. The supply will 
be in excess of the demand. As the excess is only convertible 
into coin by being sent to the place on which the bills are drawn, 
and as this involves risk and expense, the holders of such bills 
will be satisfied to receive for them a little less than the amount 
specified. Hence in the creditor country, bills will be at a 
discounts The premium in the one country corresponds to the 
discount in the other. But neither the premium nor the dis- 
count can long exceed the expense of transmitting specie or 
bullion. When therefore there is a balance of imports to be 
paid for to a foreign country, foreign Bills of Exchange will be 
at a premium, and when there is a balance of exports, foreign 
bills will be at a discount ; but the amount of this premium or 
discount will seldom exceed the expense of transmitting gold 
and silver. 

■■■■■ ■■ — ■» ■■ ■ ■---^■. ■^■■■■ y -^ ■■ mmi^ ■ ■■■■■ , 

* The balance of trade is identical with the balanee of paymenU when 
two countrleB bay from each other on equal periods of oredlt ; bat not so 
where the periowi of credit are different. 



QBBAT BRITAIN AKD IBELAND. 7 

The GouRSB of Exchamob may be defined to be the oarrent 
prices of exchange, or the prices given from time to time in 
one oonntry for Bills of Ezdiange payable in the enmmoy oi 
another. It is the variable price (estimated in the currency of 
one country) which is given for a fixed sum in the currency of 
another country. 



THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GBEAT 
BBITAIN AND IBELAND. 

The money of account oonsistd of pounds, shillings, and 
pence sterling.* It is as follows : — 

British value, SyMtenuMo name. Fyeneh value, 

4 Farthings = 1 Penny = 12 Centimes. 

12 Pence = 1 Shilling = 1 Franc 26 

20 Shillings = 1 Pound sterling = 25 „ 20t 






The currency of the United Kingdom consists of gold, silyer, 
and bronze coins ; and of Bank Notes, exchangeable on 
demand at their full nominal value, for gold and silver. 

The Saxons and Danes used brass and silver money. The 
Normans discontinued braes, and used silver only. Gold 
money was introduced in the reign of Henry III. Copper 
money was introduced in 1672, and was replaced by bronze 
money in 1860. 



* The term sterling distinguishes the cnrrency of Oreat Britain and 
Ireland from that of the British Colonies, and from some Continental 
moneys bearing the same names. Sterling is an abbreviation of Easterlings, 
the name by which Eastphalian traders, the ancestors of the merchant 
princes of Hamburgh, were known in England. Their money was ef the 
finest quality, and hence KsterUng shortened into sterling became a 
general term for pure money. 

\ The letters £ a. d. (the initials of the Latin words libra, nolidi, and 
denarii) are used in accounts to denote respectively pound*, akillinge, 
and pence, and are either written over or at tne side of tiiose denomina- 
tions. Farthings are generally written as fractions of a penny, and are 
seldom considered as integers, but when they are, the lett^ q. (the initial 
of the Latin quadrantes) is written over them. As fractions they are 
written as follows :— i = 1 farthing ; ^ = 2 farthings or 1 halfpenny ; 
1 = 8 farthings. 



8 M05ST. 

GOLD COINS. 

Five Pounds ^^ 126 Francs 

Two Ponnds ■■ 60 „ 40 Centimes. 

One Ponnd (Sovereif<n) ■■25 „ 20 „ 

Ten ShiUings (i do.) » 12 „ 60 „ 

Although five ponnd and two pound pieces are still amonflf 
the current coins of the realm, none of these have been struck 
for general circulation for the last 40 years, because there has 
been no demand for them. 



SILVEE COINS. 



»» 

}* 
If 
ft 
It 
11 
♦« 

91 

No crowns or half-crowns hare been struck since 1851. No 
more half-crowns will be struck ; thej are being gradually 
withdrawn from circulation. No Groats have been struck 
since 1866. Twopenny and pennypieces are not in very 
general use. Silver fourpences, threepences, twopences, and 
pennies are struck every year and distributed, on the Thursday 
before Easter, as alms by the Sovereign, under the name of 
Her Majesty's Maundy Moneys, but the groat struck for that 
purpose has a different design from the groat in general 
circulation. 

BRONZE COINS. 

Penny ■■ Francs 10 i Centimes. 

Halfpenny .i „ 6i „ 

Farthing a ,, 2^ „ 

The present bronze coinage was introduced in 1860 (Act 22, 
Vic. c. 80), and the copper coinage was called in. The with- 
drawal of copper continued until the Slst December, 1869, 
after which date that coinage was no longer cuiTent. The 
bronze coins are composed of 95 parts by weight of copper to 
4 of tin and one of zinc. A pound of the bronze is coined into 
48 penny peices, or 80 half-penny pieces, or 160 farthing 



Grown (6 shillings) » 


6F 


^anc 


s30 


Half-crown (2 Shillings & 6 pence) •- 


3 




16 


Florin (2 shillings) » 


2 




54 


Shilling 


1 




27 


Sixpence » 







63 i 


Groat (f ouipenoe) s 







m 


Threepence •- 







811 


Twopence « 







21 


Penny m 







lOi 



QBE AT BRITAnr AKD IBELAKD. 9 

pieces. The penny measares in diameter H inches, the half- 
penny 1 inch, and the farthing f of an inch.* Tin was nsed 
for coinage in 1680, when farthugs were stmck in that metal 
with a stnd of copper let into the centre ; and, again, in 
1690-91, when hoth half -pence and farthings were issoed. 

BANK NOTES. 

£5, £10, £20, £50, £100, £500, £1,000 of the hanks of 
England, Ireland, and Scotland, and notes for £1 of the banks 
of Ireland and Scotland. In England the Irish and Scotch 
notes are at a slight discount. Bank of England notes are a 
legal tender for any sam orer £5. 

In the United Eongdom gold is the standard basis of the 
cnrrency and the principal measure of property and exchange ; 
it is coined at the rate of £46 14s. 6d. (or £46*725) to the ponnd 
weight Troy. 

Silver coins are merely tokens or representative coins, and 
form a subsidiary and subordinate currency. They are coined 
at the rate of 66s. to the pound weight Troy. 

Bank of England Notes are a legal tender for any sum over 
£6. 

By the Coinage Act, 88 Vict., cap. 10, gold coins are a legal 
tender for a payment of any amount ; silver coins for a pay- 
ment of an amount not exceeding 40s., but for no greater 
amount ; bronze coins for a payment of an amount not exceed- 
ing Is., but for no greater amount. . 

Previous to the passing of the above Act in 1870 a sum 
above 40s. should be paid in gold coin ; for a sum below 408. 
silver coin was a legal tender. 

Copper in pence and halfpence was a legal tender for any 
sum under Is., but in farthings it was not a legal tender for 
more than 6d. 

The Bank of England buys gold at the rate of £3 17s. 9d. 
per ounce standard, as provided in the Act 7 and 8 Vict., cap. 
32, sec. 4. Anyone may " demand from the Bank of England 
Bank of England Notes in exchange for gold bullion at the rate 
of £8 17s. 9d. per ounce of standard gold, such gold bullion to 
be assayed at the expense of the parties tendering it.** 

Gold and silver bullion are weighed in ounces and decimal 
parts, in accordance with Act 16 and 17 Vict., cap. 29; pre- 
viously the weights were expressed in lbs., ozs., dwts., and grs. 
For the convenience of the Mint the maximum weight of a 
gold bar bought by the Bank is fixed at 200 ozs. 



' * In the Isle of Man, up to' 1840. a copper onrrenoy existed, of which 
14d. was equivalent to Is. British, and £1 8b. 4d. to £1 sterling. In that 
year Britisn sterling money became the currency of the Island. 



10 HOKST. 

The Bank buys gold on asBay raports expresBed in thonaandthg 
and thirds of thousandths* better or worse than standard. 

Tbe degree of fineness of gold as ascertained by assay is 
expressed decimally, fine pare gold being taken as nnity or 1000. 

English standard gold which contains -(Iths of fine gold, and 
-j^th of alloy is said to be '9166 fine. In other words, 1000. 
parts of standard gold contains 916f parts of fine gold, and 
884 parts of alloy. 

The degree of fineness, or the report of gold, may be 
expressed either by the number of parts' of fine gold in the 
whole mass, or by the number of parts better or worse than 
standard. For example, fine gold may be taken as (unity) 
1000 or as 88| thousandths belter than standard, and gold 
having a fineness of 838^ thousandths is 83| thousandths 
worse than standard. The rule for standardiog gold, that is, 
for reducing the gross or actual weight to what the weight 
would be if it were really standard — is, to multiply the gross 
weight by the report^ and divide the product by the number of 
parts in standard. Thus : 

1. If the report express the number of parts of fine gold in 
the whole mass — say, for example, 992^ —then multiply the 
gross weight by 992|, land divide the product by 916}. 

2. If the report express the number of parts of fine gold 
better or worse than standard — say 76| — multiply the g^ss 
weight by 76}, divide as before, and add the product to, or 
subtract it from, the gross weight, as the case may be. 

Gold bars are sold at £3 178. 10 id. per ounce standard. 
Gold coins of various countries are bought by the Bank of 
llngland, and the buying price is determined by the rate at 
which the Bank can convert the coin into bars, at 77s. 9d. per 
oz. standard. The selling price is fixed with reference to the 
rate which will make the particular coin preferable to bar gold 
or sovereigns when gold is wanted for export. 

The Mint undertakes to return to the Bank the full weight 
standard in coined gold without any deduction at 778. lO^d. 
per oz. 

English light gold coin is cut and withdrawn from circtila- 
tion under authority of the Act 14, i3ieo. III., cap. 70, sec. 10, 
and a Boyal proclamation of the Srd June, 1842. The melting 
and export of coin is legalised by the Act 69, Geo. 111., cap. 
49, sac. 10. The defacing of coin is prohibited by the Act 16 
and 17 Vict., cap. 102. 

Silver bullion is purchased by the Bank of England at a 
price fixed by the rate at which silver could be resold, and the 
proceeds realised in bar gold at 77s. 9d. per ounce. 



* '* Gold standardlng tables to ODe*tbr«e-thoa8andUi part" " Bank of 
England, 1870," 



OBEAT BBITA.IN AKB IRELAND. 11 

The standard of British silver is IH^^^* * ^^^^ ^b* ^^^ ^^^8* 
pore in 240 dwts., or an alloy of 18 dwts. in the tb. troy. 

The parity of silver bullion or of forei^in^ silver coin, with 
reference to this standard is expressed in dwts. by the terms 
betterness or worseneat^ meaoiug so many dwts. more or less 
than 222, as the case may be, in the tb. troy (240 dwts.) Thus 
bullion or coin found on assay to contain 238 dwts. of pore 
silver in the tb. is reported better 16 dwts. ; and bullion or coin 
containing 206 dwts. pure in the tb. is reported toorte 16. 

To determine how much silver of standard fineness is 
equivalent to a given weight of bullion or foreign coin of a 
given betterness or woraeness : — 

I. When the bullion is better than standard add the better' 
neaa to 222, multiply the weight of bullion by the sum, and 
divide the product by 222. 

Example. — How much standard silver is equivalent to 1000 oz. 
of bullion which is better 17i ?— (1000 x 222 + 17 J) -H 222 
- 289500 -h 222 - 1078-8 or 1078^ oz. standard. 

II. When the bullion is worse than standard, deduct the 
worseneas from 222, multiply the weight of bullion by the 
remainder, and divide the product by 222. 

Example. — How much standard silver is equivalent to 1,000 
ozs. of bullion represented, worse 16 t (1000 x 222 — 16) + 
222 » 1000 X 206+222-206000+222-927^0 oz. standard. 

The weight and fineness of the coins specified in the foUowmg 
table are according to what is provided by the Act fifty-six Oeorge 
the Third, chapter sixty-eight, that the gold coin of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland should hold finch 
weight and fineness as were prescribed in the then existing 
Mint indenture (that is to say), that there should be nine 
hundred and thirty-four sovereigns and one ten shilling piece 
contained in twenty^ pounds weight troy of standard gold, of 
the fineness at the trial of the same of twenty-two carats fine 
gold and two carats of alloy in the pound weight troy ; and 
further, as regards silver coin, that there should be sixty-six 
shillings in every pound troy of standard silver of the fineness 
of eleven ounces two pennyweights of fine silver and eighteen 
pennyweights of alloy in every pound wetght troy. 



p 

JL 
if 



ft 
Is 



13-91S 






1»-i 



§S§I" 



I M I I I I I I III 



I I I II I I I I III 



II I i iisi 



ii-il 






GBEiiT BBITA.nr AlfD IBELAKB. 



13 



The following table, partly from Kelly's ** Uniyersal 
Cambist," shows the alterations tiiat have been made in English 
gold and silver coins, from a.d. 1066, with respect to weight 
and fineness, and the comparative valae of gold and silver at 
the different dates: — 



Date. 



Beign. 



1066 
1280 
1344 
1349 
1356 
1421 
1464 
1465 
1470 
1482 
1509 
1527' 
1543 
1545 
1546 
1647 
1549 
1551 
1552 
1553 
1560 
1600 
1604 
1626 
1666 
^17 
1816 
1821 
11872 



WiUiam I. 

Edward I. 
Edward III. 
Edward III. 
Edward III. 

Henry V. 
Edward IV. 
Edward IV. 

Henry VI. 
Edward IV. 
Henry VIII. 
Henry VIII. 
Henry VIII. 
Henry VIII. 
Henry VIII. 
Edward VI. 
Edward VI. 
Edward VI. 
Edward VI. 
Mary 

Elizabeth 

Elizabeth 

James I. 

Charles I. 
Charles. Ih 

George I. 

George III. 

George IV. 

Victoria 



Silver. 



CXOQ 



oz. ds. 



1^ y 






1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

10 
6 
4 
4 
6 
5 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



Gold. 






2 2 
22 
22 
22 
2,2 
22 
02 
02 
02 
02 
08 



3 
3 

a 

3 
3 
3 
3 
23 
2.3 
23 



1 

1 

1 

8 

6 
12 











2 

8 

8 

8 

8 
12 
12 







2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

6 

6 



d. car. 
4 

4 

623 

23 

8 23 

23 



grs. 



h 



•0 ■ 



-J 

^a 



Comparfttive 

Valae of 

riuo Gold 

and Silver. 



hi 



£ 8. d. 



3i 

3^:16 



14 
14 18 







23 
23 
23 









8 22 
23 
0,22 

o;2o 








3i 17 16 



8i 
3* 



22 
24 



8^24 
24 
24 
24 


















28 16 
30 



20 





22 





23 


84 


22 





23 


84 


22 


'0 


23 


84 


22 





22 





22 





22 





22 





22 





22 






30 
30 
34 
84 
36 
36 
36 











36 10 
33 10 
41 
44 10 
46 14 
46 14 
46 14 
46 14 



10 
8 


61 





















1 

0,1 

oil 

Ojl 
61 
61 
61 
61 



to 



>i 



i» 



n 



»f 



»» 



>f 



♦ » 



»» 






)f 



f» 



»> 



If 



» 



It 



M 



»» 
»» 
»» 

»» 
tl 
«l 



12-684 
11-571 
11-158 
10-331 
10-331 
11-158 
11158 
11-158 
11158 
11-468 
10-434 
6-818 
5 000 
5-000 
5-151 
11000 
11050 
11057 
11-100 
10-904 
12-109 
13-346 
14-485 
15-209 
14-287 
14-287 
14-287 



From the above table it is easy to calculate the weight of 208.' 
in tale of silver, and of 20s. in tale of gold at any particalar 
date. ^ 



B 




Illlll 



Mi 



8* la 



I!. 



II 

a. 






iptinj 
■Shi 

til! 

IMfl 

Hi 



I IS* 

I I 






I 
I 

It 



lillg 



1^1^ I; 



16 HOFET. 

.IBELAND. 

In the old Irish cnrrencr the denominfttions of moneys were 
the same as those of the united Kingdom ahready giTen, yiz., 
Ponnds, Shillings, and Pence, hnt British sterling is greater 
in intrinsic value hy a twelfth part than the old Irish money, 
thus :— 

Irish value. ByttemaUe name, British value, 

£ 8. d. 
4 Farthings -• 1 Penny -" ^| 
12 Pence - 1 Shilling - 11-^ 

20 Shillings - 1 Pound « 18 6^-, 

21 Shillings . 1 Guinea - 19 4^ 

The British Shillmg is equivalent to Is. Id. Irish ; the 
British Pound Sterling to £1 Is. 8d. Irish ; and £100 BritUh 
to £108 Gs, 8d., or £108). 

To convert Irish money into British Sterling, multiply by 12 
and divide by 18. 

To convert British Sterling into Irish Currency, multiply by 
18 and divide by 12. 

COMPABATZV£ TABLE OF BBZTI8H STSBLINO AND IBI8H CUBBBN0ZB9* 



British, 




Irish 


. 


British, 




IrUh. 


£ s. d. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


Gs. £ 8. d. 


G8. 


£ 8. d. 


« 

1 


• 








1 


9 2H- 


* . 


10 


■■ 








U 


..0 9 8^- 


i 


10 6 


8 


■■ 


0' 





84 


. ., 10 - 


• • 


10 10 


4 


■■ 








H 


i - 10 6 - 


• • 


11 41 


6A 


■» 








6 


.. 18 5A- 


• • 


10 


6 


■B 








64 


.. 19 4A- 


1 


110 


9 


— ' 








91 


.. 10 0- 


• • 


118 


nx 


■i 





1 





1-110- 


. . 


12 9 


1 


■B 





1 


1 


4 12 8A- 


. . 


6 


2 


O. 





2 


2 


4 16 11^- 


6 


6 6 


2 8A 


■i 





2 


6 


..6 - 


• • 


6 8 4 


2 6 


M 





2 


8i 


6 6 5 0- 


• • 


6 18 9 


4 7,V 


■. 





6 





9 18 10A-. 


10 


10 10 


6 


M 





5 


5 


10 10 10 - 


• * 


11 7 6 


6 11^ 


■i 





7 


6 


.. 92 6 IH- 


■ * 


100 


7 e 


M 





8 


li 


. . 96 18 6^- 


100 105 












.. 100 - 


. . 


108 6 8 










100-105 0- 


. . 


118 ib 



THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

viz., 

GUERNSEY, JERSEY, ALDERNEY, AND SAKE. 

The denominations of money are Poundtt Shillingt, and Pmei 
Channel Island Currency, £1 sterling is reckoned equal to 
£1 Is. Bd. Channel Island Corrency, 



?BAiroi. 



17 



VBAITOB. 

jy«fMfc 9dlu4, 8if9t$wMti« naiM. XngUik valiM. 

1 Centime • .\M. 

100 GentimeB. -> 1 Fnmo -> 9id. 

In Franoe sUver is the legal toUndard of valne bat the 
adoption of gold ae a nngle standard was reoommended in July 
1870 by the '* Oonseil Bop^rienr dn Conuneroe.'* The Talae 
of the AaM in silYer is eqiud to 8*884d. sterling, and 26 francs 
67*2\sentimes are the equivalent value in silver of £1 sterling. 
The value of the Franc in gold is equal to 8*616d. sterling, and 25 
francs 22i centimes are the equivalent value in gold of £1 sterling. 

The gold coins are pieces of 100, 60, 25, 20, 10, and 5 francs. 

The silver coins are pieces of 5, 2, and 1 franc, and the i 
franc and the 20 centime piece. 

The bronse coins are pieces of 10, 5, 2, and 1 centimes, 
which weigh respectively 10, 5, 2, and 1 grammes. 

The bronae coins in most general use are the 10 and 6 
centime pieces. The 2 centime piece is seldom met with, and 
the 1 centime piece is still more uncommon. The Bank Notes 
are for 50, 100, 500, 1000 francs. 

The copper coinage of France is ^AAi^^" ^^ * ^^ ^ composed 
of 95 parts of pure copper, 4 of tin, and 1 of zinc 

The following table shows the weight, fineness, and English 
value of French coins : — 



Denomination 
of Coin. 


FoU weight 

in 
Qrammes. 


Standard 

Finenese in 

tboaaandth 

parta. 


Diameter 

In 

MilU- 

metres. 


English value 1 
at U Francs 96 
Centimes to £1. 


Gold: — 








£ 8. d. 


100 Frauds 


82268*06 


900 


86 


8 19 4i . 


50 „ 


16129-08 




28 


1 19 8 


26 V „ . 


8064-616 




*» 


19 10 


20 „ 


6461*61 


. 


21 


16 lOi 


10 „ 


8226-80 




19 


7 Hi 


5 .. 


1612*90 




17 


8 111 


SiLVEB :— 










5 Francs 


26 


900 


87 


8 Hi 


. 2 „ 


10 


836 


27 


17 


1 n 


6 


if 


28 


9i 


60 Oentimes 


2-60 


II 


18 


4} 


20 


1 


11 


16 


2 


Bbonzb : — 










10 Oentimes 




960 




1 


5 




ti 




i 


2 


V 


II 




i 


1 




II 




T^», 



18 H017ST. 

The allowance of yariation in weight for the gold coins of 
100 and 50 francs is one part in 1000, for the 20 and 10 franc 
pieces it is 2 in 1000, and for the 6 franc gold piece it is S in 
1000. The allowance from standard parity for all the gold 
coins is 2 parts in 1000. In regard to the silver coins the 
allowance from standard weight is for the 5 franc piece 3 parts 
in 1000, for the 1 and 2 franc pieces 5 parts in 1000 ; for the half 
franc pieces 7 parts in 1000 ; and for the 20 <$entime pieces 
10 parts in 1000. The allowance from standard pnrity for the 
6 franc pieces is 2 parts in 1000 and for ail the other silver 
pieces it is 8 parts in 1000. 

The denominations of money nsed in accounts prior to 1795 
were livrest sous and deniert (12 deniers ■■ 1 son, 20 sons » 
1 livre), and 80 francs were prenerally considered equal to 81 
livres ; but by a decree in 1810 45 livres were deckired eqnal 
to 47 francs 20 centimes, and the pieces of 24, 6, and 8 livres 
in like proportion. The old gold coins were the Lonis of 24, 
and the donble Louis of 48 livres. The silver coins wera 
the Ecu of 6 livres and the half and quarter Ecu pieces. 

French value of enqlish mombt, at 25 francs 20 centimes 

fob £1 stebling i — 



Engllih. 


Frenc}i. 




Bng li$h. French. 






id. - 


2|- centimes 




28. ■■ 2 francs 52 centimes 


id. - 


5i n 




23.6J.- 3 




15 


♦> 


Id. - 


lOi . „ 




58. - 6 




SO 


$i 


3J. - 


814 M 


» 


lOs. - 12 




60 


l> 


4d. = 


42 




£1 - 25 




20 


It 


6d. - 


63 




£5 - 126 






ft 


Is. - 

• 


1 franc 26 centimes 


£10 -252 




^ 


It 






HI] 


rdsiA. 




- 





Paper money is the chief medium of payment and standard 
of value, and gold and silver coins are at a premium, and except 
the 20, 15, 10, 5 copeck pieces, are rarely met with. The 
paper ruble is worth about 2s. 6d. sterling ; any sum in paper 
rubles may be converted into pounds sterling by division by 8. 

Bustaian value. ' SystemAtie Name, Engliah value 

1 Copeck •- 'ddd. 

100 Copecks a 1 Silver Bnble « 3s. 2d. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are the imperial of 10 rubles, the half- 
imperial^ and the three-ruble piece. There is also a three- 
ruble peice in Platina. 



BUBSIA. 



19 



The fiilver coins are the rudfif ^ half-rable, and ihe 25, 20, 16, 
10, and 5 oopeok pieces. (The 5-copeck piece is no longer 
minted.) 

COPPXB COINS. 

The copper coins are pieces of 5, 8, 2, 1, \, and i copeck 
pieces. 

BANK NOTBS. 

The bank notes are for 1, 8, 5, 10, 20, 26, 50, 100, 1,000, and 
2,000 rabies. 

The provinces of the Gancasns and Georgia have a special 
silver coinage, namely, the double-abbas i« 40 copecks, the 
abbas « 20 copecks, the half-abbas » 10 copecks, and the 
shaor « 5 copecks. 

Table showing ihs weight, fineness, aud English value of the 

Russian coinage. 



Denomination of Coins. 



GOLD COINS. 

Imperial (10 rubles) . . 
Half-imperial (5 rubles) . . 
Three-ruble piece . . 

BUiVEB COINS. 

Buble 

Half -ruble (Poltinnick) . . 
Quarter ruble (Tohetwertak^ 
Dwougrivniok (20 oopeoks) 
Piatinnick (15 „ 
Griwnick (10 „ 

Pialachak (5 „ 

COPPER COINS. 

Five copecks 

Three copecki| 

Two copecks 

One copeck 

Half -copeck (Deneshka) . . 
Quarter-copeck (Polushka) 



°b8 

I* 

OQ 



If 

f» 
ft 



83i 
96 



»> 

•r* CB 



DoliB. Dolis 

294TSr270 

l^h\ 135 

88^V 81 



466^^405 



Si 



;=3 

I -*« 9 
I U3S1 

I 'a » 



-o 

A o 

® < 



238 

116J 

46| 
23A 



5T6 

345|' 

280| 

115|' 

67| 

28^ 



202^ 
101^ 



DoUs 



English Tslae 



£ s. d. 



24fT'l 11 8 

12^^10 15 10 

1^\0 9 6 



63H 



8 2 



80^ 





1 7 


15i!0 


n 







7| 







5,7^ 







8^ 







lA 







li^ 







1.14 







.76 







.38 







.19 







.095 



20 



icoinnr. 



The standftrd of flnene8B of the gold coinage if the 8ame as 
that of English gold coins ; the standard of the silver coins, 
▼iz.. 88 i in 96 parts, is inferior to that of the French 5-firattc 
piece, which in Bnseian weight is 86<^olis fine, bat snperior 
to that of the Austrian and Prnssian dollars, the Austrian oelng 
80 and the Prnssian 72 dolis fine. 

Besides the above-mentioned coins there are some old coins, ' 
stmck at different periods, which have not been withdrawn 
from circulation, namely, in silver the li ruble piece, containing 
6071 dolls of fine silver ; and the 80 copeck piece ^ containing 
121i doUi of pure silver; in copper, the grivnick, formerly 
equal to 10 copecks, now equal to 8 copecks; the piatak, 
formerly equal to 6 copecks, iiow equal to li copecks ; and the 
grosh, formerly equal to 2 copecks, now equal to i copeck. 

RUSSXAV VALUB OF ENGLISH UOMST AT 2s. 6d. PEB PAPEB BUBLB. 



EnglUh. 


Ru$$ian 


1 


Engliih. 




Buttian. 


id. - 


1 copecks. 


2s. 6d. 


— 


1 ruble. 


Id. *- 


h * 




6s. 


M 


2 tt 


8d. - 


10 , 




108. 


m 


4 „ 


4d. - 


18i , 




£1 


« 


8 H 


6d. - 


20 




£6 


H 


40 „ 


Is. - 


40 




£10 


m 


BO „ 


28. - 


80 


BUSSIA. 
FINLAND. 








Byitematic name. 




EnglUh italue, 
£ S. d. 






1 Penni 




Jtft, 


100 Pennis 


1 


Mark 


« 


JT 



Silver is the chief standard of value, and there are no gold 
coins. 

The silver coins are 2 marks, 1 mark, 60 pennis, and 26 
pennifl. 

The copper coins are pieces of 10 pennis, 6 pennis, and 1 
penni. 

The Bank notes are for 100, 40, 20, 12, and 8 marks issued 
by the Finland State Bank ; and for 100, 26, and 16 marks 
issued by the one private bank, **ForeningB Banken i Finland.*' 

Two different rates of exchange are qaotod, one for buyers 
and another for sellers ; thus 100 rubles (St. Petersburg) • 807 
marks for buyers or 802|markBfor soUors; £1 sierling (London] 
«26'86 marks for buyers or .25' 15 marku for seUers ; 106 
marcs banco (Hamburg) » 188*60 marks for buyers or 187 



▲rSTBIA. 



21 



marks for sellerB ; 100 franoe ^aris) » 100^60 marks for Imsrers 
or 99-85 marks for sellers \ 100 florins (Amsterdam) » 211-80 
for buyers or 209*70 marks for sellers ; 100 riskdaldrs (Stock- 
holm) » 142 marks jfor buyers or 141 for sellers. 

The following table shows the standard of flnenesSi weight, 
and English \alae of the onrrent ooins. 





standard of Fine- 








QMS in Uioasandih 


Weight In 






parts. 




BttgUih Talme. 




Pore , Alloy 






Sllyer. 


Copper. 






SiLTBB Coins : — 








£ s. d. 


^ Marks 


.868 


•182 


10-8658 


17 


IMark 


.868 


•182 


5-1829 


94 


50 Pennis 


.760 


•250 


2-5495 


41 


25 Pennis 


.760 


•250 


1-2747 


2| 


Copper Coins: — 










10 Pennis " 






12-7979 


1 


5 Pennis 






6-3987 


01 


1 Penni 






1-2797 


0^ 



AtuMan value. 



100 New Erentzers » 



AUSTBIA. 

Bytitmatic name, 
1 New Erentzer « 
1 New Florin « 



Englith voUm. 
Is. Hid. 



In 1867 a Commission composed of persons from the two 
parts of the Empire sat in Vienna. This Commission recom- 
mended the introduction of gold as sole standard of valne; 
and the recommendation was adopted in Article XII. of the 
Law of December 24th, 1S67,— {Coll eetion of Laws of the 
healm, 1867, No. 4.) 

Previously silyer had been the standard precious metal nsed 
in the currency. 

Paper money in Austria is the chief medium of payment. 

The value of the paper florin fluctuates from day to day, but it 
may be taken at about Is. 8d. sterling, or 12 florins to the £ 
sterling. 

On the 81st July, 1867, Austria concluded a preliminary 
ti-eaty with France, whereby the florin of the value of 2t 
French francs was flxed as the fundamental uait of account 
and exchange. In that treaty it was provided that Franoe 
should coin a piece of 25 francs equal to 10 florins. 

The gold ooins are pieces of 8 and 4 florins. 



22 



HOITEY. 



The nbrn coins hm the 2 Florin Fiea, the Flaring the \ 
Florin^ the 20 and 10 Kreutzer Piecet, 

The copper ooins are the Kreutzer, and 4 Erentzer Pieces. 

The Bank Notes are for 10 Ereatzers, and 1, 6, 10, 100, and 
1000 florins ; thej flnctnate in Talne as compared with gold 
and silver money, and are generally at a discount. 

Between 1858 and 1867 the currency was based upon the 
45 florin standard, or that in which a metric Pfnnd (500 
grammes) of flne silyer was coined into 45 New Florins. 

Prior to 1858 Austrian money was based on the Conventiqn or 
20 Florin standard, or that in which a Cologne mark weight, 
Hamburg standard (8608 grains Tory) of fine silYer was coined 
into 20 florins, in accordance with a Convention between Austria 
and Bavaria, concluded in 1753 ; when the 45 florin standard 
was introduced, 105 new florins were declared equivalent to 
100 old ones. 

The following table shows the weight, flneness, and English 
value of Austrian coins :— 



Denomination of 
Coin. 



Gold Coins : — 
8 Florin piece 
4 Florin piece 

SiiiVEB Coins:— 
2 florins ... 
1 Florin . . . 
i Florin ... 

20 Ereutzers 
10 „ 

CopPEB Coins :- 
4 Kreutzer . 
1 Ereutzer . 



Standard 
fln«neBB in 
hundredth 
parte. 



T««tl» 



I* 



It 
» 



FnU 
weight in 
grammes. 



6-45161 
3-22580 



24-691 

12-846 

5'842 

2-666 
1-666 



Weight of 

pure metal 

ingrms 



5-80644 
2-90822 



22-222 

11-111 

2-778 

1-888 
0-667 



Weight 
of aUof 
ingrme. 



•64516 
•82258 



2-469 
1-287 
2-564 

1-888 
0-999 



B 



SngUah 
value. 



£ s. d. 
15 10 
7 11 



8 lU 

111* 
51 



4| 
2| 








2* 



The 8 florin piece is 21 millimetres in diameter, and the 
4 florin piece 19 ; the pfund of 500 gxanuoes of gold consisting 



AUSTBIA. 



28 



o! -AfihB gold and Ath copper is coined into 771 pieces of 
eight florinB and 165 pieces of 4 florins. On the left side of 
the Imperial Eagle on the rcTerse of the coin is shown the 
Anstrian yalne— vis., 8 florins; and on the right side the 
French valne — yiz,, 30 francs. 

The following old coins, still in dronlation, aie receiTsd at 
the onder-mentioned rates : — 

r These are of 
Sterling. the 45 florin 

Gold Coins :•<- florins, kreats. £ s. d. | standard, and 
Crown ' -13| 0-170 

Half-crown - 6^ « 18 6 



< were replaced 
^ bythe8and4 



The Ducat (4^ florins) 
with an agio of from 
6 to 10 Erentsers 



SiLYEB Coins :•*- 
Doable Thaler 
Thaler 



Crown of Brabant 
The Conyention Crown 
Florin of 60 Erentzers 
The 20 Erentzer piece 
(new coin) 

The 20 Erentzer piece , 
(old coin) 

The 10 Erentzer piece 
The 6 Erentzer piece 
The 5 Erentzer piece 
The 8 Erentzer piece 



2 

4 
1 










[ 



4 70 - 9 2i 



8 
1 50 








5 Hi 

a 11 



florin pieces in 
March, 1870. 

This is of 
the old 20 
florin or Con- 
yention stan- 
,dard. 

These are 
coins of the 
45 florin 

standard. 



80 

10 

5 



4 6}^ 
4 1 
2 01 



» 85 « 8} 
CB 34 » 7if 



17 
10 

84 

5 










3« 
2i 







li j 



These are 

of the old 

'20 florin or 

Conyention 

standard. 



^ALUX OT EnQUSH MoNBT AT Is. 8d. FOB 1 AUSTBIAN FloXUN 

IN Paper. 



EnglUh, Autirian Paper. 


BnglUh, Auitrian Paper 


id, — li Erentzers 


28. 6d. « li florins. 


Id. = 6 


5b. — 3 „ 


3d. - 164 „ 


10s. - 6 „ 


4d. - 20 


£1 - 12 


6d. - 30 


£5 - .60 


Is. - 60 


£10 mm 120 ., 


2s. «> lfl.20,, 





24 MOKET. 



GERtfANY. 

The present monetary system introdnced by the law of 
December, 1871i established for the whole of Germany an 
uniform system of oarrenoy and accounts. The Mark, which 
is the basis of this system, is equiyalent to a lO-groschen 
piece, or -^ of a North German Thaler : it is the tenth part of 
an Imperial gold coin — ^the ten-mark-piece — of which 139^ 
pieces contain a Zollverein pound, that is, 500 grammes or 
7716 Troy grains of pure gold. During the period of tran- 
sition to the new system, the old silyer coinage of North 
Germany, down to the 5-grosohen piece, continues to be a legal 
tender in all commercial transactions, and a new gold coinage 
is declared a legal tender. This new monetary system, in 
which all accounts are now kept and reckonings made, is as 
follows : — 

Oerman vaiue, Syttematie name, English value, 

£ s. d. 
10 Pfennigs* « 1 Groschen « 1-175 



10 Groschen or 
100 Pfennigs 



I - 1 Mark -00 11-| 



This system introduces a gold standard into Germany where 
that standard, the only' one suitable for large payments, was 
much needed, and where previously there was but a yery small 
quantity of gold in circulation. It makes gold a legal tender 
and standard of yalue — a money instead of an article of com- 
merce — and it extends to the whole of Germany one uniform 
system of currency and accounts. It adopts a commdn gold 
coin for the yarious States of the Empire, whose silyer coinage 
is so different, and, by dropping the Thaler denomination for 
the gold coinage and giving it a new name and subdivisions, it 
tends to harmonise and unite the systems of North Germany, 
the Hanse Towns, and South Germany. Under the old 
system the smallest coin in North Germany was the Pfennig, 
of which there were 120 in a Mark, while in South Germany 
the equiyalent of a Mark was 85 Ereuzers or 140 Pfennigs. 
In the new system the smallest coin for ail Germany is the 
one-huudredth part of a Mark, and so the value of the smallest 
coin is increased in the new system by 20 per cent, for North 
Germany, and by 40 per cent, for South Germany. 



* In Bavaria a atfbdivision of the Pfennig into two half-Pfennigs 
may be made if necessary. 



AIXSTBIA. 



25 



GOLD COINS. 



1 



10 Marks . . . . 
20 



»t 



•a » 

8 10 
6 20 



1 



6 &0 
11 40 






Si 



8 6i 
16 lOf 




i 



6.^ 



Bngllah 
Vtlno. 



M 9, d. 

9 9i 

19 7 



A ZoUverein ponnd of pure gold if eoined into 139i pieces 
of 10 Marks; or 69f pieces of 20 Marks. The mixtare of pore 
gold and alloy in the coins is in the proportion of 900 parts of 
gold to 100 parts of copper. Accordingly, 125*55 pieces of 
10 Marks or 62-775 pieces of 20 Marks weigh one ZoUverein 
ponnd. 

The Imperial gold coins bear upon one side the Imperial 
Eagle, with the inscription, " Dentsches Reich," and a state- 
ment of the yalne in Marks, and the year of the coinage ; on 
the other side, the likeness of the sovereign princes, or the 
symbols of sovereignty of the Free Towns, with a corresponding 
device and the stamp of the Mint. 

The di£ference more or less of the pieces as issued from the 
Mint must not exceed in weight 2^ thousandth-parts, and, in 
fineness, 2 thousandth-parts. 

Imperial gold coins that are not deficient more than five- 
th(msandth-^arts from the nominal weight (Passirgewicht) are 
accepted as full value in all payments. Imperial gold coins 
which, from long circulation have become lighter than the pass 
weighty jaxQ withdrawn, and replaced at the expense of the 
Empire. 

The coinage of other gold coins besides the 10 and 20 Mark 
pieces, as well as of large silver coins (except memorial medals) 
is prohibited. 

All payments which, under the old system of currency, would 
be made in silver money of Thaler currency, of South German 
currency, oi Liibeok or Hamburg customary currency, or in 

o 



26 MOKET, 

Thalers of the Bremen gold, reckoning maj be made in 
Imperial gold coins reckoned at the following rates, yiz. : — 

10 Mark piece » 84 Thalers, of 5 Florins 50 Erenzers 

of South German currency, or 8 
Mftrks 5i Schillings of the Lilbeck 
and Hamburg currency, or 3^^ 
Thalers of Bremen gold reckouing. 

20 Mark pieee« 6f Thalers, or 11 Florins 40 Erenzers 

of South German cnrrenoj, or 16 
Marks 10| Schillings, of Liibeck and 
Hamburg currency, or 6/^ Thalers 
of Bremen gold reckoning. 



System ot Cubbemcy befobb 1872. 

Formerly silver was the standard of value, and the monetary 
-system was based on the ZoUpfnnd or Manzpfund, that is, 
500 grammes, or 7,716 Troy ^ains of fine silver. 

For North Germany the Zollpfund of fine silver was coined 
into 30 Thalers : this was called North Q^man vafua^ or Thirty 
Thaler basit. 

For South Germany the ZoUpfnnd of fine silver was coined 
into 52 i Florins : this was called South German value, or Fifty- 

two-and-a half Florin basis* 

» 

A North German Thaler was eqnal to li Austrian Florins, 
or 1 1 South German Florins. 

There were pieces of \ and \ Thaler (North German value), 
^ and i Florin (South German valve), and t and ^ Flonn 
(Austrian value). 

In North Germany accounts wore kept as follows : — 

s. d. t 
12 Pfennig si Silbcrgroschen • 1 1-^ English. 

80 Silbergroschen«-l Thaler ^S „ 

In South Germany accounts were kept as follows : — 

. 8. d. 

4 Pfennig — 1 Ereuzer -■ | 

CO Erenzers — 1 Florin =18 

The following coins were current in Germany previous to 
the passing of the Act of December, 1871 ; and it mnH be 
remembered that under this Act the silver coins of North 



▲UBTBIA. 



27 



Germany, down to the 6 SUbergroschen piece, remain a legal 
tender in all commercial tranBactions : — 



Denomination of oain* 



Gold Coins : — 
Frederio-d'or . . . . 
Doable ,« 
Half " „ 
Union Grown 
Half „ 

Pistole (Denmark) . . 
1 Double Pistole . . 
10 Gmlders (*Dutch) 

5 ,t »t • 

20 Francs (French) 
1 Ducat . . • < 

SoTereign (English) 
HiLYER Coins : — 
1 Thaler . . . 
Double Thaler 
10 SilbergroBchen. 

5 

2i 
1 

Florin . . 
1-Half Florin 
Quarter ,, 
6 Kreuzer 

3 ,) 

1 »f • • 

Copper CoiKs : — 

4 Pfennige .. 
3 
2 
1 



ft 



»i 



II 



tt 



i> 



n 



North Oennan 

▼tlllA. 



Th. Sb.gr.M. 
5 20 
11 10 








South Oonnan 

▼•la«. 



2 


25 


9 


6 


4 


18 


6 


16 


11 






17 H 

8 6f 

4 8f 

1 8f 

10« 

3f 



Fl. Er. 

9 55 

19 50 

4 57 

16 6 

8 S 

9 87 
19 15 

9 44 

4 52 
9 25 

5 83 
11 46 

1 45 

8 30 

35 







1 








17 
8 
3 
1 

80 
15 
6 
8 
1 



Pf. 


2 


2 










2 
8 
2 
8 









English Ttlu*. 



£ 



1 



1 

18 

16 



1 




1 






















8. d. 

16 6i 

13 Of 

JB 3i 

6 10 

5 

04 



12 
16 

8 



2 
5 





1 


















15 10 
9 2i 




11 
10 

111 

H 

Oil 
8 



10 . 
5 

2 

1 



04 



2'* 

07* 



English money exchanged into Imperial German money and 
North and South German money,^t ll|d. for 1 mark, 28. lid. 
fori Thaler, and Is. 8d. for 1 Florin. 



* Although gold coins are no longer issued from the Dutch ])£int,they 
have not altogether disappeared from European circulation. 



18 






ICOITET. 








£ f. 


d. 


Mks. ( 


G^rof . Pf . 1 Thin. Shgn* P'* 


Flori. 


Krancf 




1 




84 




m 




S 




8 




2 5i 


2 


6f 




9 




4 




8 4 


8 


^ 




12 




6 




5 1 


b 


H 




18 


1 





1 


2 


10 


H 




86 


2 





2 


4 


20 


6f 


1 


12 


2 


6 


2 


5 5 


25 


8| 


1 


80 


6 





5 


1 


1 21 


6f 


8 





10 





10 


2 1 


8 12 


lOf 


6 





1 





20 


4 2 


6 26 


8f 


12 





5 





102 


1 2 


84 8 


«l 


60 





10 





204 


2 5 


68 17 


4 


120 





100 





2042 


5 5 


686 20 


6* 


1200 





. 






HAMBUHG. 









The monetary Bystem is that of the German Empire. The 
old monetary syetem, in which silyer was the standard, was as 
follows : — 



12 Pfennig - 1 SohiUing « |d. EngUsh. 

16 SchiUlnges » 1 Mark -^ Is. lid. ^ 

The money had a twofold valnation, namely, CurreMy and 
Bank value. 

Currency value referred to the coins in actual cironlation. 

Bank value reierreA to the credits in the bank books. Those 
credits were represented by silver bullion of the fineness of 
IJ^ths deposited in the bank. 

In ewmney value the Cologne JlJark weight (Hamburg stan- 
dard), viz., 8078 grains Troy of pure silver was coined tiU 1866 
into 84 Marks, and after that date into 85 Marks. 

The silver deposited at the bank was received at the 
nominal rate of 442 Schillinges and issued at 444 Schillinges, or 
271 Marks Banco for the Cologne Mark weight (8608 grains 
Txoy) of pure Silver. Taking the proportion of silver to gold as 
15i to 1, a mark, Bank value was equal to Is. 6'82d. sterling; 
and a Mark Currency value, was equal to Is. 2'18d. sterling ; 

The gold coins were the Louie d'or -■ 15 or 16 Marks, the 
PUioU, and the Ducat. The Pistole - 10 Marks, 14 
ScfailliDges (Bank value) and worth about 168. 2d. sterling. The 
Ducat contained 979 parts out of 1000 of pure gold, was equal 
to 6 Marks, 4 Schillinges. Bank value, or 100-,^ Schillinges cur- 
rency value, and was worth about 9s. 24d. sterling. 

The silver coins were the Double Thaler equal to 5 marks 
(currency value) and worth 5s. 10'64d. sterling ; the Thaler of 
2| marks, worth 2s. II'82d. sterling; the Mark, worth Is. 
2}d. sterling ; the 8 Schilling Piece, worth 7^. sterling ; the 



BBXMBK. 29 

i Schilling Pi$ee, Vfoxih 8|d. sterliug; tho 2 Schilling Puce, 
worth l|d. sterling, the Schiiling, worth -f^^H. sterling; tho 
I Schilling, or Sechtling, worth -f^d, sterling ; and the i 
Schilling or Dreilingt worth { of a farthing sterling,. The 
Mark contained 750 parts by weight oat of 1000 |iure sllyer, 
the 8 schilling piece contained 626, the 4 schilling piece 66), 
the 2 Schitting Piece 487i, ftnd the 1 schilling piece 250 of 
such parts. 

The difference between the Bank value and the Currency 
value was called the Bank Agio^ and is perpetaally varying 
with the price of pare silver. 

BRBMBN. 

The monetary system is that of the German Empire. The 
old system was as follows :— 

6 Schwaron •■ 1 Oroot ^ \\j\, English. 

75 Grootes • 1 Rix-doUar « 8s. 8(d. „ 

Th* Thaler or Rizdollar was Rarely a money of aocoant, and 
had nu ropresentative in the oomage. It was equal to f th of 
the Lfniit'd^or or Pittole of Hanover, Branswiolc, Hesse, and 
Benmr «'lc. 

The silver coins were the J Thaler, of 86 grootes, worth 
about 1.^. 7d. sterling; the ^ thaler of 12 Grooms, worth 6|d. 
sterling; the 6 Groot Piece, woi*th S^^d,; the Groot, worth 
about id. sterling. 

The gold coins in circulation were chiefly Danish, Hanoverian, 
and other Piitoles, of 6 Thalers, and Ducats of 2} Thulurs at 
an agio or premium of a variable per oentage. The English 
Sovereign passed current at about 6 Thalers 10 to 12 Grootes 

The copper coins were pieces of 2^ and 1 Schwaren. 



lubece:. 

The monf>tary Bjstom is that of the German Empire. The 
oM system of iju')tick currency was as follows : — 

12 Pfennig - 1 SohUling - Jd. English. 

10 Bohillinges - 1 Mark - Is. l^i. „ 

8 Marks -> 1 Thaler ». 8s. 4(1. „ 

The old gold coins were the PortugtUesu or lU Ducat piece ■« 
78 Marks 12 Bchillinges, and the 5, 2, i, and i ducat pieoen in 
like proportion. 67 ducats were to weigh a Cologne Mark weight 
of gold 28 carats, 6 grains fine. 

The silver coins were tho Specie Thaler at 8 Marks 12 
Bchillinges Currency » about 4s. 2d. sterling ; and the currency 



30 liOKXT. 

Rix-dollars or Thalers at 8 Marks « 8b. 'id. flterling ; piecM 
of 1, 2, 4, and 8 Schillmges ; SechBliugB at 6 Pfeunigs and 
Dreilings at 8 Pfennigs Cnrrency. 

SILVEB COINS. 

The Cologne Mark weight of fine silver (3608 grains, Troy), 
prior to 1856 was coined into Hi Thalers or 84 Marks of 
Liibeck Currency, and since that date into 36 Marks, a Liibeck 
Mark is equal io 60 Austrian New Ereuzers, to 12 Prussian 
Silber Groschens, to 42 South Qermans Ereuzers, or to Is. l^d. 
sterling. 

The coins below a Schilling consisted of either Billon or 
Copper, but no one was obliged to receive in payment more 
than 1 Thaler's worth of such coin. 



SPAIN. 

Spaniih value. 8y»Umatic name. SngUih value. 

£ s. d. 
1 Centimo • Vo'^ 

100 Centimos « 1 Peseta* cs 9^ 

The Gold coins are pieces of 100, 60, 26, 20, 10, and 
5 Pesetas. 

The Silver coins are pieces of 5, 2, 1 Pesetas, and of 26 and 
20 Centimos. 

The Bronze coins are pieces of 10, 5, 2, and 1 Centimos. 

In the Gold coins the allowance for variations from (either 
over or under) the exact weight, is one-thousandth for the 100 
peseta and 50 peseta, two- thousandths for the 20 peseta and 
10 peseta, and three-thousandths for the 6 peseta piece ; and 
the allowance for variation either over or under the "Standard 
of fiaeness, is two-thousandths. 

In the Silver coins the variation of weight tolerated is for 
the 5 peseta piece three-thousandths, and the variation of 
fineness is .two-thousandths : the variation of weight for the 
2 and 1 peseta pieces is five- thousandths ; for the 50 centimo 
piece and for the 20 centimo piece it is ten-thousandths. The 
variation of fineness for the 2 and 1 peseta, and for the 50 and 
20 centimo pieces, is three thousandlhs. 

In the Bronze coins the variation of weight tolerated, is 
10-thousandths for the 10 and 5 centimo pieces, and 15- 



* In Tirtne of a decree of the Gortes. dated 19th October, 1868, the 
SpaolHh money was reooined, and a new Monetary Hyt<i«m, ae ^iven above, 
was adopted, and became the only legal Monetary by* tern of Spain and 
her Colonies from 81a t December, 1870. 



BPAIK. 



81 



thousandths for the 9 and 1 oentimo pieces. The Tariation 
from standard fineness is 10-tbonsandths for the 10 and 6 
centimo pieces, and S-thonsandths for the 3 and 1 centimo 
pieces. 

The following tahle shows the standard of fineness, the 
weight, and English Talne of the Spanish coins : — 



Denomination of 
Ooin. 



Gold Coins: — 
100 Pesetas . 
50 
25 
20 
10 
5 



ti 
It 
II 

II 



BUndard of 

flneaen in 

thoDBandth 

parts. 



900 

ti 
II 
>i 
»i 



SiLTSR Coras : — 
5 Pesetas . . 
2 ,, 

50 Ccntixnoi 
20 „ 

Bbonzb Coins: — 
10 Centimos 



5 
2 
1 



II 
II 
II 



900 

835 



t* 
II 
II 



Weight in 
grammes. 



82-25806 
1612908 
8*064515 
6-45161 
8*22560 
1-61290 



25 

10 
5 

2-50 
1-00 



950 Copper 
40 Tin 
lOZino 



10 
5 
2 
1 



AS 



BnsUah 
▼aJiie. 





£ 


s. d. 


85 


8 19 2 


28 


1 


19 7 




19 .91 


21 


15 10 


19 





7 11 


17 





8 Hi 


87 





8 Hi 


27 





1 7 


28 





9^ 


18 





41 


16 





9A 


80 





1 


25 





0\ 


20 





0* 


15 





Ot\i 



OLD MONBTABT SYSTEM OF SPAIN. 

The old monetary system was based on the Real-Vgllon and 
Hard Dollar, andacooants were generally kept in Reals divided 
into 84 Mara? edis or 100 Centimos, bnt in Alioant, Arragon, 
Barcelona, and Valencia, they were kept in Libras diyided into 
20 Hueldott and each Suefdo into 12 Dingros. 

There were four principal classes of the ReaU namely, the 
Real-Vellon, the Real- Ntw- Plate, the Real-Old-Flate, and the 
Real' Mexican' Plate. 

The Real'Vellon was both a money of aooonnt and a ooin ; 
it was the 20th part of a Silver Hard Dollar, it was also the 
20th part of a Gold Dollar (Goronilla), and was equal to 2id. 
sterling. 



32 llOKET. 

The Real-NewPlate was a coin, but not a money of account, 
it wag the -^gth part of a Hard-Dollar, and was eqnal to 5d. 
sterling. 

The RealrOld-Plate was a money of account, and a denomi- 
nation URod generally in exchange, bat not a coin, it was -^ths 
of a Hard Dollar, and was -equal to ^-ji^jd. sterling. When the 
term P/ute only was used, Oid Fiate was meant- 

The Real' Mexican- Plate was the chief money of account iB 
Spanish America, but not a coin ; it was the ith part of a 
Hard-Dollar, and was equal to O^d. sterling. 

1 Beal-Mexican-Plate - 2i Beals-Vellon - 1^ New-Real- 
Opiate - IH Reals-Old-Plate. 

The Doubloon de Plata Sencillo was equal to 60 Reals- 
Vellon or 12s. 6d. sterling ; the Peso-Sencillo to 15 Reals- 
Vellon ; and the Ducado de Yellon to 11 Reals-Vellon. 

Besides the above-mentioned principal classes of Reals, there 
were fiye classes of Reals that were moneys of account and 
exchange, but not coins, namely, tbe Real of Alic'ant, equal to 
•^ of a Hard Dollar, or S'8664d. sterling; the Real of 
Catalonia, equal to -^ of a Hard Dollar, or 4'0396d. sterling ; 
the Real Ardite of Catalonia, equal to -f^-g of a |Hard DoUur, 
or 2'6890d. sterling ; the Real of Valencia, equal to A^ of a 
Hard Dollai^, or 2'82S5d. sterling ; and the Real of Gibraltar, 
equal to -j^ of a Hard Dollar, or 4^d. sterling. 

The Libra of Alicant, Cadiz, and Valencia, was the same as 
the Dollar of Plate or exchange, and was equal to 37'647d. 
sterling, or f 4 of a Hard Dollar ; the Libra of Catalonia was 
equal to 26)3. sterling, or (^ of a Hard Dollar ; the Libra of 
Arragon was equal to 47iV^. sterling, or \^ of a Hard Dollar ; 
the Libra of Navarre was equal to 7'842d. sterling, or /^ of a 
Hard Dollar. 

The moneys of exchange were the Peso de Plata or Piastre 
(Dollar) of exchange equal to 272 Maravedis Old Plate, or 512 
Maravedis-Vellon ; the Doubloon de- Plata or Pistole of 
exchange eqnal to 82 Reals, or 1088 Maravedla Old Plate, or 
16 Reals 8 Maravedis-Vellon, or 40^^d. sterling ; the Ducado 
de Plata or Ducat of exchange, equal to 11 Reals 1 Maravedis, 
or20 Reals 26-^ Maravedis-Vellon, or 51-,^d. sterling. 

OLD MONETS OF ACCOUNT. 
BpanUh value, By$tematie name. EnglUh value, 

1 Centimo » -^d. 

10 Reals- Vellon - 1 Escudo* -> 28. Id. 



' * In 1 805 the Esoado was made the higheat anit of account. Pre- 
Tiottsly the Kettl and thH Centimo had been the only denomlaationa 
used in keeping accounts. 



OIBBALTAB. 33 

The Gold ooins were the (a) Oiua, or Donbloon of 820 Reals 
worth 66b. 8d. sterling ; (h) the Half-Onza of 160 Reals, worth 
888. 4d. sterling ; the Itabel of 100 Reals, worth 20s. lOd. 
sterling; (c) the Quarter-Onza of 80 Reals, worth 16s. 8d. 
sterling ; (d) the One-Eighth Onza of 40 Reals, worth 8s. 4d. 
sterling ; the 21 i Real-Pieee, worth 4s. 5d. sterling ; and (e) 
the Dollar of 20 Reals, worth 4s. 2d. sterling. 

The' Silver coins were the Dollar (doro) of 20 Reals-Yellon 
worth 4s. 2d. sterling ; the Eaeudo of 10 Reals, worth 2s. Id. 
sterling ; the Peteta de Colummu of 5 Reals, worth Is. O^d. ; 
the Peseta of 4 Reals, worth lOd. sterling; the 2i Real-Piece^ 
worth 6d. sterling; the Half-Peseta, or 2 Real-Piece, worth 6d. 
sterling ; and the 1 Real-Piece, worth 2id. sterling. 

The Copper ooins were tiie Half-Real, worth l^d. sterling ; 
the Quarter-Real and pieces of 2 Cuartos* (eqnal to 47 
Centimos), and 1 Cuarto (equal to 28^ Centimos). 

GIBBALTAB. 

By an order in Council dated 2lBt Febraary, 1872, and 
which came into operation on 1st May, 1872, the standard of 
Talne is the Spanish gold ooin commonly called dohUm d*Isabfl, 
weighing 128*7 Troy grains, and containing by weight 90 parts 
of pore gold, and 10 parts of alloy. 

The denominations of account will be Dollars, Reals-de- 
YeUon, and Decimas, and eyentnally perhaps, Reals-de-Vellon 
and Decimas only. 

CHbrdltar voIim. SyttemoHe name, JSngliih value, 

£ B. d. 
Decima de Real-Vellon • 

20 Reals de Yellonf « 1 Dollar - 

100 Reals de Vellon or ) ^ Tk^w^«4. 
SDoUars .. ..j-l^oblonf 

The Sanitary Commissioners of Gibraltar keep their accounts 
in Reals de Vellon and Centesimas the Decima being too large 
a unit to determine rates. 

Army and Navy accounts at Gibraltar are kept in pounds, 
shillings, and pence sterling. 

Under the order in Council of 2lBt February, 1872, the 
following are the coins authorised to be current in Gibraltar, 
and described as Her Majesty's current gold, silver, and 

copper coins :— - 

-■■■ » 

(a) Also called Qaadrnple Pistole. 

ih) Also called Media-OnM, or Half-Doabloon. 

(e) Also called Pistole, or Doubloon de Ochenta. 

Id) Also called Oudrenta, or Doubloon '^e Esoudo. 

(«) Also called Ooroniila, Bsoudito, Dorillo, or Doubloon de Vienti. 

♦ 84 GuartOB were equal to 1 Real. ...... ^ v, 

f 10 Reals de Vellon = 1 Esoudo = 28. Id. sterling, but the Doblon 
d'Isabel and Bsoudo ^ill hardly be adopted la mercantile accounts. 









Oi 








2| 





4 


2 


1 





6 



84 



MOSXT. 



"I 
1 



Fine- 
nesa. 



•9 
•9 

•9 



9 
9 
898 

898 
898 

81 

81 
81 

95 
96 
96 

95 
95 



Minlmnm Propor 
Weicbt (tlontothe 
in Tri 



rroy 
Orain*. 



128-7 
61'S5 

25-65 



898.50 

199.0 

95-0 

46- 
22* 



Standftrd 
ofValM. 



10 

•4 

•2 



•2 
•1 
•06 

•026 
•0126 



Enffllsh 



EDffl 

Tah 



£ 
1 






8 



d. 

6 

2 



4 2 



79-60 ^04 



89-76 
19-80 



•02 
•01 

•006 

•0026 

•002 

-001 
•0006 












4 
2 
1 






2 
1 


6 
8 



Gold Coins: — 
Doblon d'Isabelor 10 Efcmlos 
4 EsoodoB (2 dollars) 
2 „ (CoroniUa or 
gold doUm* 

SiLYEB Coins: — 
2 EscadoB, peso duro, or 
Uard dollar , 

1 Escndo, or half dollar. . .'. 

2 Reals of Plate, or ima- 
gjnary Gibraltar Reals . . 

1 Real of Plate, or 1^ ima- 
ginary Gibraltar Real . . ' 

1 Real of Plate or Do^ .... 

Base Silveb Coins : — 
4 Reals-Vellon, Peseta, or | 
Peseta of Provincial Plate j 

2 Reals- Vellon ..' I -81 

1 Real-Vellon 

Bbonzb Coins: — 

i Real-Vellon 

1 Cnartillo 

1 Donble Decima de Reid. . 
1 Decima de Real or cen- 1^ 

tesima de Escndo j 

i Decima de RetA or 51 
me llesimas de Escndo . . . . j "" ' 

The number of Doblon d'Isabel pieces that maj be tendered 
at one payinent is unlimited. 

Not more than 10 of each of the 4, 2, and 1 Escndo pieces, 
and not more than 8 of each of the other silvec coins may be 
legally tendered at a single payment. The bronze coins that 
may be legally tendered at one payment pnst not exceed 4 
Reals-Vellon in valne 

The rates assigned to British currency are *98 of a Doblon 
d'Isabel for £1 sterling and so in proportion for every fraction 
of £1 sterling being 1 shilliog or *the multiple of 1 
shilling ; '025 of a Doblon d'Isabel for 6d. sterling ; and :001 
of a Doblon d'lsabel for every id. sterling in any amount less 
than 6d. 

Old Monetaut System. 

Prior to 1872 accounts were kept in dollars. Reals of Plate, 
and Cuartos, and sometimes in dollars and Cents as follows : — 

16 Cnartos - 1 Real - i^d. English. 

12 Reals - 1 Dollar - 4s. 2d. 

100 Cents » 1 Dollar » 4s. 2d. 



9| 

Ok 
04 
























0^ 



(f 



II 



GIBBILTAB. 



85 



The following table of the old Gibraltar onrrenej sbowe the 
Talne in British Bterling monej, and also in the new onrrenox 
of Gibraltar: — 



Old Gibraltar Gurrenoy. 

Quartos. 
1 
4 
8 
12 

4 

81 

12 



4 

7 

8 

12 

15 

16* 


15 
8 

6 

12 
9 
8 








DoUan. Kaali. ( 





























1 





1 





1 





1 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 


9 


2 





8 





5 





7 


1 





1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


9 


9 


7 


24 





48 





240 





480 





4800 






BriUsh Sterling 
Money. 



£ 












d. 
Oi 
1 
2 
8> 
4 
6 



6 
7 












8 

9 

9f 

10 

11 

llf 

10 

1 Oi 

2 

2 6 

4 2 

5 

10 

10 

2 

5 

10 

50 

100 

1000 



New Gibraltar Cnrrenoy. 



0oblon. 






















1 
4 
9 
49 
98 
980 



RealB. 



1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
8 
8 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 

a 

12 

20 

24 

49 

98 

96 

90 

80 









Declroas. 
1 
4 
8 
2 
6 

5 

9 • 
8 

7 

1 
5 
8 
9 

8 
3 
4 
5 











The Gold Coins that were legally current in Gibraltar prior 
to May 1872 were the Gold Doblon* of Spain reckoned at 16 
dollars, or £8 6s. 8d. sterling; the i*, i*, \ and ^ Doblon 
pieces in like proportion ; and the Doblon d'Isabel reckoned at 
5 dollars or £1 Os. lOd. Sterling. 

The Silver Coins were the same as given, nnder the head 
silver ooius in the above table, namely the Dnro-« 2 Escudos 
s 5 Pesetas <^ 4«i. 2d. sterling ; the Escudo = 2^ Pesetas « 
28. Id. Bterling; the Peseta « *40 Escudos ■> 9^d. sterling; 



* These had very nearlv disappeared from eirealation in Gibraltar, 
and the place of tne Doabloon of 16 dollars had been taken by the 
Doblon d'lsabel of 6 dollars, coinrd under the Spanish lavs of 1848 
and 1864. 



36 MOVXT. 

the Medift Peseta * *90 EBcodos « BiL steilmg ; and the 
Beal — -10 EBondos >■ i Peseta ^ 2(d. Bterliog. 

There was a mass of silver coins representing fraetional 
parts of the dollar, these fraetional coins being greatly^ defaced 
and worn. The French 5-frane piece circulated nominally as 
4|( of a dollar, but it was generslly at a preminm Tsrying from 
1 to 1^ per cent. 

The copper coins were the Cnarto eqoal to id. sterling ; the 
Media Beal eqnal to Id. sterling ; the Cnartillo equal to Jd. 
sterling ; the Dedma eqnai to ^d. sterling ; and the Media 
Dedma eqoal to ^ sterling. There were also English pence, 
halfpence, and farthings ; and a great qnantity of Forei^ 
oopper coins current nowhere else and that passed in Gibraltar 
according to their size as compared with the Cnarto. 



PORTTTQAI.. 

The nnit of account is the Rei, worth ■^. sterling.* A 
Mil-reU is one thousand reis, and a conto is one million reis ; a 
Moidore is 4,800 Reis ; a Pinto or Crutado Novo 480 Reis, and 
a Quartinho is 1,200 Reis. The Cmzado of Exchange (or Old 
Cmzado) was 400 Reis*; a Mil-reiss2^ New Cruzado or 2^ 
Old ones. The Gold Coins are the Corda of 10,000 Reis 
($10), the Meia Corda of 6,000 Reis (|5), the Quinios de Ctrrda 
of 20O0 Reis ($2), the Dtfcimot de Corda of 1,000 Reis ($1), 
the Pe^ (formerly called a Johansse or Joe) of 8,000 Reis, 
and the Meia Pega of 4,000 Reis. 

The Silver Coins are pieces of 500, 200, 100, and 50 Reis, 
and called respectively 5, 2, 1, and ^ Testoon pieces. 

In billon there is the Potaco of 40 Reis. 

The Copper Coins are the Ventem of 20 Reis, Meio Ventem 
of 10 Reis, and the 5 and 3 Reis pieces. 

The 5 Reis piece is the coin of lowest value in common use. 

* In accounts the gymbol $ is tued to note the thoiuands* place, a 
colon (:) the place of millions (contos), and a full point (.) the place of 
thousands of millions. Thus one thousand millions of Reis would* be 
1.000:000$COO. No other denomination of money of account besides 
that of Reis is practically used in recording pasrments and receipts ; 
but in expressing them it is usual, when the amount is less than a 
moidore (4$800), to state them in cruzados ($400), cruzados novas, or 
pfntos ($480), qnartinhoB (1$200), testoons or tostoes ($100), and 
ventems (BO Reis). Larger amounts are ekpresscd in the moidore and 
its multiples, and sometimes in pounds sterling (libras) at the rate 
of 4$: 09. 



POBTUOAX. 



37 



Table of Portngaesa ooins, showing their weight, fincnoss, 
and English yalne : — 



DenominAtion 

of 

Coin. 






I 

CO 



OoLD Coins : — 

Coroa of 10,000 Reis 

Meia Cor6a of 75,000 Reis. 
QuintoB de Cor6a of 2,000 1 

Reis J 

DecimoB de Cordaof 1000) 

Reis / 

Pe^a of 8,000 Reis 

Meia Pe^a of 4,000 Reis . . 
British Sovereign at 4,500 

Reis 

British Half -SoTereign at 

2,250 Reis 



SiLYiB Coins : — 
Cincos Testdes of 600 Reis 
Dois Testdes of 200 Reis. . 

Test&o of 100 Reis 

Half-Testao of 50 Reis . . 



BiiiLON Cow : — 
Potacfio of 40 BeiB 



S' 

■B I 
O 

a 

9 

a 






I 



CoppEB Coins : — 

Yintem of 20 Reis 

Meio-Yintem of 10 Reis 
Cinco Reis of 5 Reis. . . . 
3 Reis 



Engliflh 
v&iaa. 



£ 8. 
-; J 17-735 2 4 
8-8681 2 



3-547 

1-774 

14-188 
7094 

7-981 
3-995 



«12-6 
5- 
2-5 
1-25 



8 

4 

1 15 
17 



d. 

2| 

10| 

H 



2 2| 

10| 

5^ 

2^ 



2 A 
















The former coins of Portugal were as follows : — 

I 

Gold CWfti.— Dobraon, worth 12,800 Reis ; Half-dobraon, 
called also the Joanese or Moidore, worth 6.400 Rcls ; the 
Quarter-dobraon, worth 3,200 Reis ; Escudo, worth 1,600 Ileis ; 
Half-escndo, worth 800 Reis ; and Cmsado yclho, worth 400 
Reis. 

D 



38 HONEY. 

Silver Coins.-^CmiSido-noTo worth 480 Beis, and pieces of 
240, 120, 100, 60, and 50 Eeis. 

Copper Coins. — Pieces of 5, 8, and 1)- Beis. 

POBTUaUESB TALUB OF EMOLISH MONET, 4b. S^d. FOB A MILBBU. 

EnglUh, PortugueiC' 

28. - 450 Beis. 

28. 6d. - 562* „ 

58. - 1125 „ 

108. -> 2250 Beis, or 2| Milreis. 
£1 » 4^ Mllreis, or 4500 Beis. 
£5 »22| „ or 22500 „ 
£10.45 „ or 45000 „ 



Englith. 


Portuflune. 


id. - 


^}r Beis. 


id. « 


9| » 


Id. ^ 


IH* „ 


3d. - 


5f5^ „ 


4d. 


75 


6d. - 


112i „ 


is. 


225 



THE NETHEHLANDS. 

Dutch value. Byitematie Name. EnglUh value. 

1 Cent - *d. 

100 Cents - 1 Guilder or Florin - Is. 8d. 

The gold coinage in Holland was suppressed by law in 1850, 
and has not since been re-established. It consisted of the 10 
Gulden and 5 Gulden Pieces. These are sometimes met with, 
but they are not a legal tender ; their price rises and^Us with 
the flnctoations of the market. The average price d» the 10 
Gulden Piece is about 9 Guldens and 65 Cents, and that of the 
5 GKilden Piece about 4 Gulden and 82 Cents. 

SILVEB COINS. 

The silver coins are the 2i Gulden Piece (sometimes called 
Bixdollar, the Florin or Guilder^ and the i Florin. These are 
of the fineness of ■j'^Vn^^B, and the Florin weighs 866*17 grains 
Troy. There are alBo in silver of a lower . standard the 25, 
10, and 5 Cent Pieces, The 5 Cent Piece is often called a 
stiver. 

COPPEB COINS. 

The copper coins are the Cent and the i Cent^ worth respec- 
tively -^d. and -^gd. sterling. 

BANE NOTES. 
1, 5, 10, 25, 40, 60, and 100 Gulden. 





BELQIU^I. 




^\9 


Denomination of 


Staudaril of flnouoiti 

in 

thnnRftndth pnriR. 


W';i«l>t EnjillHh 


Coin. 


in 
fCrnumxfn 


viiln« 








£ 8. d. 


Gold Coins :— None 








Silver Coint :— 








2| Quldou 


•916 


26 


4 2 


IGailder or Florin 


II 


10 


1 H 


i do. 


It 


6 


10 


26 Conta 






5 


10 do. 






a 


5 do. 






1 


Copper CoiM: — 
Cont 






Oi 


i Cont 


1 0^ 


1 

DUTOn VALUB OF BNOLIsn UONBt AT Is. 8d. PBR QUILDSn. 


BnglUh, Dutrh, Engltth, Dutch, 


id. - li CentB 2i. » 1 Florin 20 Conti 


id. - 2i „ 2b. Od. - li Florins 


Id- • 6 „ 68. -» 8 H 


8d. - 15 H 108. B 6 H 


4d. » 20 M £1 • 12 „ 


6d. » 80 o £C • 00 ,. 


l8. - 6G 


► n £10 


^120 


»l • 



The former moneys of aooonnt, and the coins wore as 
foUovrs :— The Guilder was dividod into 20 Stivers, and each 
Stiver into 10 Pfennings. Oold Cnina : Dncat, worth 5 Guilders 

17 Stivers, or Os. Od. sterling; Half Ducat, wortli 2 Guilders 

18 Stivers 8 Pfennings, or 4s. lO^d. sterling ; Ryder, worth 
14 Gulden, or X'l 8s. 4d. sterling ; Half liyder, worth 7 Gulden, 
or lis. 8d. sterling ; William, worth 10 Gulden, or 10s. 8d. 
sterling ; and the Half William, worth 6 (hildon, or 8h. 4d. 
sterling. Stiver Coins : Ducaton, worth 8 Gulden 8 Stivers, or 
6b. 8d. sterling ; Zealand llizdoUar, worth 48. 4d. sterling ; 
and i i and k Rizdollars in proportion; pieces of 80, 28, 12^, 
C. 2, and 1 Stiver, worth respectively, 2s. Od., 28. 4(1., Is. Oid., 
6d., 2d., Id. sterling. Copper Coint . Doit, worth 2 Pfumiings, 
or i of one penny sterling. 



BELGIUM. 



Btlgium valM» 

100 Centimes 



8y»t«matic namt* 
1 Cent. 
■■ 1 Fi'ano 



Englith value. 



40 



MOKET. 



The gold ooins are pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 5 Francs. 

The silver coins are the 5, 2, 1, and k Franc pieces, and the 
20 Centime piece. 

There are hank notes of 1000, 500, 100, and 50 Francs. 

The copper coins are pieces of 1 and 2 Centimes^ and the 
nickel coins are pieces of 5, 10, and 20 Centimes. 

No hillon coins form any part of the present currency of 
Belgium. 

Coins of 50 Centimes are not a legal tender for payment of 
more than -^^th of the sum dae. 

In copper coins not more than 5 Francs' worth are legal at 
any single payment. 

Table of the Cubbent Coins of Belgium 



Denomination of 
Coin. 


Pull 
Weight in 
Orammes. 


1 Allowance in weight. 
Thousandth parts. 


Standard fineness 

in thousandth 

parts. 


lAllowanoe from Std. 
1 thousandth parts, 


1 Diameter. 
MiUimetreB. 


English 
Value. 








£ s. d. 


Gold Coins : 














100 Francs 


3225806 


1 






35 


3 19 2 


50 „ 


16129-3 






28 


1 19 7 


20 „ 


6451-61 


2 


900 


2 


21 


15 10 


10 „ 


322580 






19 


7 11 


5 „ 


1612-90 


3 






17 


3 Hi 


SiLVEB Coins : 














5 „ 


25 


3 


• • » ■ 


• • 


37 


3 Hi 


2 „ 


10 


5 






27 


17 


1 » 


, 5-00 






23 


9i 


50 Centms. 


2*50 


7 


835 


3 


18 


4} 


20 „ 


1-00 


10 


16 


1^ 


Nickel Coins : 














20 „. 




■ • 


• • V * 


• • 


• • 


lA 


10 „ 




• • 


• • • • 


• • 


• • 


1 


5 ., 




• • 


• • » • 


• • 


• • 


Oi 


CoppEB Coins: 


• 












2 ,. 




• • 


■ « « a 


• • 


• • 


Oi 


1 " 


......J.. 


• • 


• • • • 


• • 


• • 


Oi 



DENMARK. 

Danith value. Sifitenatic Nawu, SnglUh vnlue 

1 Skffling - ^\j,d, 

96 SkOling - 1 Rigsdaler or Daler - 2b. td^'gd. 

The nnit of the monetary system is the Rigidaler or Daler, 
till recently offioially called " Rlffshankdaler," but this term is 
now never used. Sixteen Skilling are equal to 1 Mark, and 
oonsequently 6 Marks are equal to 1 Rigsdaler. 

Silver is Uie standard of the ourrenoy in Denmark. 

SILVER COINS. 

The silTer coins are the DobheitdcLier, worth about 4s. V^d. 
sterling; the i2i^«^a{«r worth about 2s. 2^jjd. sterling; the 
I Rigsdaler or 48 SkilUng Fieee, worth about Is. l^d. sterling ; 
the 16 SkiUing Piece, worth about ^^ij^^ sterling; and the 
4 Skilling Fieee^ worth IjVu^* sterling. 

The silyer used in the coinage of the Dalers and the Dobbelt- 
dalers is {ths fine, that is, it consists of 7 parts of pure silver 
and 1 part of sdloy (copper). The pieces of 48 Skilling, 
16 Skilling, and 4 Skilling, though silver, are of an inferior 
standard. Dalers and Dobbeltdalers are coined at the rate of 
18i Dalers from the Cologne Mark weight (3608 grains Troy) 
of fine silver, while the pieces of 48, 16, and 4 Skilling are 
coined at the rate of 20 Dalers from the same weight, and no 
one is obliged to receive at a single payment more than a 
limited amount of the smaller and less pure coins which con- 
sist of about equal weight of silver and copper. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are Christian d*or and Frederick d'or, 
equal to 7 Dalers 86 Skilling, and worth about 16s. 2id. 
These are commonly seen in North Germany, but are rare in 
Denmark itself. 

BRONZE COINS. 

The bronze coins are the Sailing Piece and the ( SHlHng 
Piece, The bronze in these coins is composed of 90 parts of 
copper, 5 of tin, and 5 of zinc. There are no copper coins 
properly so called in circulation. 

BANK NOTES. 

The National Bank of Copenhagen issues notes for 1, ^, 10, 
50, and 100 Rigsdalers. These are in very general use as a 
medium of payment, and are received at their full nominal 
value, being always convertible into specie at that rate. 



42 MONET. 

Danibh Value op Enolish Monet, at 2s. 2Jd. for a 

BlGBDALEB. 

English. 
id. - 

Id. 

3d. 
4d. 

Od. . 
Is. a 



DanUh, 


English. Danish. 


a SkilUng 


28. - 


87?^ Hkilg 


m .. 


28. ed.-lRigsdaler 13111^ „ 


m „ 


5s. -2 „ 


2m M 


mi „ 


lOS. cr4 


53H „ 


14JS „ 


£1 -9 


lOU M 


2in ,. 


£5 -45 „ 


44f8 „ 


«« .. 


£10 -90 „ 


89?J „ 



SWEDEN. 

The denominations of monej in Sweden are the Ore and the 

liiksdaler. 

Hwedlsh value. Systematic name. English value. 

Ore - -^d. 

100 Ore - 1 Riksdaler - Is. lid. 

Silver is the standard currency of Sweden. The *'Mint 
Silver " or silver used in the coinage is of the fineness of jths, 
that is, it contains 8 parts of pore silver to 1 part of an alloy of 
copper. 

Two Swedish pounds/ of <* Mint Silver" (ahont 80 ounces 
British) are coined into 100 Riksdaler pieces ; and the same 
proportion is followed in the coins that are multiples or parts 
of the Biksdaler. 

GOLD COINS. 

There are no gold coins in the present legal currency of 
Sweden. Swedish gold Ducats have heen coined, hut they are 
rarely met with in the transactions of purchase and sale, and 
they have no fixed legal value. They are received at the Bank 
of Sweden at the same rate as Dutch Ducats, namely 8 Biks- 
dalers, 50 Ore per Ducat. The bank charges 10 Ore per Ducat 
more for them than it pays. 

SILVER COINS. 
The silver coins are the 4 Riksdaler Piece worth about 4s. 
5id. sterling, the 2 Riksdaler Piece worth about 2s. 2|d. ster- 
ling, and the JBi^(2al^r worth Is. l^d. sterling, the 50 Ore piece, 



NOEWAT. 



48 



the 25 Ore piece, and, the 10 Ore piece, worth respeotiTely, 
about 6fd., S^d., and l|d. sterling. 

The piece of 4 Biksdalers is not yery common, the coins 
in most general use are the 2 and 1 Riksdalers, and the 
50 Ore, 25 Ore, and 10 Ore pieces. 

BILLON COINS. 

There are no billon coins in the present legal oorrenoy of 
Sweden, bnt some old pieces of ^th and |rd of a Riksdaler in 
debased silver are sometimes met with, and are taken in market 
transactions. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are pieces of 5, 2, 1, and half-ope worth 
respectively, fd., -^.i -j^d., -^d. sterling. There are still 
Bome copper coins of the old system in oircolation. These are 
a legal tender nnder the present system, bnt they are fast dis- 
appearing. The " Mint Metal " nsed in the copper coins con- 
sists of 95 parts of copper to 5 of tin and 1 of zinc. 100 
pounds (Swedish) of ** Mint Metal " are coined into 5000 5-ore 
pieces, 7500 2-ore pieces, 15,000 1-oro pieces or 80,000 half-ore 
pieces. So that " Mint Metal " of Sweden at its current value 
is worth Is. 8d. sterling per tb. 

BANK NOTES. . 
1,000, 500, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 1 Bixsdalers. 

Swedish Value of Enolish Money, at 18 Bikbdalebb for 

£1 Sterling. 

Swedish. Englith. Suftdith. 

a 12 ore 2b. -> 1 Biksdlr. 80 ore 



EnglUh, 
id. 



4d. « 

Id. 

8d. 

4d. 

6d. 

Is. 


8| „ 
74 „ 
224 „ 
80 „ 
45 „ 
90 „ 


2s. 6d, 

58. 

10s. 
£1 
£5 
£10 


- 2 „ 25 

- 4 „ 50 
« 9 

» 18 
. 90 
-180 




NOKWAT. 




Norwegian value. 


Systematie name. 


Bngliih value. 


24 Skilllngen 
5 Ort 


1 SkiUing 

1 Ort or Mark* 

1 Speoies-Daler 


id. 

lOfd. 

B 4s. 54d 



t» 



n 



* It iB called a Mark in South Norway, but in West and North Norway 
it is called an Ort« 



44 HOiinsT. 

It is proposed to introdnoe the decimal Bystem in Norway, 
and the snoject is still under the consideration of the Storthing. 

In the present system of currency Speoies-Dalers are coined 
at the rate of 19-^ from the Mnnzpfnnd of 600 French 
Grammes, or 9i Sp9cies-Dalers from the Cologne Mark weight 
(8608 grains Troy) of fine silver. 

SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are the Speciet-DaUr, worth 4s. 5 id. 
sterling, and the Half-Species-Dalert worth 2s. 2}d. sterling, 
the Ortf Half-Ort, and Qitarter-Ort respectively. In small 
silver money (Skillgmynt*) there are Pieces of 4, 8, and 2 
Skillengen, coined at the rate of 21-j^<^ Species-DaJera from 
the Miinzpfnnd. These are worth respectively 1^. and f d. 
sterling, t 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the 2, the 1, and the ( Skilling Pieeet 
worth respectively ^d., |d., and |^d. sterling. 

There are no gold coins in the cnrrency of Norway, and for 
sums ahove 1 Ort, Paper money is the chief medium of pay- 
ment. 

BANE NOTES. 

The Bank Notes in circulation are those of 100, 50, 10, 5, 1, i, 
and \ Species-Daler. The notes of 100 Species-Daler are on 
pink paper, those of 60 Species-Dalers are on green paper, the 
10 on yellow paper, the 5 on hlne paper, and the 1, i, and \ on 
white paper. 

The Norwegian Bank exchanges these notes for ipecie at a 
rate varying from 110 to 116 Paper-Dalers for 100 Species- 
Dalers. 



* The term sMllemvnt denotei imall copper money of 2 and 1 SUHen- 
gen, as well aa amallailver money of 4 and 2 Skillingen. 

f Swedish and Danish money drcnlate in Norway. They pass freely 
in towns but not so readily in the interior of tne conntrr. In old 
debafied silver, much worn, there are Danish 8 and 4 Skilling Pieces 
which were issued during the War from 1808 to 1814; these pass for 6 
and 8 Skillingen respdctively. There are also in plated copper Danish 
2 Skilling Pieces of the period (1880-1814) when Norway and Denmark 
were politically united. In Christiana and Bergen one frequently meets 
with Swedish half -daler and quarter-daier pieces. 



8WITZKBLi.in>. 



45 



NORWBOUM ValUB OF BMOLISn HOVBT AT 4s. 6|d. FOB 1 

8FB0IB-IULBB. 



EnglUh, Nonetgian. 

28. 6d.-i2 Ort, 191 Skiliingen. 

^*- 1 1 BpcB.-dlr- 15 „ 

1 Aa ] ^ BpocicB-dalera 1 5rt 

^^•" je BkilUnffon 

£1 M 4i SpooioB-Dalera 

£5 - 22i 

£10- 45 



Jd. 




ht SkilHng. 


*d. 




H 


Id. 




2i Skilliugen. 


8d. 




6| 


6d. 




181 


iB. 


f 27 
lOrtS 


28. 


2 


• 1 6 M 



it 



tl 



SWITZEBLAND. 



Switt valut, 

100 Rappen or 
Centimes 



} - 



Byittmatie Name 
1 Rappe 
1 Frano 



SnglUk value, 
9id. 



The Bystem of ourreney and the gold and silver coins, as 
well as the Swiss value of English money, are the same as in 
France. (See pp. 17-18.) 

BILLON COINS. 

The billon or mixed metal coins are the Zwelthatzen or 
20 Centime Piece^ tho Batten or 10 Centime Fiece^ and the 
Haibbatzen or 6 Centime Piece ^ worth rospeotively l^^d.. ||d., 
and J|d. sterling. These coins contain reapootively 150, 100, 
and 50 parts of pore silver to 850, 900, and 950 parts of alloy. 
The alloy is composed of copper, zinc, and nickel. 



COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the Zweier or 2 Rappen Piece and the 
Happe, worth respectively ^^\d. and ffgd. sterling, and weighing 
2i and 1^ grammes. No one is obliged to receive in payment 
more than 20 Francs in value of the silver coins under the 
1 Franc piece, more than 20 Francs worth of billon or Rappen, 
or more than 2 Francs worth of copper. 



46 HOKET. 



ITALY. 

When the Italian States were united into one kingdom nnder 
King Victor Emmannel, one nniform system of monej, as well 
as of weights and measures, began to be gradually inkoduced, 
so that the money in which accounts are kept, both in public 
and private establishments, is as follows. (See, however, the 
tables of money for Rome, the Two Sicilies, and Tuscany). 

Italian value, Syitematie Name, English value. 

1 Centime — ^^d. 

100 Centimes ■» 1 Lira - 9id. 



GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10, and 6 Lire, of 
the same weight, fineness, and value as the gold coins of 
France. (See pp. 17 and 18.) 

SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are pieces of 1, 2, and 6 Lire, and of 50 and 
20 Centimes, of the same weight and fineness as the silver 
coins of France. (See pp. 17 and 18.) 

BILLON COINS. 

In Lombardy and Piedmont there are still some old pieces in 
Billon, which as they fall in readily enough with the decimal 
system have not yet been called in. These are the Mouta and 
the Half-Mouta^ equal respectively to 40 and 20 Centimes, 
and worth about 4d. and 2d. sterling. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are pieces of 1, 8, and 5 Centimes, worth 
respectively -j^d., -j^., and id. sterling. ^ 



* Tho followinff ooini, now obsolete, are very rarely met with in eir> 
enlatlon. The gold Dappia and Half-Doppia of Savoy, the former eqoal 
to 28 Lire 45; Centimes, and worth about £1 2s. lO^d. sterling, and the 
latter eqnal to 14 Lire 22^ Centimes, and worth about lis, S^d. sterling. 
The Quadruple-Doppia of Oenoa. eqnal to 79 Lire, aud worth abont 
£8 8s. 4d. sterling ; and pieces of i, t, i of the Qoadrnple-Poppia. 



ROME. 



47 



SABDINIA (ISLAND OF). 

The moneys of aoconnt are the same as those of Italy, and 
the oorrenoy oonsists of Italian and French coins. 

Fonnerly this island had a apeoial oorrenoy, and aooonnts were stated 
in Href ReaUt and SoU, as follows :— 



5 Sols =- 1 Real 


48 Centimes 


- 


4'Siad. sterling. 


4 Reals = 1 Lira 


. loa 


If 


- 


18'048d. ^ 


The following is a 


list of the old coins of the Island of Sardinia :— 




Bardinian. 


Italicm. 


EnglUh value. 


OoiJ>OoiK8:~- 


















Lin. 


Lira. Gantlmei. £ 


1. d. 


Oarlino 


^— 


sa — 


60 





i- 9 





i ditto 


~'*" 


18 -- 


85 


3 


— 1 





Dopietta 


' - 


6i ..: 


10 





-- 


8 


RiLyxB Coins:— 














Bcndo 


' ~ 


a* - 


4 


80 


- 


8 9'ia 


i ditto 


— 


u = 


9 


40 





1 10-66 


i ditto 


-:— 


« -^ 


1 


SO 


z=a 


11*26 


Billon Ooivs:— 




Sols. 










Real 


-— 


6 -r 





48 


» 


4-604 


i ditto 


- 


34 - 





S4 





0-269 


CoppsB OoiRs :— 














Sol 


1^ 


1 





10 


— 


0-989 


i ditto 


Z-' 


* " 





6 


" 


9 0-469 


Oagllarese 


' — 


hf - 





1 


» 


0094 



BOME. 



By a Papal edict in June, 1866, the old monetary system, 
ooneisting of Qnattrini, Bajocohi, Paoli, and Scndi, was 
aholished, and all the old coins of those denominations were 
called in. The following is the present monetary system of 
Rome : — 



Boman value, 

20 Soldi or ) 
100 Gentesimi ) * 



Syttematie name, SnglUh value 

£ B. d' 



1 Lira 



» 9d 



00 


Lire 


60 


11 


20 


11 


10 


11 


6 


11 


6 


11 


2 


„ 50 0. 


2 


♦» 


1 


11 


k 


ft 


k 


It 



48 MOKET. 

GOLD COINS. 

B 18 Scudi 60*5 Bajocchi - 4 

- 9 „ 30-26 „ - 2 

- 8 „ 73-1 „ = 16 
» IScndo 86*05 „ - 8 

93-025 „ « 4 

SILVER COINS. 

93025 „ - 4 

46-612 „ -020 

37-210 „ - 1 7 

- 18-605 „ - 9* 
« 9-302 „ • 41 

4-651 „ -. 2f 

The 5 Lire Piece is I'^ths fine ; the 2^, 2, li, i Lire 
Pieces are only a fraction above -^^the fine ; and so 1,000 Lire 
in 5 Lire Pieces would contain a qnantit j of pnre silrer greater 
by 69 Lire than the same sum in the smaller or ** fractionary " 
coins — the pieces of 2^, 2, 1, |, and ^ Ure. 

BRONZE COINS. 

4 Soldi or 20 Centesimi- 8-721 „ - Ift 

2 „ „ 10 „ - 1-860 „ « 1 

1 Soldo „ 5 „ . O-930 „ - 04 

i 11 11 2J „ - 0-466 „ =- Oi 

1 Centesimo - 0-186 „ - 0^ 

Prior to 1860 the moBetory syitemof Borne and of the Papiil Dominions 
was as follows :— 

Bawum value, Systematie name, EnglUh vahu, 

1 Bajoccho = id. 

10 Bajoochl « 1 Paolo - od. 

10 Paoll or 1 f 1 Scudo or \ _ Au qa 

100 Bajocchi ; * 1 Eoman Crown J " "'^ 

Bankers' accounts were usually stated in Paoli. 

The values just given for Roman money are higher than the estimated 
par of Exchange, which was about 46*88 Paoli in gold, or 47*58 Paoli 
in silver for £1 sterling. 

The gold coins were the 10 SctuU Piece, worth about 41s. 8d, ; the 
Pietole or Gold Doppia, worth about ISs. 6d. : the SequUi (22 Paoli), 
worth about 9s. 2d. ; the Double Bequin^ worth about 16s. 4d. ; and the 
Half-Beqin (11 Paoli), worth about 4s. 7d. sterling. 

The silver coins were the Seudo, worth about 4s. 2d. ; and the Hd^- 
Beudo; and the pieces of \, 1, 2, and 8 Paoli, worth respectively 2id., 
6d., lOd., and Is. 8d. sterling. 



TXTSOAKT. 49 

In base sUver, or billon, there were the pleoei of 9, 4, 7ii and 15 
Bajoochl. The two last were called Single and Douhlt Carlini. 

The copper coins were the Bajoccho, the Ualf-Iio^oceho^ and the 
QuarUr-Baioceho^ worth respectively about ^d., 4d., and Ad. sterling. 

Bank notes (CeAoU) lot 5, 10| 90, 26, and 100 Scudi were used in pay- 
ments above 6 Scadi. 



THE TWO SICILIES. 

(Naplkb.) 

}feapolitan valru, Syitematie name, Englith value. 

1 Orano -» .. v d« 

100 Qrani « 1 Dacat ^ 9:%\d. 

The Daoat was equal to aboat 8s. S^d. sterling, and that is oaloolating 
the exchange at 678 Qrani for ill sterling. 

Aooonnts were kept in Ducats and Grani only, but the Ducat was 
divided into 10 Garlini, each Carlino into 10 Qrani, and each Qrano into 
10 Galli. The Ducat weighed 23'048 grammes of silver Jths fine, and 
was, therefore, equal to 4'S'6 Francs. 

Payments were usually made in . Neapolitan dollars, each {worth 12 
Oarllni or 120 Qrani. 

^here were no gold coins in circulation when the Kingdom was 
merged in that of Italy, but the gold coins that had been isHUod under 
the law of the 20th April, 181H, were pieces of 80, 16, and 8 Ducats repec- 
tively. 

The silver coins wore the Dollatf equal to 12 OarlinI or 120 OranI, and 
worth 5fld. sterling ; the Half-Dollar, equal to 6 Carlini or OO.Qrani, and 
worth 28d. sterling ; the i, 1. 2, 8, and 4 Carlini Piecet. 

The copper coins were pieces of 5, 4, 8, 2^, 2, 1^, 1, and | Grant respec- 
tively. The Half'Orano Piece was called a Tornete. The Qrano had 
formerly been divided into 12 Oalli, and among the poorer classes three 
Oalli-pieoes were in circulation when the Kingdom became a province oj 
Italy, but these passed only for 2^ Galli. 



TUSCANY. 

100 Cents — 1 Florin. 

By the law of lOth^July, 1826, the money of account was orilered|to be 
from 1st January, 1827, Florins and Cents, but owing to the apatiiy of 
the people and the Government, the law was never enforced, and 
accounts continued to be kept, even in the Government offices, In Liret 
Soldi, and Denari, 



Tueean value. 


Syttemaiie name. 


Snglith value. 


12 Denari 


= 1 Soldo - 


«d. 


90 Soldi 


^ 1 Lira -- 


7Jd. 

E 



50 MOVET. 

The Lire wai equal to about 8d. atorllng. The Denaro was an iznagi- 
iiary coin, and the lowest coin in cironlation was the Quattrino, equal to 
4 Denari, and worth about ^f d. sterling. 

GOLD COINS. 
The gold coins were the 80 Florin Piece, equal to 188 lire 6 Soldi 8 
Denari, and worth at par £4 8s. lOd. sterling; the Baepone, equal to 40 
Lire, and worth £1 68. 8d. sterling ; and the QigUato, ot ZeechUw, equal 
to 18 Lire 6 Soldi, 8 Denari, and worth 8s. lOd. sterling. 

BILVEB COINS. 

The silTer coins were the Dena, equal to 10 Lire, and worth 0s. 8d. 
sterling ; the Frtmeeeeone, equal to 6 Lire, 18 Soldi 8 Denarl, and worth 
4u. 5d. sterling ; the Me»a-Dena^ equal to 6 Lire, and worth 8s. 4d. ster^ 
ling ; the FraneetehinOi equal to 8 Lire 6 Soldi 8 Denarl, and worth 
2b. 2^d. sterling ; the Teitone, or 8 Paul Pieee, equal to 3 Lire, and worth 
1h. 4d. ; the Ilorino, equal to 1 Lira 18 Soldi 4 Denari, and worth Is. l^d. 
sterling ; the 2 Paul Pieee f equal to 1 Lira 6 Soldi 8 Denari, and worth 
lOld. sterling ; the Lira, worth 8d. sterling; the Megzo-Fiorino, equal to 
16 Soldi, 8 Denari, and worth 6|d. sterling ; the Paolo, equal to 18 Soldi 
4 Denari, and worth 6^d. sterling ; the Mezzo-Lira, equal to 10 Soldi, 
and worth 4d. sterling ; the Cinquino (1 Florin), equal to 8 Soldi 4 
Dtjuari, and worth 8id. sterling ; and the MezzO'PaolOt equal to Soldi 
8 Denari, and worth 8|d. sterling. The Lira weighed 8*9448 grammes of 
Bilver '968 fine. 

COPPER AND MIXED COINS. 

The copper and mixed metal coins were the Due Crazie Pieee, equal to 
8 Soldi 4 Denari, and worth l^d. sterling ; the Due Soldi, equal to 2 Soldi, 
and worth id.; the Crazia, equal to 1 Soldo 8 Denari, and worth fd. 
sterling ; the Soldo, worth |d. sterling ; the Duetto, equal to 8 Denari, 
and worth ^f d. itferling ; and the Quattrino, equal to 4 Denari, woirfb 
^|d. sterling.^ 



* In Luce* aoooontf wera kept In Lire, Soldi, and Denari, aa follows s- 




Lueehete value. SyeUmatie name 


s 


Bnglieh value. 


1 Denaro 




* 


tTd. 




12 Danari - I 8old» 




— 


H 




SO Soldi - 1 Lira 




" 


8d. 




The followlnff were the coins in circulation 


I— 








Lire. SoldL 




Frs. Onto. 




■• d. 


TtteGoldDoppia == » 6 


= 


10 60 


^ 


U 


The SlWer Scudo — 7 10 


= 


6 a 


^ 


4 6i 


. „ Hezzo.8oldo= 8 16 


= 


8 81 


= 


8 sl 


„ „ Terao „ = 8 10 


= 


1 87 




1 6] 


„ „ Qulnto „ = 1 10 


^Zh 


1 IS 


•~~ 


oiof 


.. „ 8 Lire Piece = 8 


^ 


1 80 


=:z 


1 4 


,. „ Lira = 10 


' 


84^ 


—— 


8 


„ „ M ezxa'Llra = 10 


i^ 


41 


i^ 


4 



The Two Lire Piece was rery like the French Two Franc Pleoe, and might have 
been mlntaiLen for it Toacau money oiroulatea side by ride with tixeJUneehese 
currency. 



20 Grani • 1 Taro - ltd. 

12 Tari * 1 Soado •» Is. 8d. 



MALTA. 51 

MALTA. 

(With iti ItUt depindinciei Oozo, OoM»o, anJ Fzlfla.) 

' Meroantile aecoanta are kept either in Sendit Tari^ an I 
Oranit or in Piecioli, Carlini^ Tari^ and Seudi^ as follows : — 

Malt4ie valu*, Syitemitlc name, SnglUk value, 

1 Grano * -^1. 

ltd. 

lo » Is 

or, 

60 Piooioll - 1 Oarlino - id. 

2 Carllni • 1 Taro - Ifl. 

12 Tari « 1 Soado <• Is. 8d. 

The Pezza, or Dollar of Bxohange, contains 2| Sondi, 80 
Tari, 60 Carlini, 600 Grani, 3,600 Piecioli. 

The Government aooounts of the duties and reyenne are 
kept in Potinrff, Shillings, and Penes sterling, as in Great 
Bfitain ; and BritiBh silver coins at their nominal value are a 
lefi^l tender without limitation, and are in very general use. 

The following gold, silver, and copper coins form the cur- 
rency of Malta :— 

GOLD COINS. 

Vahte in Maltete Ourrenejf, 
Boadi. Tui. Otaoi. 
Doubloon of Spain, Mexico, Sb South America - 88 4 16 
British Sovereign .. ..' .. -12 
„ Half-sovereign ■■6 

SILVER COINS. 

Dollar of Spain, Mexico, and South America «■ 2 6 

Pezza, or Dollar of Sicily* .. .. 2 4 16 

British Crown (Ss.) —3 

„ Half-crown (2s. 6d.) . . . . - 1 6 

„ Shilling -.0 7 4 

„ Sixpence » 8 12 

„ Fourpenco .0 2 8 

„ Threepence « 1 16 



* The Sicilian Dollar passed oonventlonally for 80 Tari, or 4s. Sd. 
BterUng, although by an assay, at the British Mint, it was found to ooutoln 
an average of only M dwts. 17'45 grains of pare silver. Its intrinsic value, 
oaloulating its average weight at the rate of fis. per os. of British standard 
■liver, was only Ss. ll||d. ; but by a royal proclamation it was ordained 
that the Sicilian Dollar should pass current and be a legal tender in tho 
Island of Malta and its Dependencies at the rate of 4b. sterling, equal to 
98 Tari 16 Grani In Maltese Ourrenoy. 



52 MOHET. 

COPPEB COINS. 

Value in MaUete Cwrreney. 
SendL TarL Ora&L 

British Penny — 12 

,, Half-penny » 6 

„ Farthing «0 8 

The coins of the Order of Malta, which are now nearly ont 
of circulation, are the Donble, Single, and Half-Xx>ni8 d'or, 
coined by the Grand Master, worth 20, 10, and 5 Scndi. In 
silver the Dollar and Half -Dollar, current at 80 and 15 Tan ; 
the Scndo, at 12 Tan ; and the Half-Scndo at 6 TarL The 
copper coins are pieces of 4, 2, and 1 Tari. These latter 
coins are greatly over-rated, which formerly led to a distinction 
between silver and copper money, making the former to the 
latter as S to 2. 



TITBKEY. 

Tvrkith vaUie, By$tematie name. EnglUh value. 

1 Para - ^yd. 

40 Paras « 1 Piastre » 2Xd. 

• 100 Piastres - 1 Medjidie,* or> -^ 

LiraTurca C " ^™' 

The present monetary system of Turkey was introdnced in 
the reign of the late Snltan, Abdul Medjid ; hence the name 
Medjidie as applied to the Lira and "Real and their subdivisions. 

The Medjidie, or Lira Turca, and the Piastre are the only 
integral denominations of money now used in keeping accounts, 
Paras being written as fractions of the Piastre. 

In retail transactions of the shop and the market, the Piastre 
is divided into 40 Paras, and each Para into 3 Aspres. The 
Para is worth about -j^., and the Aspre -^^ sterling. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are the Medjidie^ or Lira Turca, worth from 
17b. 9d. to 18s. sterling ; the Ywrim, or Half -Medjidie ^ worth 
from 88. 10^ d. to 9s., and the Tzeirekt or Qvarter- Medjidie, 
worth from 4s. 5id. to 4s. 6d. sterling. 

The gold coins contain 11 parts pure in 12. 



In ECConntB,— 

Pr. denotes Piastre, and 
^deaotes Medjidie, or Lira, Turca. 



TT7BKET. 58 

SILVER COINS. 

The silyer coins are the Qinmuh, or lUai'Medjidie, of 20 
Piastres, worth from Ss. 64d. to 8s. T^d. sterling ; the silver 
Yarim, or Half ReaUMe^idU of 10 Piastres, worth from 
Is. 9-^d. to Is. 9{d. sterling ; the Tteirek or Quarter Real- 
Mfdjidie^ of 6 HastreSy worth from lO^d. to 10|d. sterling ; 
the TkUik, or 2 Piattrt Piece, worth about 4^^. sterling; the 
PioBtre Piece^ worth about 2^. ; and the Ha{f Piastre Pieee^ 
worth about l^d. 

The silyer coins contain 87 parts of pure silver to 8 parts of 
alloy ; and silTer is the chief standard of value. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the Piastre Piece,* worth about 2,^d. 
sterling ; the Half Piastre Piece^ worth about 1^. sterling ;lthe 
Quarter Piastre Piece^ worth about |Jd. sterling ; the 6 Para 
Piece^ worth about -^d., and the Para Piece, worth about \ of 
a farthing sterling. 

A l^ve Piastre Piece was assayed by Sir John Herschel, in 
1854. It weighed *1925 of an ounce Troy, and its fineness was 
'8814. At the Mint price of 58. 6d. per ounce for standard 
silver this would give ll'4192d. sterling as the value of the 
Five Piastre Piece ; but, compared with gold at the market 
price, its value to the nearest thousandth of a penny would be 
only 10'64d. sterling. In rough calculations the English value 
of the Piastre is usually taken at 2d. sterling. 

The moneys of England, France, Austria, Spain, the South 
American Republics, Russia, Germany (in small quantities), 
and Egypt, are all circulated as freely as Turkish money. 
Their exchange value is constantly fluctuating, one kind of 
coin bearing sometimes an unusual premium, owing to its being 
required for a special purpose. It sometimes happens that a 
coin circulates at a higher rate than it bears in its own country. 
For instance, the Austrian Florin has been known to circulate 
in Jerusalem at an exchange value of ^th higher than its 
nominal value, 

To the undermentioned foreign coins the following are the 
nominal values assigned in Turkish currency, and the actual 
exchange rates at which some of them are received in the 
markets of Constantinople and Jerusalem. 



* The Piastre Piece Is not generally oarrent It is not reoeiyod by 
the goyernment at all, bat is aooeptod by men of business at a discount 
of from 20 to 25 per cent 



64 



MOVET. 



Gold Coins. 
Soyereign, English 
Napoleon, French . . . < 
Imperial, Bassian* 

Half Ditto 

New Dnoat, Anstrianf . 



Silver Ooinb. 

Dollar, Spanish 

Dollar, Anstrian (Maria Theresa) 

Bnble, Russian* 

Five Frano Pieoe, French . . 

Frano, French 

Half-Crown, English} 

Florin, 
Shilling;, 



i» 



If 



Nominal 
value. 



Piastres. 
100 

88 
U 
68 



281 
22i 
16 



Exchange 
value. 

Piastres. 
112 to 188 
90 to 106 
98 to 106 



24i to 81 

25ito 27 

18 to 20 
26 

4 to 5 

12 to 16 

lUto 12 

6ito 6 



Egyptian gold is at abont 10 per cent, preminm as compared 
with Tnrldsh gold. 

The Turkish Lira Medjidie, nominally equal to 100 PiastreB, 
always bears a premium of about 6 per cent. 

OLD GOLD COINS. 
There are various old gold pieces in circulation which, how- 
ever, are never received by the government and seldom ac- 
cepted as payment in the transactions of the market. They 
are chiefly used as ornaments for women. The principal old 
gold pieces are the Vanducklee or Qhaziy valued at 20 Piastres of 
Government money, the \ Vcmducklee and the \ Vanducklee. 
There is also the Old Ohazi-^ 25 Piastres and the Old i Ohazi, 
It is the most probable that these will be soon withdrawn alto- 
gether from the circulation. 

BILLON COINS. 

Throughout the whole of the Turkish Empire there are in 
circulation silver colas of a very low standard, largely alloyed 
with copper and greatly worn. 

These billon coins are as follows : — 

(1) The Beshlict estimated at 6 Piastres, Government 
money, but worth much less in intrinsic value ; and the }, ^, 
•^, and ^ Beshlic pieees. 



* Not in general ciroulation, but chiefly used as ornaments. 

f Also called Sequin (Zeeohin) or Magyar. This coin being very pore 
is la great demand in Turkey. 

t Not much liked* 



OBBXCE. « 65 

(2) The Altlie, estimated at 6 PiastreB, GoTernmant money, 
and the i and \ Altlio pieces. 

(3) The 1, t, and \, Old Piaatre pieces of the same inferior 
standard as the Altlic and Bethlie money. 

(4) There are besides some old coins of a still lower 
standard, saoh as the NtuMie yalned at 84 FiaetreSi and 
prindpally in use as head-ornaments worn by women. 

In many parts of the empire there exist several money 
standards for the different coins. Thns, in JeruBalem for 
instance, there were in April 1864, the following rates : — 

(1) The Government rate called SAgh (good). 

(2) Schiruk Qow), for the shop and the market. According 
to this valne 1 Lira Tarca-118 Piastres; £1 sterlings 128 to 
130 Piastres; 1 Napoleon -101 Piastres; 1 Imperial -108 
Piastres; 1 Dnoat»68 Piastres; 1 Beal Mejidie»28i to 24 
Piastres; the Spanish Dollar- 27 i Piastres; 1 Rable-21 
Piastres; 1 Altlio -7 Piastres; 1 Beshlio^e Piastres; 100 
S^A or Government Piastres— 115 to 116 old silver Piastres. 

(3) Sehituk (low) for transactions with the Fellacht or 
peasants. According to this valuation £1 sterling — 140 to 145 
Piastres ; 1 Lira Turoa — 128 to 132 Piastres. 

Many places in Palestine, snch as Bethlehem, Hebron, and 
Jafia have special rates for coins. 



TURKISH VALUB OF 


ENOLISH MONBT AT 


188. 


FOB A 








LIRA MBDJIDIB. 






Bngliih, 






Turkith, 


Engliiih. 




TurkUh. 


id. - 






4^f Paras 


2s. - 10 Piastres 44 ♦ Paras 


id. - 






9,V 




2s. 6d.- 13 




353 „ 


Id. - 






14U 




58. - 27 




31^ ,. 


8d. - 


1 Piastre 15f 




10b. - 55 




22} „ 


4d. - 


1 


II 


34^V 




£1 - 111 




4* ,1 


6d. « 


2 


II 


81^ 




£5 - 555 




22} „ 


Is. - 


5 


II 


22} 




£10 -1111 




4} ,. 



CANDIA (or Crete). 

The money of account and the currency of Candia are the 
same as in Turkey. 



GBEECE. 

Greece having acceded to the Convention of 1865, her mone- 
tary system has become identical with that of France, Italy, 



M 



icoinsT. 



Belgiam, and Switzdrland (Bee pp. 17 and 18), tlie Drachma 
being the same as the Frano, ana the Lepton as the Centime. 
The law establishing the new monetary system was dated 7th 
March, 1867, and subsequently, by a royal decree, the 18th 
January, 1872 was fixed as the date for the introduction of the 
new monetary system. 



Oreek vaUu. 
100 Lepta 



8if»temati4t name, 
1 Drachma 



XnglUh vdlut. 
9id. 



The following table shows the standard of fineness, the 
weight, and English value of the Greek coins : — 





Standard of 






ii 


Denomination of 


flnenesB In 


Weight? in 


Entfliah 
▼alne. 


Coin. 




grammes. 




parti. 






Gold Com s : — 






£ s. d. 




100 Drachmai • . 


900 


82-25806 


3 19 2 


85 


50 „ 


»f 


16-12903 


1 19 7 


28 


25 „ 


»» 


8-064515 


19 9i 




20 „ 


t» 


6-45161 


15 10 


21 


10 „ 


«» 


8-22580 


7 11 


19 


6 „ 


t» 


1-61290 


8 Hi 


17 


SiLYBft Conrs:^ 










5 Drachmai .... 


900 


25 


8 Hi 


87 


2 „ 


885 


10 


17 


27 


1 „ 


M 


5 


9i 


28 


50 Lepta 


»> 


2-50 


4| 


18 


20 „ 


>f 


1-00 


v^ 


16 


Bnoyzx Coins :— 










10 Lepta 


] 950Copper ' 


10 


1 


80 


5 „ .. 


. 4Tin . 


5 


Oi 


25 


8 „ ■ • 


10 Zinc. 


2 


01 


20 


1 Lepton 


/ > 


1 


0^, 


15 



In the old system of currency and accounts, established by 
the law of the 8th February, 1888, the monetary unit was the 
Drachma, weighing 4*477 grammes of silver of the standard of 
i^jths of pure silver and y^th of copper alloy. For details of 
this system see Appendix iV. 



OHIVA. 67 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS. 

(OoBiu, Santa Maxtba, ObpbaiiOitu, Zanti, CbbioO| Itbaoa, 

AMD PaXO.) 

The monettry Bjstem is that of Ghfaeoe. 

While thaM islands were under British protection (1830^1864) aeooiinte 
were kept by some persons in Dollan, of 100 OboH; hj others In Poundi 
of SO Shillingif of 12 Penes Ionian oorrenoy, and by others in Piattm, of 
40 Parat, 







BoffUth. 


6 Obolici 


- 1 Oboliccio - : 


id. 


100 Oboli 


: r 1 DoUar 


4s. Sd. 


IS Pence 


— 1 Shilling (currency) 


ls.&H<l- 


90 ShllllngB 


_ 1 Pound ( „ ) -- 


Ml Os. »)d. 


40 Paras 


- - 1 Piastre -- 


«iVd. 



The current coins up to the cession of the islands by Great Britain 
were British gold, silyer, and copper coins ; Spanish, Bf exioan, Bouth 
American, Austrian, and Yeoetlan Dollars. The Rpanlsh DoUar was 
reckoned at 104 Oboli, and all other Dollars at 100 Oboll. There were 
also the following pieces of Ionian currency :— In silyer, the 80 Obot< 
PUeet worth 8d. sterling ; and In copper, the pieces of 1 OboUeeio and 
8^, 6, and 10 Oboli, worth respeotlTcly i^>d., id., id. and Id. sterling. 



CHINA. 

The denominations of monoy nsod by tho Chinese in keeping 
aooonnts are Leang^ Teieny Fun, and Le, called by foreigners 
Taeis, Maeet Candareena, and Cash. Keokoniogs are never 
made above Taels, and the lower denominations are genorally 
expressed as decimals of the Tael. 

Chineit «altt«. 8y»t«matic name EnglUh value. 

Cash (Lc) • tJtj^' 

10 Cash » 1 Caudareen (Fan) « -^d. 

10 Candareens » l Mace (Tsien) « 7d. 

lU Mace - 1 Tael (Loang) - 6b. lOd. 

In China silver is the chief oironlating medium, and there are 
no national gold or silver coins. For large payments, bullion 
of known purity passes current by weight. 

In Shanghai, Tien-Tsin, Kewkeang, and Chinkeang, accounts 
are kept in Taels, and the medium of payment is the Tael 



58 



MOITET. 



weight of Bflrer, and tli« Mezioftn Dollar if now also largely 
need; bat in Hong-Kong, Canton, Amoj, Fooehow, and 
Swatow, Dollars and Cents are the moneys of acoonnt, and 
the Dollars of Mexico and the Sonth American BepabUos form 
the chief medium of payment. 

The Tael is a definite weight, and its snbdifisons, the Maea 
and Candareen, are likewise weights, or rather decimal parts of 
the Tael. As denominations of money of account, they denote 
their respectiTe weights of (reputed) pure silver. The monetary 
Tael is equal to 679*84 grains or 1*208 ounce Troy, and its 
▼alue at that rate is about 6s. 6|d. sterling. 

The Commercial Tael is heavier than the Monetary Tael, it 
is equal to 583 1 Troy grains, that is assuming that 1 Chinese 
Cally^lllbs. Avoirdupois*. 



* The diffarenee between the Monetaiy and Oommerolal Tael may be 
proved in this way : " Attnining the oorreotnesa of the Bombay Mint 
return, that the average weight of a new Dollar it 416'95 grains Troy, 
then $1000 should weigh 717 Taels 8 M. 6 0,A or about Half-a-Dollar 
wutre than they oonnt, which any one who has seen new Dollars weifffaed 
must know is below the average ; whereas, snnposing that the weight of (ha 
If onetary Tael were 688^ grains Troy, then llOOO would weigh 718 Taals 
O M. 6 0.,{ or about $6 thorter than they oount, and this never oocnrs 
with Mexioan Dollars.*' If the weights in the Ohlnese markets sre tried 
by the Hong Kong Standard Tael Weights it will be found that the 
Commeroial Tael is heavier than the Monetary by -Aths per ocnt— 
Butter. 



7 OrainsTroy = 

16 Taels = 

1 Oatty == 

1 lb. AToirdnpois = 



1 Tael Commeroial 
1 Oatty 

I lbs. Avoirdupois 
7000 Grains Troy 



4/^ = 1 
1=1 
I — 

8 = 4 
1 — 7000 



7000 

la 



-688i 



t ? Taels 
ll 
679-84 grains 



t ? Taels 
$1 
588| 



tiooo 

416*96 grains Troy 
ITael 



4159&U(0 



" 717*85 Taels. 



679b4 

liooo 

416*96 grains Troy 
ITael 



124786 
1760 



w 718*00 Taels. 



CHIKA. 59 

The Mexican Dollar is the current coin in Canton, and the 
South of China. In Foochow, the chief medium of payment 
consist of broken Spanish Dollars, while in Shanghai, Tien- 
Tflin, Han-£ow, and the Northern Ports, it ia the Tael weight 
of silver. 

The value of the Dollar in relation to the Tael varies, accord- 
ing to the rate of exchange, from 700 to 760 Taels for 1000 
doUars. If payment is made in dollars they are taken at 
the market rate, but in accounts among foreigners the 
customary rate is 717 Taels for 1000 dollars.* 

The weight of 717 Taels is put in one scale and as many 
doUars as will balance it in the other. Hence a debt of 1000 
dollars might happen to be paid by a number of dollars either 
exceeding or falling short of 1000. 

In China the fineness of gold and silver is expressed by divid- 
ing their weight into 100 equal parts called Touch. The num- 
ber of these parts denotes the proportion there is of pure 
metal in 100 parts by weight. 

In Hong-Eong and Canton gold leaf is manufactured for com- 
mercial purposes as a medium of payment, and although 
guaranteed to be of 100 Touch has usually a touch of about 98 
or 99 only. 

The alloy used is called Pakf ong, and is a mixture of zinc, 
nickel and copper. 

The native Chinese banks have furnaces in which they fuse 
the precious metals (plate and foreign coin) and form them into 
ingots of various sizes and shapes, weighing from 3 Mace to 
10 Taels. The date and place of issue, and the names of the 
assayer and banker are marked on each ingot. 

The most common weight of the ingots is 10 Taels each ; 
they are smooth and flat on the upper surface, and' rather rough 
and rounded on the lower ; their shape bears a slight resem- 
blance to a Chinese shoe, hence foreigners call them shoes. 

The silver ingots called shoes, of 5 Mace to 10 Taels are 
nsed as money, but the Gold ingots are regarded as articles of 
commerce. In the maritime provinces, Spanish, Mexican, and 
South American dollars, as coin, though not accepted by the 
Government, are used as a medium of payment at their nominal 
value ; but the habit of stamping Uiem soon destroys their 
weight, and then they are melted down into ingots. 



* There have been, and perhaps BtUl are, some exceptions to this role 
—viz., " In settling for teas m Canton and Fooohow, at so many Taels 
per Picnl, the amount is converted into Dollars at 720, while, when pay- 
ing the account, it is rendered back to Taels at 717; for Malwa opium 
the Chinuso pay fureigners at 720, and for Bengal drugs at 718 ; and again 
the Chinese among themselves are suuposed to pay at 712 to 716."— 



60 Mom:Y. 

Ten TaelB of pure alvtr are reckoned equal to 1 Tael of pure 
gold. 

Wdn-Yin is the Chinese term for fine silyer, but the term 
Se-Sze (fine silver), or Sytee is also used. Sysee silver is never 
altogether pure. For the purposes of trade in the different 
.provinces of the empire, ingots are moulded of different sizes 
and touches. The ingots forwarded to the Imperial Treasury 
at Pekin in payment of taxes are of a touch of from 97 to 99, 
while the Sysee silver of oommeroe is generally of the fineness 
of 96. 

When Chinese liabilities are liquidated in Sysee silver, 710 
Taels are estimated as 1000 Dollars ; thus the sUver paid to 
the British authorities at Canton under the treaty of Nankin, 
in discbarge of the Chinese indemnity, was received at that 
rate. This silver was found on assay to be of between 97 and 
98 touch {i.e. 13 dwts. better than British Standard), and each 
lb. troy contained 18^ grs. of pure gold. 

Reckoning 717 Taols as 1000 Dollars, and the Dollar as 
4s. 2d. sterling, we have about 6s. lOd. as the approximate 
Dollar value of the Tael of Silver. 

The Lo, or Cash,* is the only coinissued by the Chinese 
Government. It is a circular piece of mixed metal (chiefly 
copper), about V^i^ths of an inch in diameter. It has a square 
hole in the middle by which the pieces are strung in bundles of 
100, for convenience in reckoning and carrying. It is cast, 
and not minted. It consists of 79 parts of copper, 10 of zino, 
7 of lead, and 4 of tin. The obverse bears the name of the 
province in which it is cast. 

The reverse has the name of the reign above and below the 
hole with the words Tung Pan, signifying current moneys on 
the right and left of the hole. Its weight should be 1 Tsien 
(Mace), equal to 67*98 grains, and its value the i^j^j^th of a 
Tael weight of silver ; but its actual weight is from 62 to 64 
grains, and its value is considerably below the legal standard, 
and from 1200 to 1400 Cash are commonly given for a Tael of 
silver. Hence it appears that the copper coin called a Cash, 
although it should be the same as the Cash of account, namely, 
y^^th part of a Tael weight of silver, is quite distinct from it 
and of leHS value. The value of the copper Cash varies alsf 
with tlie Kupply ; the rate is usually from 1000 to 1400 coppei 
Cash for a Dollar. 

From a chemical assay of 9 coinages of Cash issued by th( 
Chinese Government in each reign since the commencement o 
the present dynasty in A.D. 1644, it appears that the intrinsit 



* It is called Sapeqne by the French. 



CHIKA. 



61 



yalne of the Cftsh yarieg from 4b. to 6s. 6d. per 1000. The re- 
sult of that assay, as oommnnicated by the Master of the Mmi, 
in a dispatch dated 26th February, 1862, to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, is as follows : — " Assaming copper to 
be worth £100 per ton, and the alloy (zinc and lead) £20 per • 
tun, the intrinsic valae of 1000 Cash will be as follows, be- 
ginning with the earliest and ending with the latest coinage, 
tiiat of the last £mperor : — 



Jntrifuie value of 1000 Canh, 



Of 1st Emperor 
2nd Emperor 
3rd Emperor 

4th Emperor 
5th Emperor 



B. 

6 
6 

4 

rist 6 

' 2nd 4 
Ist 6 
2nd 5 

fist 6 



d. 

6 

4f 

34 

04 

8 

2i 

OJ 




s. (!• 
of which 6 104 1b copper. 



6th Emperor {gndS Hi 
7th Emperor 4 64 



II 
II 
11 
II 
II 
II 
II 
11 

n 



4 
8 
5 
8 
5 
4 
4 
8 
8 



94 
81 
94 
6J 

114 
6 

2i 
1 

4i 



II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
II 
11 



Calculated from this assay, the average intrinsic value of the 
legal Cash issued by the Chinese Government, and at present 
in circulation, is about 6s. l^d. sterling for 1000 cash. But 
the proportion of counterfeit Cash in any single payment is 
usually very considerable, sometimes exceeding one-third, and 
the average rate at which in commercial transactions Cash are 
converted into Dollars is 970 Cash for a Dollar, or 48. 84d. for 
1000 Cash. 

The actual value of a Cash in 1854 in Canton was ^th of a 
Candereen, but its value is constantly fluctuating. A mint, 
presided over by a Government Director, and supplied with 
coinage models from Pekin, exists in each provincial city of the 
empire. 

The Director weighs out the proper quantity of copper, 
receiving back from the workmen a corresponding amount of 
Cash (Le). 

But occasionally the workmen put a little sand and iron dust 
into the model, so as to produce the required number of Cash, 
and retain a Uttle of the copper for themselves. Hence the 
Cash has fallen below the Government standard. The Cash 
are chiefly used for small transactions in the Bazaar, or to 
pay cooUes and labourers. Large payments are made in silver 
or gold by weight. Government taxes are always paid in this 
way. 



62 MOKET. 

BANK NOTES. 

The Bank Notes in circulation vary from 300 Oash to 1,000 
Taels. 

In the North of China Bane Bills form a chief medium of 
payment. They are printed on coarse mnlberry paper, and are 
considerably smaller than Bank of England Notes. They are 
iRsned for sums varying from 100 to 10,000 Cash and upwards, 
and are generally at a considerable discount for gold and silver. 
Pup^T money is more abundant at Pekin than at Tien-Tsin. 
The rate of exchange between notes and Sysee silver is subject 
to constant variation. 

At Pekin there is a copper coin called Tang-shih. This coin 
does not circulate beyond the city, its value was 10 ^Cash, and 
in weight and purity it was nearly equal to the legal standard 
of the Cash. It was soon depreciated in weight, however, and 
fell to the intrinsic value of 4 Cash. Hence, with the view of 
avoiding the use of these Tang-shih pieces, the paper currency 
wiis issued at Pekin. Ten Cash in coin are considered equal to 
Twenty Cash in paper money. 

In exchanges between Shanghai and Hong-Eong the exchange 
is sometimes quoted at a discount on Hong-Eoug ; thus, if the 
diecount on Hong-Eong is quoted at 24 per cent. ; the quotation 
means that Shanghai gives Hong-Eong (100 — 24-) 76 Taels 
for 100 Dollars. 

BATE OP INTEREST. 

At Canton the usual rate of interest is from 10 to 15 per 
cent, per annum. When no special agreement is made the 
rate is 12 per cent. The rate of interest charged by pawn- 
brokers is 3 per cent per month in summer and 2 per cent, in 
winter. 

HONG-KONG. 

The denominations of money, in which all accounts, both 
public and private, are kept, are Dollars and Cents. ; but in 
statistical information furnished to the Mother Country (Great 
Britain) the amounts are stated in Pounds^ Shillings^ and 
Pence sterling. 

Eong-Kong value, BytUmatle name. English value. 

1 C^nt - id. 

100 Cents » 1 Dollar « 4s. 3d.* 

* The rate of 48. 8d. above ansigned to the Dollar is the Ooyemment 
part or the rate at which the DuUar is issued in payment to tiie Navy, 
the Army, and the civil Mrvants of the Grown in Hong Kong and itn 
dependencies, and also throughout China and Japan. This rate was 
fixed by a Proclamation approvud bv an Order in Council, dated Ibt 
November. 1864. Previous to that date, the Government par was 4ii, 2d. 
According to the calculation of Six H. Robinson, some time Governor 
of Hong-kong. the dollar is worth 4b. l^A., and its true par in that 
Colony u about Is. 4d. sterling. 



UONQ.KONO. 63 

GOLD COINS. 

Gold coiiifl ilo not form a part of the legal circulation of the 
eolony, and silver in the standard of vaine and the chief medinm 
of commerce. 

SILVER COINS. 

The Bilver coins are the Mexican Dollar, weighing 416 grains 
Troy of silver, -j'^thfl fine, and worth 48. 2d. sterling ; other 
Silver Dollars of equivalent valne; and the 10 C^nt Piece, 
weighing 41*6 grains Troy, and worth 6 Ad. sterling. The 
Dollar is the only legal tender of payment for sums above two 
Dollars in Hong-Kong and Its dependencies. The 10 Cent 
pieces contain each 80 parts of pnre silver to 20 of alloy, aod 
are a legal tender for any snm not exceeding two Dollars. 
They have for the obverse impression the efl9gy of Her 
Britannic Majesty crowned, with the inscription, "Victoria 
Qneen,'* and for the reverse impression an inscription, indi- 
cating the vake of the Piece, with the words ** Hong-Kong/' 
and the date of the year, and the same inscription repeated in 
Chinese. ' 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the 0»/, representing one hondreth 
part of a Dollar, and worth a little over id. sterling ; and the 
Milt or British Cash, representing one thousandth part of a 
Dollar, and worth ^,^d. sterling. Cents and Mils are a legal 
tender for payment of any sum not exceedlDg one Dollar. 

The Cent has for the obverse impression Her Britannic 
Majesty's effigy crowned, with the . inscription, *' Victoria 
Queen." and for the reverse impression the inscription, *' One 
Cent, Hong-Kong," with the date of issue, and the same in- 
scription repeated in Chinese characters. 

The Mil has a hole in the centre, and has for the obverse 
impression *'V. R.," surmounted by a crown, with ** Hong- 
Kong, One Mil," and the date of issue, and for the reverse im- 
pression the inscription Hong-Kong, one Cash or one Mil, 
represented in Chinese characters. 

There are still in circulation considerable quantities of 
Britii^h silver and copper coins. These are exchanged by the 
Qovemment for the new currency at a par of 48-. 2d. to the 
Dollar. 

The free mint established at Hong-Kong for the Coinage of 
British dollars was closed in 18G7, and when about to be 
removed to England it was purchased by the Japanese Govern- 
ment in 1868, and the machinery was set up at Osaka, the late 
master of ihe Hong-Kong mint and the requisite staifof officers 
being transferred with the mint to Osaka. 



64 MOSEY. 



INDIA. 

In 1885 the Government remodelled the onrrency of IndU, 
and eBtablished a nniform sjgtem for all the presidencieB. So 
that throughout Bengal, Bombay, and and Madras, accounts are 
almost always kept in Rupees t Annas, and Fiei, as follows : — 











Nominal 


Indian value. 




SyBtemn tie name. 




English value 






1 Bie 


# 


' id. 


12 Pies 


a 


1 Anna 


a 


lid. 


16 Annas 


« 


1 Rupee 


- 


2s. Od.* 



Silver is the universal standard of value, but gold coins are 
accepted as tokens representing a certain sum in silver, and a 
gold standard on a limited scale has been strongly advocated. 
The Government, in 1885, authorised the issue of the Gold 
Mohur, or 15 liupee IHece, and the 10 and 5 Rupee Pieces as 
tokens — that is, as representing a certain sum in silver money ; 
and by the law of the 28th October, 1868, No. 8,287, British 
and Australian Sovereigns and Half-sovereigns of legal weight 
and fineness were constituted a legal tender, as the equivalent 
of 10 Rupees and 4 Annas, and of 5 Rupees and 2 Annas 
respectively. 

SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are the Rupee, the Half-Rupee, the Quarter- 
Rupee, and the One-eighth- Rupee, or Double-Anna, worth 
respectively 2s., Is., 6d., and 8d. sterling. Siagle Annas, each 
worth about Hfd. sterling, were minted in 1885, and for some 
time afterwards, but they have not been issued of late years. 
The Double- Rupee, worth about 4s. sterling, was authorised 
by the Government, but it has never been put into circulation. 

The silver coins are all -Uths fine ; they contain 220 parts 
by weight of pure silver to 20 parts of alloy. English standard 
silver contains 222 parts of pure silver to 18 of alloy. By 
English assay the silver coins of India would be reported 2w., 
i.e., 2 dwts. worse, or below the English standard. 



* The Intrinsic ^valuo of the Rupee it If. lO^d. tterling. 



INDIA. 65 

Tbe Rnpee woighs 180 grains, and contains 165 grains of 
pare silver and 15 grains of alloy. The weight of the other 
silver coins is proportionate to that of the Rapee. Taking the 
Talne of silver as 61d. per ounce troy of English standard 
(which contains 444 grains of pure silver) the average bullion 
value of the Rupee is about 22id. or 22|d, sterling, but for all 
ordinary purposes the value of the Rupee is taken at 2s., that 
of the Anna at lid., and that of the Pie at id. sterling. 

A Lae of Rupees is 100,000 Rupees, and, reckoning the Rupee 
at 2s., is worth £10,000 sterling. A Crore of Rupees is 100 
Laos, or 10 millions of Rupees, and is worth 1 million sterling. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are the Afoftur, equal to 15 Rupees, and worth 
about 80s. sterling ; the Douhle-Mohur^ equal to 80 Rnpoos, 
and worth about £8 sterling ; the Ten Rupee Piece y equal to 
twO'ihirdi of a Mohury and worth about £1 sterling ; tho bHve 
Rupee Fuce^ equal to one-third of a Alohutt and worth about 
lOs. sterling; British and Australian Sovereigns and Half- 
Sovereicns » 10 Rupees 4 Annas and 6 Rupees 2 Annas, 
respectively. 

The gold coins of India are all of the standard of i^ths fine, 
that is, they contain 11 parts (out of 12) of pure gold to 1 part 
of alloy. The Mohur weighs 180 grains troy, and contains 
165 grains of pure gold to 15 grains of alloy. The other gold 
coins are in their proportion as to weight. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the Ilalf-Antui, weighing 200 grains 
troy, and worth a little less than Id. sterling ; the Quarter- 
Anna, weighing 100 grains troy, and worth a little less than 
id., and the Pie^ weighing 88 i grains troy, and worth a little 
less than id. sterling. In Bengal the Quarter 'Anna is called 
a Paisa or Pysa.* 

In BouBAT accounts are sometimes kept in Rupees, Quartertt 
and Raes* Thus : — 

1 Rae -i fK^d. sterling. 
25 Raes >- 1 Anna • lid. „ 

100 Raes - 1 Quarter •- 5 fid. „ 

. 4 Quarters » 1 Rupee "^ Is. lO^d. „ 

In Madras accounts were formerly (and in some places are 
now) kept in Pagodae^ Fanamt^ and Oaf /», as follows : — 

80 Cash -i 1 Fanam -i Ijd. 

45 Fanams » 1 Star Pagoda • 7s. Od. 



* Pronoonoed ptee. 



06 HOKET. 

Bat in all the old Govemmei^t accounts^ the Pagoda was 
divided into 82 Fanams. The Star-Pagoda was always con- 
sidered as 8i Rupees. In some of the old GoTernment ac- 
connts, the Pagoda was divided into 16ths, and -^th of a 
Pagoda was eqnal to 3^ Annas. There were several kinds of 
Pagodas, but the British Star Pagoda was a gold coin weighing 
52^56 grains. It was 19^ carats fine, and contained 42-7 
grains of pure gold, which, at the English mint price of 
£8 17s. lO^d. per ounce, gives its value as 7s. 5f|d. sterling. 

Previous to the year 1835 each Presidency had it^ own 
Rupee, and even at the present time the old coins are still met 
with. The Sicca Rupee y circulated in the lower provinces of 
Bengal ; the Furruckahad Eupee^ in the upper and north- 
western provinces; the Jrcot Rupee^ in Madras; and the 
Bombay Rupee, in Bombay. These were all -^ths fine. The 
Madras and Bombay Rnpees weighed each 180 grains; the 
Furmckabad, 179*16 grains ; and' the Sicca Rupee 19r916 
grains. After two years circulation, the Sicca Rupee was 
called a Sonaut rupee (or coin of years) and was held to be 4i 
per cent, inferior to the Sicca Rupee. Then after further 
circ^ation the Sonaut became the Current Rupee, which was 
held to be 64 per cent, inferior to the Sicca Rupee. Hence 
Sonaut Rupeet and Current Rupees gradually crept into 
accounts, although they had no legitimate representatives in 
the cuiTcncy. 

The present Rupee is equivalent to the Bombay, the Fnr- 
ruckabad, or the Sonaut Rupee, and to i^^ths of the Calcutta 
Sicca Rupee, and 16 of the present Rupees are equal to 15 
Sicca Rupees, and 100 Siccas equal 106| of the present 
Rupees.* 

In 1835 the ratio of gold to silver was fixed at 15 to 1. This 
was too low a valuation of gold, and consequently it did not 
come into circulation. The relative value of gold and silver in 
India at present is 15-^ to 1. 

In Bengal the term " gold Mohur " is often used in the sense 
of 16 Rupees. This is because the Mohur, previous to 1835, 
weighing 204'71 grains, ^ths fine, was a legal tender for 16 
Sicca Rupees. 

In 1848 a distinct copper currency was introduced in the 
settlements of Penang, Singapore, and Malacca, to meet the 
want of a les:al coin to represent, and to pass in Exchange for, 
fralctions of the Spanish Dollar. This currency consists of 
the following coins : the Cent^ weighing 144 grains Troy ; the 
Half -Cent, weighing 72 grains Troy; and the Quarter-Cent^ 
weighing 36 grains Troy. 

* The Bnpee struck in 1885 was, nntil 1862, stamped and called the 
'* Company's Rupee." Since 1863 the stamp has been ** Victoria '' on one 
side, and " India" on ths other. 



CSTLOK. 



67 



CEYLON. 

Ou the Ist Jann&ry, 1872, a new xnonetftry system was in- 
trodaced. The basis of this system is the Rapee of India, of 
180 grains weight and I'^ths fineness, with the decimal sab- 
divisions of that coin (i Rnpee or 8 Annas — 50 Cents, ^ Rapee 
or 4 Annas — 26 Cents, \ Rapee or 2 Annas — 12^ Cents. 

100 Cents— 1 Rnpee— 2s. * 





Weight in 
Grains. 


FinensBS. 


AU07. 


Nominal 

English 

Value. 


SiLYEB Coins: — 






Rnpee 


180 


\i 


Vf 


2s. 


ff »> 


90 


m «, 


• • 


Is. 


4 »» • • 


45 


■ • 


• • 


6d. 


10 Cents 


18 


• • 


• * 


2id. 


CopPBB Coins: — 










5 Cents 


• • 


• • 


• ft 


lid. 


2 ,, 


t • 


• • 


• » 


id. 


X ,« . • 


ft • 


* • 


i 


id. 


•^ »> 


• • 


• • 


• ft 


tori 










ohalUe 



The nominal par of Exchange with London is 1000 Rnpees, 
£100 cnrrenoy, for £100 Sterling ; but the real par ^ taking the 
Valne of Enp^lish Standard Silver at 5s. per>dunoe, is 1076 Ru- 
pees, or £107 128. currency per £100 Sterluig. 

From the year 1825 to 1872 accounts were kept in Pounds, 
Shillings, and Pence local currency ; and nominally the currency 
consisted of British Silver Coins (for sums below 40?.) ; Silver 
or Paper Rix Dollars at the rate of Is. 6d. per Rix Dollar : 
Treasury notes in terms of British Sterling ; English and 
Australian gold Sovereigns and Half Sovereigns ; and British 
copper coins, as well as the copper coins of the Island. But 
British silver coins and silver Riz-dullars disappeared from 
circulation in a few years ; the paper Rix-doUars and Treasury 
notes were called in and cancelled ; and English and Austra- 
lian gold coins were never in circulation, and when imported 



* The Imperial pay of the troops and of Civil and Military establish- 
meats in Ceylon is issned.in rupees at the rate <if Is. lO^d. Sterliag per 
rnpee ; the intrinsic value of the rupee at the present average price of 
silver, being Is. lO^d. sterling ; the difference between the nominal and 
intrinsic value of the rupee was taken into account by the Military Com* 
mission of 1865 in fixing the Colonial allowances granted to the troops 
and officers stationed in the Island* 



68 



MONET. 



were treated as merchandise, and sold generally at a preminm 
yaryiog from | to 10 per cent. Under these ciroumstances the 
Rupee of India', at the nominal rate of 2s. with its snb- 
diviflions, became the real metallic cnrrencj of the Colony. For 
the 86 years prior to 1872 the Ponnd of local currency was 10 
rupees, and the coins that constituted the currency of Oeylon 
were as follows : — 





Decimal of 
Rupee. 


Fraction of Rupee. 


EngliBh:valae. 


Silver Coins: — 






d. 


Rupee 


1 


1 


24 


■ If 


•6 


i 


12 


7 >i 


•26 


i 


6 


4 Penny piece 


•166 


i 


4 


2 Anna piece 


•126 


i 


8 


1 Fanam 


•063 


-^ (or 1 Anna) 


14 


Copper Coins: — 








1 Penny 


•0416 


* ^ (or } Anna) 


1 


2 Stivers or 








Pie 


•0812 


■^ 


1 


1 Halfpenny 


•0208 


tiV.for ^Anna) 


i 


1 Stiver 


•0156 


} ^ (or i Anna) 
TiV (or i Anna) 


1 


1 Farthing 


•0104 


\ 


1 ChalHe . . 


^ -0062 


T*T 


i 



Previous to the year 1825 the public accounts were kept in 
Rix-dollars, Fanams, and Stivers or Pice (6 Pice»l Fanam ; 
12 Fanams a 1 Rix-doUar), the currency consisted of silver Riz- 
dollars, coined at the British Mint for the Colony, of copper 
Fanams (->lid.). Stivers or Pice, and Challies, and of incon- 
vertible paper Biz-dollars, issued by the local Government. 
The Rix-dollar was issued to the troops and to all civil and 
military officers, whose pay was specified in British sterling, at 
the rate of Is. 9d. The intrinsic value of the Rix-dollar of the 
coinage of 1821 at 5s. per oz. (British Standard) , the then 
market price of silver, was only Is. Bid. 



GO A (In Portuguese India). 

The chief money of account in Goa is the Pardo, which is 
divided into 4 Good or 6 Bad Tangos, It is also divided into 
340 Good or 800 Bad Rett. The Pardo is equal to about 2s. 4d. 
sterling. 



•i PU; f4Pie; tSPie 112 Pie. 



BUBICAH. 69 



MALAYA. 

The only native coin is the Mon, or Zeni^ or Pitt, or Ca$h. 
It is a piece of tin with a hole in the middle. In large transac- 
tions amon^ the natives the precioas metals pass current by 
weight. Foreign moneys, especially Spanish and Mexican 
Dollars, and the Rupees Ilalf-Rupeet &nd lower coins of India, 
are also accepted. Those in Malacca, Singapore, and Penang 
form the legal corrency. 



BUBMAH. 

The chief monetary unit is a Tical or Eyat's weight of silver, 

Burmeie vcUue. Syitematie Name, EnglUh Value* 

4KRwehs}- 1 Baia (Tubes, Toques) - lid. 

2 Bais » 1 Mu's » 8d. 

2 Mu's » 1 Math « 6d. 

4 Maths - 1 Tical (Eyat) - 28. Od. 

There is also for money reckonings the decimal subdivision 
of the Tical, as in China. 

The Tical, or Eyat, is a weight equal to 851 grains troy. Its 
value is generally reckoned at a Bupee of India, or rather the 
Rupee is generally accepted as a Tical. If the silver were of 
the purity of English standard, the Tical would be intrinsically 
worth about 2s. 8d. sterling, but the quantity of alloy in the 
precious inetals in Burmah varies very considerably. 

There are no coins, and large payments are made by means 
of gold and silver bullion by weight. Silver is the standard of 
value and the principal medium of payment. There are ingots 
of both gold and silver varying in size from a round cake, 
weighing from 268 Ticals, to very small pieces. 

In small payments pieces of lead are also used. The value- 
relation of silver to lead is usually reckoned at about 1 of pure 
silver to 500 of lead. Occasionally, however, 15 Yiss of lead 
are given for a Tical, but sometimes in cities a Tical is reckoned 
at 7 or 8 Yiss. 



70 MOKET. 



SIAM. 



Siamete value. 






Systematic name. 


BnglUh value. 


200 


Cowries] 








to - 


or 


• 


» 


1 P'hai-nung — 


H^' 


450 


Bier 










4 P'hai-nnngB 


« 


1 Fuang » 


3|d. 


2 Faangs 


a 


1 Salung or Miam «■ 


7id. 


4 BalangB or Miam 


l- 


1 Tical or Bat 


2b. 6d. 


4 Ticals 


- 


1 Tamlung a 


IOb. Od. 


29 Tamlangs 


- 


1 Cattj'or Ch&ng — 


£10 Ob. Od. 


100 


Changs or Catties 


|a 


1 Pecul 


£1000 Ob. Od. 



Formerly CowHeg^ and kidnej-flhaped pellets in silver and 
gold, impressed with stamp, and of varions sizes, formed the 
only medium of payment in Siam, but now there is a regnlar 
coinage. 

SILVER COIN. 

The silver coin is the TicaU which weighs 236 grains Troy, 
and is worth about 28. 6d. sterling. The device on one side is 
an elephant, and on the other something like three umbrellas 
standing one above the other. 

The standard of purity of the new Tical is (I think) 900 
parts of pure silver to 100 parts of alloy. Formerly the fine- 
nefiB was 9i dwts. better than silver of the English standard. 

GOLD COINS. 

Hitherto the Government has not issued any gold coins ; 
but gold is received as payment by the Tical weight. 8 
Siamese Ticals are equivalent to 5 Chinese Ticals. 

Lately the Spanish Dollar, worth 4s. 2d. sterling, has become 
a very frequent medium of payment, especially with for3ign 
merchantB. Dollars are accepted in payment at the rate of 3 
Dollars for 5 Ticals. 



PEWTER COINS. 

The pewter coins are the Half and the Quarter P*hai-nung. 
These are used instead of Cowries for small change. They 
bear the same device as the Tical, and also an inscription in 
Siamese, Chinese, and English, stating their value. 



ANAM. 71 



AN AM (or Coohin China.) 

Accounts are commonly kept in Quarij Mas^ and Sapeksi as 
follows : — 

Anamese value. Systematic name. . English value 

1 Sapek, or Dong, or Cash = -j-V^- • 

60 Sapeks = 1 Mas, or Mottien, or heap » s^d. 

10 Mas s 1 Qnan, or String » 2s. 9 id. 

These yalnes are calcnlated at the rate of 1^ Quan for the 
Spanish Dollar, worth 4s. 2d. sterling. 

Until a comparatively recent date there was no native gold 
or silver coinage in Anam, and the only coin was the Sapek, or 
Dong, or Cash, a piece of zinc of the same shape as the 
Chinese Cash, and like it, having a hole in the middle. 600. of 
these Sapeks form a Quan, or string, and are strung upon a 
piece of ratan and kept ready for use. 

Sapeks form the chief medium of payment in all small trcuis- 
actions. For large transactions Ingots of gold and silver of 
various weights, and bearing the Government Stamp, are 
accepted in payment, although they are not considered coin. 
These have different names, and are as follows : — 

GOLD. 

The^oW Iftffol, or Loofot 10 Taels* weight, and the Half 
Ingot or Loof, 6 Taels weight, worth respectively about £53 
and £26 10s. sterling, and the DinA Vang, or Golden Nail of 1 
Tael, and worth about £5 6s. sterling. 

SILVER. 

The silver Ingots or Nen-bac of 10 Taels* weight and worth 
about £3 4s. sterling ; the Dinh-bac, or Silver Nail, weighing 1 
Tael, and worth about 6s., and the Half-Dinh-bac, or Una- 
Dinh-bac, and Quarter-Dinh-bac, worth respectively 3p. and Is. 
6d. sterling. The Spanish Dollar is in general use in foreign 
trade. 

SILVER COINS. 

For the convenience of foreign merchants, a coinage of Dol- 
lars was issued in the year 1830 ; but these, although of the 
same weight as the Spanish Dollar, contain | their weight of 
copper, and their value is estimated at about 3s. 2id. sterlin< 



ig- 



72 MONET. 



GOLD COINS. 

For the same pnrpose there are in circulation Gold Dollan, 
Half'DoUart, and Quarter -Dollars ^ worth re«pectiTely about 
£2 10s., £1 58., and 12s. 6d. sterling. 

The Anamese gold and silver coins first issued were some- 
what the shape of cakes of Indian ink, and had their value and 
the date of issue marked on them in raised letters.* When new 
coins are issued the old ones are only taken at a considerable 
discount. 



PERSIA. 

Silver is the standard of value in Persia and the denomina- 
tions of money used in reckoning and keeping accounts are as 
follows : — 

Persian value, Sysiematie name, English value. 

50 Dinars « 1 Shahi « H- 

1000 Dinars or 20 Shahis « 1 Keran » ll^d. 

10 Eerans « 1 Toman » 9s. S^d. 

. GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are the Toman, worth about 9s. 8jd. sterling, 
the 5 Keran Fiece, worth about 4s. 7|d. sterling ; and the 2 
Keran Piece, worth about Is. lOfd. sterling. 

The Persian gold contains no alloy. A variable number of 
Shahis, per Toman, are charged for changing gold. The pre- 
sent rate is 2 Shahis per Toman. 

SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are the Keran, worth about 11 ^d. sterling, 
The Half-Keran, worth about 5^d. sterling, and the Quarter. 
Keran or o Shahi Piece, worth about 2||d. sterling. 

There are no Billon coins in Persia. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the 5Aa^t, worth about fd. sterling; 
tliu l'oi»t equal to f 6i the Shahi, or 33^ Dinars, and worth 
about -^d. sterling ; and the Half » Pool, worth about •^. star- 
ling, or a little less than an English farthing. 

There are also the following foreign coins in circulation. 



JAPAjr. 73 

FOREIGN aOLD COINS. 

BpiUmaHe immm. Pef$ian vaiut. 

Mejidie, or Turkish Urs » *21 K«nuM 

Rassian Half-Imperial » *17 „ 12 Bhahis 

Dutch Ducat » *10 „ 4 „ 

FOBSIGN SILVER COINS. 

The old silver coins and the present silver coins of Russia, 
viz., the Mairah or 80 Coptek Pitee, and the 25, the 20, the 16, 
the 10, and the 7 C^peek Pieeet, The 80 Copeck Piece is equal 
to S| Eerans, and the others in proportion. 



ABABIA. 

AooountB are kept in Piastres and Caveefs (or Cavears) as 
follows : — 

Armbian value, Sfttewmtie turns. SniflUh vakie. 

1 Caveer '^ ^d. 

80 Oaveers — 1 Piastre or Mocha Dollar » tds.-od. 

The Spanish Dollar is the chief medium of payment. It is 
received as equal to 1^ Mocha DoUars, The native coin of 
Arahia is the c^mmasss^ a silver coin of a low standard purity, 
containing only 7 parts pure out of 24. The Commasse passes 
cnrrent as the ^^th part of the Mocha Dollar. Its English 
value would, therefore, be l^d. sterling. It is only used in 
small payments. 



JAPAK^. 

In 1671 a nerw monetary system, based upon a gold standard 
was introduced in Japan. The Ten, weighing 1| grammes or 
25*72 Troy grains of gold ]^f ths fine, was constitated the funda- 
mental unit of the system ; the Yen is divided into 100 Sen, 
and the Sen into 10 RId, as follows : — 

Ja-pcuMit wAue, Syitematie name, BnglUh value, 

10 Bin - 1 Sen - id. 

100 Sen - 1 Yen -t 4s. 2d. 



* The rate at which these coins are given and reoeired in payment is 
■abject to constant vaiiation. 

<f This valae is reckoned from the exchange of Spanish Dollars for 
Piastres, at the rate of 100 Spanish Dollars for 121 ^ Piastres. 

G 





ih 




1 


Gold Coma :— 

20 Ten 

10 , 

6 „ ..;... 

2 , 

1 „ 


Ath 




BtLTBB Coras :— 

1 Yen* 

BO Ben 

20 „ 

10 „ 

6 


Att 


34-2 
10 

4 
2 
1 


C0PP«B CoiNB :— 
iSen 


1 1 


im. :::;:: 




•• 1 



■s 


■1. 


i 


3 


i 


1! 


A 


if 


7- 


^H 


g 


s 


a 




: 








— 


— - 


SSI 


514-41 






16 357-3( 






8 128-61 






S 1 51-41 






1 35-72 






36'9G7 416-61 






.3-5 >193 






5-0 1 77-2 






2'SO ' 3B'6 






1-36 19-3 

1 






7-13 110 






B-5G 55 






0-00 


14 







Enllah 



" 5* 

GoM ooioB ol each kind ait a lepal Under to any amoant. 
The silTer coini, eicept the I Ten piece, are Bnbaidju? and are 
A legftl tender for any ixaa not exceeding 10 Ten. Tlie copper 
coins are a legal tender for an; gam not eiceadinp 1 Yen. 

'Two Bygtemg of monetae; acconntB wero in use in Japan 
prior to 1871. One was the Rio Bjatem, in wbicli the denomi- 
natioDB were Siai, Iliiiooi, Ze^tia. or Mongim^i, and the 
other was the onrreac; Noinine system, in which the denomi- 
nations were the Nomme (equal to 5834 Troy graiaa) ol eilTer 
b; weight, and its BnhdiTiHioni and multiples. The latter 
Bystem was based npoQ an nncoined carreney, coneisting of 
irregnlarly shaped pieces of eilrer of low standard, bat beajing 
a Goiemment stamp and paasing by weight. 

£ B. d. ^ 
100 Zeuis K 1 Tempo - 0^ 
(16 or] 17 Tempos - 1 Itaiboo - 4 
4 Itaibooe - 1 Rio - 6 6 

• Tb* 1 Ten ■llnr^wa !• the aUrer gain of eommnea, and !■ to be 
need In paTniant ol import uid eijnrt dnttea and all taiM st the open 
porta, and Id trsnaiietlODi betiraeD Jmpanaie and fonlgn nenhanM. 



3XBAS. 



75 





Weight in 






Troy Oraini. 






Gold Coin : — 






£ 8. d. 


Kobang, or Rio 


61-26' 


•88 


6 6 


Gold and Silveb Coins, 








Mixed: — 


• 






Niboo (or 2 boo piece) 


93184 


1-6 


2 9 


Itsiboo-kin 


46-592 


0-8 


1 4i 


Silver Coins : — 




2-8 




Itsiboo 


138-96 




0,1 ^1% 


Rio (or 4 boo piece) . . 






* * w w 


Kisha 






8r 


Ishn 


29-12 


•6 


4i 


COPFEB OB BbONZE 








Coins : — 








Hachi-monseng 








Tempo . . • • 


817-00 




-446 


Ibon Coins : — 




■ 




Zeni (or Monseng) . . 









The Rio, or Eobang, was a thin oval coin, soft, and 
easily bent, about 2 inches long, and 1 broad ; it originally 
weighed a Tael. According to an assay made in the BritlBh 
Mint, in December, 1862, it contained 29-664 Troy grains of 
pure gold, 21-86 grains of silver, and -192 of a grain of copper. 
The Kobangs in circulation prior to the year 1860, were 
between three and four times more valuable, botb nominally 
and intrinsically. 

The Niboo, or Niboo-hin, was an oblong coin composed of 
gold and silver mixed, it contained 20-384 Troy grains or -85 
nomme of gold, and 72*217 grains or 1-24 nomme of silver, its 
nominal value was 2 Itsiboos, or half a Rio. 

The Itnboo'kin, also composed of gold and silver mixed, was 
half the Niboo-kin. 

The Itsiboo was an oblong rectangular silver coin ; a great 
many Itsiboos were made of Mexican dollar silver, in the pro- 
portion of 811 Itsiboos to 100 dollars. The Itsiboo was the 
chief coin of the silver currency of Japan. It bore upon the 
Qpper part of the obverse a superscription, meaning " Certain, 
fixed,** and upon the lower part, *' Mint silver is always of this 
standard.'* The reverse was inscribed ** lUiboo-kiut^ 4 of a 



76 MOKET. 

silver Tael. There were also in Niphon the Ita-gonct or money 
slip, and the Kodama : these were pieces of irregular weights, 
but stamped to indicate their fineness. 

The Kishn was a silver-gilt rectangnlar coin ; its valne was 
2 Ifihus, or half an Itsihoo, its weight was not material. 

The Ishn was a small oblong silver coin, its nominal value 
was a quarter ol an Itsiboo, but its real value was one-fifth of 
an Itsiboo. 

The Zeni, or Mongseng, was a circular coin, almost wholly 
iron, with a square hole in the centre; its nominal value 
varied from time to time ; sometimes 1,600 Zeni and some- 
times 1,700 were reckoned to the Itsiboo. 

The Hachi-monseng, or 6 Monseng piece, was a circular 
coin, composed of iron and copper mixed: it was the same 
coin as had formerly passed as a 8hi-monseng, or 4 Monseng 
piece. 

The Tempo,* more properly called Toohiyaku, or Hiyaku- 
mong-zeni, or 100 Mongscng piece, was the highest copper or 
bronze coin ; it was a large oval coin with a hole in the centre ; 
it was composed of 81 parts of copper, 9 of tin, and 10 of lead ; 
it passed for 100 Zenis, 16 (or sometimes 17) Tempos went to 
the Itsiboo. The superscription on the obverse was *' Current 
money of Tempo ;" on the reverse was tiiie name ** Tdohiakn," 
with the impenal cypher below the hole. 



BANE NOTES. 

There was also a paper currency, consisting of Bank Notes 
for i, |. and 1 Eoban. It-Kan^ or ' String ^ was a denomination 
of money used in colloquial reckoning, but not in regular 
accounts ; its value was about 9 Mace of silver, or about lOdO 
copper Mon-Zeni. 

The Spanish Dollar was received at the bullion, and not at 
the coin, rate of value. The Dollar weighs about 71 i Oanda- 
reens, and this at the bullion rate is equal to about 160 
Oandareens, or i of a Tael, that is an Itsiboo, The Itsiboo 
was equal to 16 T'dohiaku ; and the Dollar, which is about 
treble the weight of the Itsiboo and intrinsically worth 48 
Toohiaku, was also received at 16 Tdohiaku. 



* So called from the Uengo^ ot reign (A J). 1880-1848), In which It was 
flrit issued. 



STBATTB SETTLXMIVTB. 



77 



STBAITS SETTLEMENTS. 

SINGAPORE, PENANQ, AND MALACCA. 

AooonntB are kopt 'in Dollart and Cents by some, and in 
Rupees^ Jnnatt and Pies by othen, bat Goyemment aoooants 
rendered to the Home Anthorities are made oat in £ s. d. 
sterling. 



Singapor* value. 


SytUmatie name. 


Engtiik valiM, 






1 Cent 


id. 


100 Cents -^ 




1 Dollar 


m 4s. 8d. 


12 Pies 




1 Anna 


lid. 


16 Annas • 




1 Rupee 


Is. ll|d. 


1 Pie 


« 




•24 Cent 


1 Anna 


m 




2-91 Cents 


1 Rupee 


ma 




46*6 Cents 


10 Rupees 


M 


4 Dollars 66 Cents 


100 Rupees 


M 


46 Dollars 60 Cents 


1000 Rupees 


- 


466 Dollars ' 






Bup*«i. 


Annat» ?<••• 


1 DoUar 


M 


2 


2 4i 


1 Cent 


m 





n 


too DoUars 


m 


214 


1 6 


1000 DoUars 


\ 


2147 


6 



Silver is the standard of value, and the Mexican Dollar is 
the chief current coin. 

SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are Mexican and Spanish Dollars, Ruptss, 
and IIai/-2iupees» 

GOLD COINS. 

There is no gold coinage ; formerly both gold and silver cir- 
culated by weight ; and a gold coin worth about Is. 2d. sterling 
was once issued, but has long since disappeared. 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins are the Cent, the HaWCgni^ the QHarttf' 
Cent ; Dutch and other Doits ; and ties of India. 



* In PennnK tho DolUr la aometlmoi dlvidod Into 20 Oopangii, and 
OAoh Oopaug into 6 Floe. 



78 MONKY. 



JAVA. 

The money of acconnt of Java is the Bame as that of the 
Netherlandfl. 

Jana value, Syntematio name, EnglUh value, 

1 Cent - id. 

100 Centen -i 1 Guilder or Florin • Is. dd. 

The Exchange value of Java money is less than that above 
given, being at the rate of 7 J^etherlands Ouildert for 8 Java 
Guilderg. So that at that rate the valne of the Guilder and 
Cent are respectively Is. 5|d. and /^d. sterling* 

bilvi:h coins. 

The silver coins are the FloHn or Ouilder^ equal to 100 
Centen, and worth nominally Is. 8d., and in Exchange Is. 5|d. 
sterling, the Half-Ouilder^ and the (Quarter- Quilder, and the 
Limt, equal to 10 Centen, and worth nominally 2d., but in 
exchange l|d. sterling. 

COPPER COINS. 

The only copper coin is the Cent, worth i>^d. sterling ; the 
old Doit is no longer in circulation. 

GOLD COINS. 

Gold does not form any part of the legal currency of Java, 
but gold coins, and also Rilver coins of all nations are taken as 
articles of commerce. Some pieces of the now suppressed gold 
currency of Holland, such as the 10 Ouilder Fiecet^ and the 
Jhtcata, and also Dubloons and English Sovereigns, are often met 
with. 

BANK NOTES. 

The Java Bank at Batavia issues Notes for 1000, 500, 800, 
200, 100, and 50 Guilders or Florins, and a Note of 25 Florins, 
•zohangeable only for Silver. 



FHILLIFINB ISLANDS. 

Viz. :— LUZON OR LUCONIA, MINDORO, PANAY, 

NEGROS, MASBATE, ZEBU, BOHL, LEYTE, 

SAMAR, MINDANAO. 

PhilMpine value, SyBtematie name, Bnglinh value. 

1 Cent - ^gd. 

100 Cents « 1 Real « 2id. 

20 Reals- 1 Peso, or Hard Dollar- 48. 2d. 



TEIPOIil. 79 

Formerly .aooounti were kept in Pi909 of 8 Reels of 12 
GranoB, but these denominations gave place to the di?iBionB of 
the Pesos adopted in the mother oonnti^ (Spain). 

The ourrenoy consists of Spanish pfold and silver coins. 
Mexican and Sonth American Dollars are recoined into pieces 
of 1, 2, and 4 Dollars. The mint of Manilla bnys gold, con- 
taining not less than 880 parts pnre in 1000, at the rate of 4*22 
CentH per Troy grain. In Mindanao the universal legal coin is 
the Chinese Kansang, a large Nankin piece. 26 KauBangvl 
Gantang* about 10 Spanish hard or Silver Dollars* £2. Is. Sd. 
sterling. 



EGYPT. 

Egyptian value* Byttematic name, EnglUh value. 

1 Fuddah, or Para » ^d. 

40 Paras * 1 Piasti'e.orCkirBh -■ 2id. 

Egyptian money is considered to be of the aame value aa 
that of Turkey. The smallest Egyptian coin is the Fuddah, 
There are also pieces of 6, 10, and 20 Fuddah. The Dollar of 
Spain, Mexico, and South America, is also a constant medium 
of payment. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins are the SaadeeyeAi equal to 4 Piastres, and 
worth lOd. sterling, the Khe^reejfeh^ equal to 9 Piastres, and 
worth about l9. lO^d. sterling. Doubloons and British 
Sovereigns are also in circulation, and the coins of Turkey are 
a legal tender, but are seldom met with. There is besides a 
nominal money called a Ryaly equal to 4i Piastres, and worth 
about lOgd. sterling. The Keea, or Purst, is equal to 600, 
Piastres, and worth about £6. 4s. 2d. sterling. The Khuzneh^ 
or Treasury t equal to 1000 FurteSt ifi worth about £6208. 6b. 8d. 
sterling. 



TBIPOLI. 

Tripoli value. Systematie name. Englieh value. 

1 Para ■■ ^j^d. 

40 Paras » 1 Piastre « 2id. 

20 Piastres - 1 Mahbub - 4b. 2d. 



80 MOKET. 



TUNIS. 

The denominations of money ased in reckoning and keeping 
accounts are. the Piastre^ the Karub and the Fel as follows : — 



Tunia value. 


Systematic name. 




English value 




1 Fel 


B 


i^Vifd. 


3 FelB « 


1 Eamb 


as 


m o %j 


16 Kanibs = 


1 Piastre 


B 


5M. 



SILVER COINS. 

The silver coins are the 5 Piattre Piece ^ worth 2s. 54d. ster- 
ling, the Piastrey wort.h6jd. ; the Quarter Piastre^ worth 11 ^d. 
sterling ; the 2 Karub Piece^ worth ||d., and the Karub ^ worth 
||d. The three last coins are of a very low standard, and are 
rather billon than silver. 

COPPER COINS. 
The copper coins are the Karub and the Fel. 



ALGEBIA. 

Since the Conqnest of the country by France, in 1830, the de- 
nominations of money nsed in reckoning and keeping accounts 
have been Francs and Centimes (100 Centimes s 1 Franc) as 
in France (see France). 

The currency of France has not yet altogether superseded 
the old system, and the native coins are still in circulation. 

Formerly accounts were kept in Bitdschus, or Buschus, and 
Miuuhns, or Mozounaht. The Budschu is the Pataca or Alge- 
rine Piastre, and the Mttsuhn is sometimes called a Tomin. 

Algerine value. Systematic name, French value. English value. 

1 Musuhn = '0776 Francs — f|d. 

24 Musuhn » 1 Budschu « 1 Franc 86 Cts. « Is. 5id. 

GOLD COINS. 

The Tsechine^ or Sultanine, is worth 4^ to 5 Budschns ; but 
its value in relation to gold fluctuates. Its English value is 
from 6s. C^d. to 7s. 3 id. sterling. 



HOBOCOO. 81 

SILVER COINS. 

The BuBchu^ or BtuUehUf also called the Pataea, or Piastrs 
of Algeria, is eqnal to 1 Franc 86 Centimes, and worth Is. 6|d. 
sterling. The Douhle-Budschu^ equal to 3 Francs 72 •Centimes, 
and worth 2s. lid. sterling. The Half-Budseku^ equal to 98 
Centimes, and worth 8|d. sterling. The Quarier-Budsehut 
equal to 46'5 Centimes, and worth 4fd. sterling. The Three' 
Musuhn- Piece f equal to 23*25 Centimes, and worth 2i^d. 
sterling. 

BILLON COINS. 

The Karubah, or Ealf-JUueuAtt-Pieeet equal to '08875 of a 
Franc, and worth }}d. sterling. 

COPPER COINS. 

The Jspre-rhique^ equal to the 29th part of a Musuhn. 
The Spanish Dollar is also in circulation at the rate of 70 
MuBuhns, or 6 Francs 86 Centimes. 



MOBOCCO. 

Accounts are kept in MitkuUt Ouncet^ BlankeeUy and Fluei, 
as follows : — 



Morocco ooliM. Byttematie name* 






MnglUh valMe. 


1 Flue 
24 Flues - 1 Blankeel 
4 BlankeelB » 1 Ounce 
10 Ounces - 1 Mitkul 




- 


S^d. 
8s. Id. 


54 BlankeelB are considered equal to 1 Spanish Dollar. 


GOLD COINS. 








Name of the coin, • MitkuU. Owncct, BlanJbli. Flue9» EnglUh value. 


The Doubloon « 24 1 
„ Half-Doubloon - 12 
„ Quarter-Doubloon » 6 
„ Two-Dollar-Piece - 8 
„ Madrid, equal to ) iq m 
10 Dollars ° ^^ ^ 



2 

1 











12 




- 64b. 

- 82b. 
» 16b. 
^ 8b. 

- 408. 


SILVER COINS 


. 






TheDoUar - 1 8 
„ Half-Dollar - 6 
„ Quarter-Dollar -0 8 


2 
8 

1 






12 


- 4s. 2d. 

- 2s. Id. 

- Is. O^d. 



82 MONEY. 




ABYSSINIA. 




The moneys of aoeonnt are as follows :— 


■ 


Abyssinian value, BystemaHe name. 

8 Borjooks* — 1 Kibear 
10 Kibears - 1 Bivanis 

4 Bivanis - 1 Harf 
23 Harfs « 1 Pataka or Dollar 
2i Patakas « 1 Sequin 


English value 
- 0«. 4 id. 



Tliis country has no coinage of its own, and the current 
ooinH are chiefly Venetian Sequins, Spanish Dollars, and 
Imperial and Austrian Dollars. Since the British expedition 
to Abyssinia, in 1867-8, British Sovereigns and Indian Bupeea 
have been in circulation. The Austrian Dollar is called a 
Pataka, 

Large payments are usually made in gold ingots, weighed by 
the Wakeat an Abyssinian weight, equal to 400 troy grains 
English. 

Small oblong pieces of salt, about 7 inches long, are also 
used as money. They are tied into bundles, and carried on 
the backs of mules into the interior ; these pieces form an 
important part of the commerce of Abyssinia, and of the whole 
of North-Eastern Africa. Their value varies with the cost of 
transport, and the distance from the coast ; about 80 of them 
are valued at a wakea of gold (400 grains troy). 

Estimated in gold the value of the Pataka as money of 
account is at the rate of 12 Patakas for 1 Wakea, 



WEST COAST OF AFBICA, 

VIZ., 

SI£BBA-LEONE, THB GAMBIA, THB GOLD 00A8T (Gape Ooaet 

Cattle), 8ENBGAL. 

On the West Coast of Africa accounts are kept in Pounds, 
Shillingst and Pence sterling, as in Great Britain. At Uie' 
Gambia some merchants keep their accounts in pounds, 
shillingB, and pence sterling, others in pounds, shillings, and 
pence currency, calculating four dollars to the pound, or five 



•Borjookf are glass beads of varioos coloun, and are used for small 
payment!. 



MAUBITIUS. 83 

shillings to the dollar, so that the ponnd onrrenoj equals 
16s. 8d. sterling, and the shillinga and pence onrrenoy in a like 
proportion, and others again keep their aooonnts in dollars and 
cents. 

An Order in Connoil of 10th May, 1843, assigned the follow- 
ing rates to the undermentioned coins. 

Doubloon of Spain, Mexico, and South America, 64b. sterling. 

The 20 Franc Piece of France 158. lOd. „ 

Dollar of Spain, Mexico, and South America . . 4b. 2d. „ 
The 5-Franc-Piece of France 8s. 10|d. „ 

The currency consists of the abore named coins, and of 
British gold, silver, and copper coins, at their full nominal 
value. But the chief medium of exchange, both on the Gold Coast 
and at the Gambia, has long been gold dust, valued at £4 per 
ounce, and as gold dust transmitted to England is worth, on 
an average, alter deducting the usual charges for freight, 
insurance, and commission, about £8 12s. per ounce, the par 
of Exchange for bills upon England, at 3 days' sight, is 
generally quoted at 11^ premium ; that is a bill upon England, 
for £90 would purchase 25 ounces of gold dust, equal to £100 
currency. 



EAST COAST OF AFBICA, 

VIZ., 
MOZiLMBIQUE. 

Accounts are kept in Rein, 1000 Reis being termed, as in 
Portugal, a Miireu, The English value of a Milreis is about 
Is. 9d. sterling. 



MAUBITIUS. 

The Government accounts are kept in Pounds^ ShiVUngs^ and 
Pence sterling, as in Great Britain; but merchants and 
bankers reckon and keep their accounts either in Dollart and 
Centimes^ or in DoUarSy Livrea, and HovSt as follows. 



Mauritiut valw. 




Syat&matie name. 

1 Cent. - 


EnglUh valMe 
8s. lOd. 


100 Cents 


- 


1 Dollar, current » 


20 Sous 
10 Livres 


- 


QT 

1 Sou = 
1 Livre - 
1 Dollar - 


44d. 
8s. lOd. 



84 MOKEX. 

The Manritias Dollar of aecoont was valued in 1825 at 48. 
sterling, but its present valne is about 3s. 10d« sterling. 

The cnrrency of the Mauritins consists partly of the current 
coins of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
bnt chiefly of the gold and silver coins of British India, and of 
the gold and silver coins of foreign states. 

By a royal proclamation of 1st February, 1 843, relating to tha 
cnrrency of the Mauritins, the following British rates were 
assigned to the coins specified. 

GOLD COINS. 

Value in 
Value in Mauritius. Britieh sterling. 
Dollars. Cents. £ s. a. 
Doubloon (of Spain, Mexico, l—ig 0b840 

and South America) .... J ' 

Gold Mohur (of India — coined 1 „ ooi i o o 

since 1st September, 1835) J "^ ' ^y* - ^ w ^ 

20 Franc Piece (of France) . . » 3 95| -■ 15 10 

SILVER COINS. 

[-1 H- 



Dollar (of Spain, Mexico, and 
South America 



4 2 



Rupee (of India coined since ] ^ ^es niin 

Ist Sept., 1836) 1 - " 46| - 1 10 



Five Franc-piece (of France) 
or one and two fVanc-pieces 
to the same value, viz. : 
5 Francs 



- 96| » 8 101 



These rates are disregarded in business, and the Mauritius 
Dollar passes as two Rupees. 

British gold and silver coins, although a legal tender to any 
amount, are very scarce, and the currency consists chiefly of 
the gold and silver coins of India. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 

Since 1st January, 1826, all contracts for the Public Service 
have been made, and all accounts kept, in Pounds, Shillings, 
and Pence sterling. Previous to the year 1826 the moneys of 
account were Rixdollars, each Rixdollar containing 8 SohillingB, 
and each Schilling containing 6 Stivers, and declared to be of 
tha value of 48 full weighted Pennies of Holland. The 



CANADA. 85 

cmrenoy then ooDflisted of inoonTerUble Paper Rixdollwrs, 
which were first iasned in 1781 » about 48. per RixdoUar; but 
in 1825 this valne had fallen to Is. 6d. per BixdoUar. In 1826 
British silver money was constituted a legal tender at the rate 
of Is. 6d. sterliog for a Rixdollar. In 1835 the outstanding 
Paper Rixdollar oorrency was made payable, or exchangeable, 
only at the Treasury, and in 1840 it was notified that no Rix- 
dollar Notes woold be aoeepted in payment or exchange after 
3l8t March, 1841. And at this latter date the onirenoy of the 
country became a metallic one, the old depreciated paper having 
been gradually withdrawn. Although the pubUo accounts are 
all kept in PouDds, Shillings, and Pence sterling, the accounts 
of private persons are often still kept in the old denominations 
of RixdoUars Schillings, and Stivers, as follows : — 

1 Stiver «■ fd. sterling. 

6 Stivers = 1 Schilling « 2id. „ 

8 Schilling » 1 Rixdollar - Is. 6d. 

The term Guilder is used to denote 6d. sterling. 

The currency consists exclusively of British gold, silver, and 
oopper coins. Spanish, Mexican, and South American Dollars 
and a few Indian Rupees are met with, but are not much in use 
as a circulating medium. 

BANE NOTES. 

There are Notes for £5 and upwards. At Cape Town and 
Graham^s Town the average amount of notes in circulation is 
about £40,000. 



ST. HELENA. 

Accounts are kept in Pounds^ SAiiiinffs^ and Pifnee sterling. 
The currency of the island consists of British coins and of gold 
Doubloons of Spain, Mexico, and South America, valued at 64s. 
sterling, and of silver Dollars of Spain, Mexico, and South 
America, valued at 4s. 2d sterling. 



CANADA. 

In British North America accounts are kept sometimes in 
Dollars and Cm/j, and sometimes in Pounds^ ShUHngSy and Pence 
currency, the word currency being used to distinguish those 
denominations from Pounds, ShilSngs, and Pence sterling of 
Great Britain. 



86 



MOIfET. 



By the Act 16 Viot. c. 158, the denoroinationi of monej in 
Canada are fixed as Ponnds, ShillingH, Pence, Dollars, Cents, 
and MilH, the Dollar beinft ^ of a Ponnd ; the Cent, -^li^ of a 
Dollar, and the Mil -^^ of a Cent. The Ponnd was held to be 
equivalent to 101*801 grains of standard gold. By the same 
Act the copper Penny of the United Kingdom was fixed as 
equiralent to 2 Cents, and the Half -Penny to 1 Cent. 



Canadian value. Byitemaile name. Sterling value, 

1 Mil - ^»od. 

10 Mils - ICent - ^d. 

100 Cents » 1 Dollar - 48. l^d. 



12 Pence — 
20 Shillings « 



or. 



1 Penny * |d. 

1 Shilling - 9|d. 

1 Pound a 166. 5id. 



Currency, 

Od. 
jd. 
5s. 



'02 Cents. 
20 
4 Dollars. 



Although accounts are stated in Pounds, Shillings, and 
Pence currency, the Spanish dollar has always been the real 
measure of value and standard of comparison in monetary 
transactions. The difference between sterling and currency 
value arises from different valuations of the Dollar. In 1817 
the nominal value assigned to the Spanish Dollar was 4s. 6d. 
Bterling, and this valuation is implied in statements of the ex- 
change between Great Britain and the United States, although 
the present Dollar contains 14 grains of fine silver less than 
the dollar of 1817. In Nova Scotia, and throughout North 
America generally, the value ansigned to the DoUar has been 
5s« currency, and the nominal par of exchange was computed 
by adding one-ninth to the old valuation of the Dollar at 4b. 6d., 
or a par of £111^ Halifax currency for £100 sterling. But the 
value of the Dollar in sterling money is now only 48. 2d., and 
the real par of Exchange is about £120 Halifax currency for 
480 Dollars for £100 sterling, that is Halifax and Canadian 
currency is about 20 per cent, less valuable than British ster- 
ling, although the names of the moneys and their relations to 
each other are the same. The Pound currency is 4 Spanish 
Dollars, each Dollar being called 5s., but as the value of the 
DoUnr is only 4s. 2d. sterling, £1 currency is equal to 16b. 8d. 
sterling. 

By the Act passed by the Canadian legislature in 1841, the 
following rates in Canadian currency were assigned to the 
undermentioned coins. 



CANADA. 



S7 



GOLD COINS. 

Name of the Coim, 

British Soyereign (20b.) 

Eagle of the United States , coined hefore July 
Ist, 1834, and weighing 11 dirts. 6 grs. . 

Eagle coined since July Ist, 1834, and weigh- 
ing 10 dwts. 18 grs. 

Gold Coins of France, and multiples and 
diyfsions thereof, in sums not less than 
£50 curreney . . per onnce 

Old Donhloon of Spain, Mexican, and Chilian 
Donhloon, and the parts thereof, in snms 
not less than £60 currency . . per onnce 

Gold coins of La Plata and Oolamhia, in sums 
not less than £50 currency . . per onnce 

Gtold coins of Portugal and Brazil, in snms 
not less than £60 currency . . per ounce 

SILVER COINS. 

Nam$ of the Coine, 



Value /n Canadian 
Curreney, 

£ 8. d. 

14 4 

8 13 4 

2 10 



4 13 



u 



The British Crown (5b.) 

The British Shilling 

Milled Dollar of Spain, the Dollar of the 
United States, and of the several States 
of Peru, Chili, Central America and Mex- 
ico, not weighing less than 17 dwts. 4 grs. 

The Half-DoUar of the same nations and 

governments 

The Quarter Dollar 

The Eighth of a Dollar 

The Sixteenth of a Dollar 



4 14 6 



VtUue in Canadian 
Curreney. 

£ ■. d. 

6 



1 



2 
1 





6i 
S 

74 
34 



The Dollar and Half-DoUar are a legal tender to any 
amount. 

Between Canada and Great Britain the par of Exchange is 
£121 13s. 4d. Canadian currency, for £100 sterling. In state- 
ments of the Exchange with England, the nominal valuation 
of the Dollar at 4b. Sd., and the Halifax valuation of 6s. are 
still employed. And as £121 18s 4d. contains as many Dollars 
of 6s. each as £109 10s. of 4b. 6d. each, the par of Exchange 



88 MOlfST. 

is stated as £109 10b. , or 9i premium. This will be better 

nnderBtood from the following figures : — 

£ 0. d. 

British sterling money 100 

Premiun 9 10 



9)109 10 
^ added to the valnation of the Dollar at 

4s. 6d. . . . . . . . . 12 8 4 



Canadian Cnrrency 121 13 4 

In the currency of Canada the same value is assigned to 
United States Dollars, as to the Dollars of Mexico and South 
America, but the latter contains 878 grains of pure silver, and 
is about the i per cent, better than the former, which contains 
only 871 i grains of pure silver. Hence the par of exchange 
BO deduced would be £122 5s. 6d. currency for £100 sterling, 
or lOi premium. Government Exchanges are quoted at so 
much sterling per Dollar, thus ttie Conunissariat quotes Drafts 
at 4s. 2d. or 4s. Ifd. per Dollar, that is on being paid so many 
times 5s. currency it will grant Bilit on the Lords of 
the Treasury for as many times 4s. 2d. or 4s. Ifd. 
sterling. In Canadian price lists British Sovereigns are 
quoted at a variable number of shillings currency (says 24s), 
thus the expressions, **4s. 2d. sterling per Dollar," '*24s. 
currency per English Sovereign," ** Exchange at 9| per cent, 
premium," and **£100 sterling for £121 18s. 4d. currency," 
all mean the same thing. The circulating medium consists of 
coins of Great Britain and of the United States, and of Bank 
Notes for one dollar or five shillings currency, and for four 
dollars or one pound currency, there being no metaUio cur- 
rency in Canada corresponding to the currency values. Four 
British Shillings was called One dollar, so the shilling is 
valued at 25 cents currency. 



NOVA SCOTIA. 

The denominations of money used in accounts are either 
Dollars and Cents, or Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, 

Kova Bcotia valus Syitetnatie name* EnglUh value. 

1 Cent - id. 

100 Cents » 1 Dollar - 4s. 2d. 

or, 

1 Penny — fd. 

12 Pence » 1 Shilling » 9id. 

20 Shillings « 1 Pound « 16s. Od, 



iriW BBITirBWIOK. 89 

By an Act passed by ilie Le^slators of the Provinoe, in the 
Tear 1842, the following rates in cnrrenoy of Nova Sootia have 
been assigned to the ondormentioned coins in oiroolation in 
Nova Sootia : — 

GOLD COINS. 

Value in Nopa 
Name of ih$ Coim* Seoiia Currenetf. 

£ s. d 
Donbloon (weiffbing not less than 415 grains) ..400 

Amorioan Eaglo 2 10 

British Sovereign 160 

SILVER COINS. 
Bollar of Mexico, South America, and the United I n 5 2^ 

DiaCOs •* •* •* a. •* f 

English Crown (5s.) 

English ShilliDg (Is.^ 

English Sixpence (6d.) 

For debts and obligations contracted in sterling money the 
Doubloon is a legal tender for 648., the British Sovereign for 
£1, the Dollar * for 48. 2d. sterling; and all British silver 
coins are a legal tender up to, but not exceeding, SOs., at rates 
proportionate to that of tne Sovereign. British copper Pence 
and Half-pence circulate as Penny and Half-penny Pieces cur- 
rency, and are a legal tender up to, and not exceeding, 12d. 

The par of exchange with England is now £125 currency for 
£100 sterling, or 12 1 per cent, premium on the sterling money. 






6 


8 





1 


8 








7i 



NEW BBIJNSWICE. 

Accounts are kept either in Doi/an or Centi^ or in Poundst 
SAUlinps, and Pence currency. 



New Brumwick vikM. 




Syitematie name. 




EnglUh value. 






ICent 


m 




id. 


100 Cents 


• 


IDoUar 
or, 


" 


4b. 


2d. 






1 Penny 


■■ 




<d 


12 Pence 


•« 


1 Shilling 


M 


• 


lOd. 


20 ShilUngs 


" 


L Pound 


• 


16b. 


8d. 



* When of the full weight of 416 grains, and oontainlug not less than 
878 graina of pure allver. 



90 HOn^ET. 

The sterling value of any sum in New Bnmswick enrrency 
may be approximately lonnd by deducting one-tixth from the 
sum in New Brunswick enrrency. 

The currency of New Brunswick consists of the following 
coins which circulate at the undermentioned rates assigned to 
them by law. 

GOLD COINS. 

Valu« in New 
Name of the eoin» Brtmewiek eurreney. 

£ 8. d. 

English Soyereign 14 

United States Eagle 2 10 

SILVER COINS. 

Spanish, Mexican, South American, and 

United States Dollars 6 

English Crown (5s.) and its aliquot parts at 

proportionate rates 6 

English Shilling 1 2| 

In this table the American Gold Eagle, containing 232 
grains of pure gold, is over valued with reference to the 
Sovereign containing 118 grains of pure gold, by about li per 
cent., and should have been valued at £2 9s. 8d. currency. 

The American Gold Eagle when issued from the com- 
missariat chest at New Brunswick is (and has been since Ist 
May, 1864), rated at £2 2s. Id. sterling. 



THE BEBMUDAS. 

Accounts are kept in Founds^ ShiUingt and Penee^ sterling, 
as in Great Britain. 

Doubfoont of Spain, Mexico, and South America, of not less 
weight than 17 dwts., 8 gn^. troy, are current at the rate of 64s. 
sterling, and Dollars of the same countries, at 4s. 2d. sterling. 

All taxes and revenue are received either in British sterling 
money, or its equivalent in Foreign coins. 



3!rBWF0UKDt.A.KD. 91 



NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Aoeonnts are kept either in Poundt^ Shillinfft^ and Pence 
currency, or in Dollars and Cents as follows : — 

Newfoundland value, Syttematie name, EnglUh value. 

1 Penny — Jd. 

12 Penee - . 1 dbilUng - lOd. 

20 SbillingB - 1 Ponnd currency •• 168. 8d. 

or 

1 Cent « id. 

100 Cents « 1 Dollar ~ 48. 2d. 

Tlie coins in circulation are chiefly silver Dollars and 
British gold, sUyer, and copper coins. There are also Bank 
Notes of the Bank of British America, which has a branch at 
St. John's. The English shilling is received sometimes at 
Is. 2d. and sometimes at Is. 3d. cnrrency, and the following are 
the average rates at which the nndermentioned coins pass 
csrrent. 

GOLD COINS. 

Value in 
Name of the Coin, Newfoundland eurreney, 

£ s. d. 
Doubloon » 8 16 9{ 

British Sovereign » 14 

SILVER COINS. 

Dollar " 6 

British Crown (5s.) - 6 

„ Half-Crown - 8 

„ Shilling - 10 

Bnt there are no fixed rates at which British and foreign 
coins circulate, and the values assigned to them in the currency 
of the colony are subject to constant variation. 

The nonuDal value of the Dollar is 5b. currency. Its sterling 
Talue is generally estimated in the colony at 4s. 4d., while its 
real sterling value is 4s. 2d. 

The par of exchange with England is reckoned at £115. 7s. 8|d. 
for £100 sterling. On account of the over valuation of the 
Dollar in sterling money, Bills on England are usually at a 
premium of from 4 to 6 per cent. 



92 



H09ET. 



UNITED STATES OF NOBTH AMEBICA. 

American valtM. Syitematie name, EnglUk value, 

1 Cent - id.)* 

100 Cents - 1 DoUar - 4b. 2d. f 

The nnit of acoonnt is the Dollar ($) ; although Dollars and 
Cents are practically the only moneys of aoconnt, there are the 
denomina^onB Dimety or tenths^ and JHilUt or thousandths of 
the Dollar. The Dime has its legal representative in a silver 
coin worth about 4'9d. sterling. There is no eoin to represent 
the Mill. 



20 Dollars 

10 

5 

2i 



tf 



»♦ 



»» 



Gold Coins! — 

Doable Eagle • 

Eagle « 

Half Eagle » 

Quarter Eagle 

8 Dollar Piece 

1 Dollar Piece . . 
SiLYBB Coins — 

Dollar 

Half Dollar . . . . 

Quarter Dollar .. .. 

Dime « ^ Dollar 

Half Dime ■■ 5 Cents 

8 Cents 

Nickel Coins — 

. 5 (}ents 

8 Cents 

Copper Coins — 

Cent (88 parti copper a If nlekd) 

Half Cent 



• • 



Fnll 
weight 

in 
Orains. 



516 
258 
129 
64^ 
77| 
25| 

412i 

192- 

96 

38f 

129 



« 

9 

a 



Aths. 



ft 
ft 
»f 

tf 
ff 
ft 
«f 
tt 



iths. 



W^ 



Weight of 

pure 
Metal in 
Grains. 



English 
Taioe 



£ S. d. 
464{ 4 8 4 
2d2| 12 1 8 

n^^ |i 10 

58^ ,0 10 6 



12 6 

4 2 

4 2 

2 1 



o2** 

871* 
172| 

86f .0 1 Oi 

84Ty»5 '0 6 

11^ 2* 

9/, 1| 

2i 

1| 

Oi 

Oi 



* These are the valaes of the Gold and Sllyer money. 

f In 1868 a Bill was introduced In Oongress for aeslniilating the gold 
eurroncy of the Ameriean Union to that of the Fnnah system, bat it 
never beaame law. In Febmary, 1870, the Senate adopted a resolntion 
reqaesting the President to invite correspondence with Great Britain and 
other pollers, with the view to promote the adoption, by the LegisUtnres 
of the several powers, of a common standard of international coinage. 



UNITED STATES OP ITOETH AMEBICA. 93 

BANK-NOTES.* 

100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 1 dollars ; and ** fractional ourrency notes," 
▼iz., 50, 20, 3 cents. 

COURSE OF EXCHANGE. 
The conrse of exchange on London is stated to be above or 
below par, as the rate exceeds or falls below 9^ per cent., 9^ 
per cent, being called par of exchange. In this statement 
the British sovereign is estimated at 4 dollars 44 cents in 
American gold. By Act of Congress of 2nd April, .1792, the 
weight of the American gold eagle was fixed at 270 troy grains 
of gold ^ths fine. It was at that time a legal tender for 
ten dollars, the British sovereign being at the same time a 
legal tender for 4 dollars 44 cents. By Act of Congress of 
1st Jnly, 1834, the weight of the eagle was reduced to 268 
troy grains, and its fineness to -^Tjths, but was still maintained 
a legal tender for ten dollars. This change in the value of 
the American coins placed tbe British sovereign at a premium 
of 9^ per cent, as compared with the American coins, and gave 
rise to the present manner of quoting the course of exchange 
— viz., expressing it in terms of a percentage upon an assumed 
par of 4s. 6d. sterling per dollar. The true par stated in this 
form is 9i per cent, premium or £109 10s. in dollars valued 
at 4s. 6d. each for £100 in British sterling money. When 
the premitim is above 9^ per cent, the exchange is in favour of 
England, when it is below 9^ per cent, it is in favour of 
America. To calculate the rate of a sterling bill payable in 
United States paper currency (greenbacks) : multiply the par 
of exchange, or gold rate for sterling (109*5) by the price of 
gold and divide by 100; multiply the quotient by 240 and 

* Previous to the Civil War all the American Banks redeemed their 
notes with coin on demand, bnt since the year 1861 they have all been 
Permitted to snspend specie payments for an indefinite time, and their 
notes have consequently been at a heavy discount. On the 25th Febru- 
ary, 1862, Congress passed the Legal Tender Act, authorising the issue of 
United States' notes, or, as they were afterwards called, " greenbacks," 
and the Act declared that such notes " shall be lawful money and a 
legal tender in payment of all debts, public or private, within the 
United States, except duties on imports and interest " upon the bonds and 
notes of the Federation. Previously the only legal tender was the gold 
dollar, and its multiples. The notes issued under the provisions of the 
Legal Tender Act increased in amount during the continuance of the Civil 
War nntil at last the total issued was nearly 460,000 OUO dollars. In 1864 
the value of the paper dollar had fallen to 85 or 40 cents., but after the 
War it gradually rose until in 1871 it reached 80 or 83 cents. That is, at 
the latter date, the value of gold was still from 17 to 20 per. cent, above 
United States' notes or greenbacks. In February, 1870, the supreme 
court of the United States declared that Congress had no power to 
make United States' notes or greenbacks a legal tender for debts in 
existence at the time of the passing of the Legid Tender Act, thus esta? 
blisbing the principle that specific contracts to pay coin are valid, such 
debts being recoverable in coin, and that all debts contracted prior to 
tbe date of tbe Act, are payable (principal and interest) in coin. 



04 



MOKET. 



diyide by 64, or multiply by 40 and divide by 9. Then 
State £100 : Sterling bill : : currency of £100 : currency 
required. Example.— Where the price of gold at New York 
is 180, and the rate for sterling is 109' 5 what is the ralue of 
a sterling bill of £1,600 payable in United States currency ? 

109-6 
ISO 



82-860 
1,09 6 



142,86^ dollars of 48. 6d. for £100 sterling. 
40 



9)669,400 



682-66 dollars for £100 sterling. 
100 : 1,600 : : 682-66 : 9489-9 dollars for £1,600 sterling. 



MEXICO. 

Accounts are kept in Dollars and CenU^ as follows : — 
Mexican value, Syttematic name. SnglUh value. 



100 Cents 



1 Cent 
1 Dollar 



4d. 
4s. 2d. 



GoLi> CoiHs"; — * 
Doubloon^(16 dolls.) 
k 
i 

SiLTEB Coins: — ^ 
Dollar 

i 
i 

\ (real) 
Peseta (20 cents.) 

CoppEB Coins: — 
Quartillo (^ dollar) 
Octavo (or Claco) 






aoaJv 

104A 



417tV 

208,V 
104/, 

8Vt 



(A?) 



« 
i 



!iths 



Weight 
of 

Pure 
Metal. 



ft 



f 



lOj 
12 ths 






9f 
12 ths 



f* 






892 

196 
98 

89 
62 



Org. 

Alloy. 



Bnfl 
Val 



lliBh 
ae. 



62A 

26T*ir 
18^f, 



26 



£ s. 
3 6 
1 18 
16 



4 2 



12i 

13 
21 



8 
4 
8 












2 
1 



1 

0* 

6^ 
10 



ivv 

Of* 



* The gold odoB at the rate of 8^ donbloone, and the silver coins at the 
rate of 8^ dollan to the castUe mark (_ : 85i>ui troy grains.) 



WEST INDIES. 95 

Dollars and half-dollari oontain 10| parts, and pesetas and 
reals 9f parts pore oat of 12, bat pesetas and reals of Bolivia 
oontain only 8 parts pore ont of 12. 

Money of account may have reference either to these small 
silver coins of lower standard, or to the Hard Dollars. If 
reckoned in the small base ccftns its value is less than it wonld 
he if reckoned in Hard Dollars. 



CENTBAL AMEBICA, or GUATIMALA, 

OUATIMALA, BALVADOB, NICARAQUA, HONDnRAS, AND OOSTA BICA. 

The currency and the moneys of account are the same as 
those of Mexico. In 1869, Guatimala and Salvador commenced 
to re-coin the cut money circulating in them ; and Honduras 
established a national coinage in imitation of the United 
States. 

WEST INDIES. (British.)* 

In most of the West India Islands accounts are kept in 
Pounds, Shillings, and Pence sterling, as in Great Britain, but 
sometimes they are kept in Dollars and Cents, as follows : — 
100 Cents « 1 Dollar - 48. 2d. English. 

GOLD COINS. 

English Sovereign and Ilalf-Sovereign ; Spanish, Mexican, 
and Columbian Doubloons, current at 64s. sterling each (or 
15*86 Dollars) ; United States Eagle, current at 41s. 8d. 
sterling ; the Half-Eagle, at 20s. lOd. sterling ; Quarter^Eagle, 
at lOs. 5d. sterling ; Two Dollar Piece, at 8s. 4d. ; Dollar, at 
4b. 2d. sterling ; and Quarter Dollar, at Is. O^d. sterling. 

SILVER COINS. 

Crown (5s.), Half-Crown, Florin, Shilling, Sixpence, Four- 
pence, Threepence, Twopence, Quattie (lid.), Dollar (4s. 2d.), 
Half-DoUar (2s. Id.), Quarter-Dollar (Is. O^d.) 



* The British West Indies include Jamaica ; the Windward IslandR, 
viz., Trinidad, Tobago. Grenada, Bt. Vincent, Barbadoes, and St. Luoln ; 
the Leward Islands, viz.. Dominica, Montserrat, 8t. Kitts, Antigua, Kevis, 
AngnlUa, Barbuda, and the Virgin Islands ; the Kahamas ; the Bermudas ; 
Demerara, Berbioe and £sBiquibo, and Honduras. 



06 IfOlfEY. 

The Doabloon is a legal tender, at the valne of 648., and the 
Dollar at the rate of 4s. 2d. sterling, and gold and silver coins 
of Great Britain are a legal tender to any amount at the rates 
cnrrent in Great Britain. 

BRONZE COINS. 

The bronze coins of Great Britain, although nominally a 
legal tender, are not in general circulation. The lowest coin 
in general use is the Quattie. There is a great want of coins 
of low value which the working people would accept ; and 
pieces of 1, 2, 5, and 10 Centimes in Nickel would be very likely 
to be accepted by the lower orders. 

Previous to the year 1838 the currency of the West Indies 
was on a very unsatisfactory footing. Accounts were kept 
either in Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, currency, or in Dollars 
and Cents, and to these denominations, arbitrary values were 
assigned which varied in the different islands. From the over- 
valuation of the gold coins in circulation relatively to those of 
silver, the Spanish Dollar had almost wholly disappeared from 
circulation ; mutilated coins or parts of coins had been sub- 
stituted, and there was even a difficulty in retaining these 
latter in sufficient quantity to meet the wants of domestic 
interchange. The want pf small silver coins for the ordinary 
transactions of the market led to the practice of cutting Silver 
Dollars into ** Bitts," nominal values in the currency of the 
islands being assigned to those Bitts. The number of Bitts 
reckoned equal to a DoUar, varied at jliSereni places ; thus at 
Dominica, Nevis, Montserrat, St. Eitts, Antigua, and Demerara, 
12 Bitts, at Barbadoes 10 Bitts, and at Trinidad 9 Bitts, were 
reckoned equal to a Dollar. 

A Royal Proclamation, dated 14th September, 1838, fixed the 
British sterling value of the Doubloon and Dollar respectively 
at 648. and 4s. 2d. sterling. Immediately after that Proclama- 
tion the Governors of the several islands determined the colonial 
currency rates at which the Doubloon, the Dollar, and the 
British Shilling were to be a legal tender. . These rates were 
as follows : — 









Britiih 




Douhlonn» 


Dollar. 


ShUling. 




£ H. d. 


B. d. 


1. d. 


Jamaica 


6 8 


6 Hi 


1 8 


Barbadoes 


6 


6 6 


1 6} 


Trinidad, Grenada, St. Vincent, 








Dominica 


8 


10 6 


2 6 


Montserrat, St. Eitts, Antigua, 








Nevis 


7 4 


9 4* 


2 3 



HATTI. 97 



WEST INDIES. (Spanish.) 

CUBA, FOBTO-RICO, AND THE ISLETS OW MABOARITA, TBSTiaOS, 
TOBTUOA, BLAKQUILLA, OBCHILLA^ BOCA, AKD AVBB. 

The denominations of money in which accounts are kept are 
the same as those of Sjiain. (See Spain.) 

The current coins are gold jboubloont aud bilvcr DoUars and 
their suhdivisions. 

WEST INDIES. (Dutoh.) 

VIZ., 
BONAIRZ, CUBACOA OBUBA, ST. MABTIN, SABA, AKO 

ST. EUSTATIUS. 

The money, weights, and measures are the same as those of 
the Netherlands. 

WEST INDIES. (Danish.) 

TIZ., 
ST. THOMAS, ST. JOHN, ST. CBOIX. 

The money, weights, and measures are the same as those of 
Denmark. 

WEST INDIES. (Swedish.) 

VIZ., 
ST. BABTHOLOMBW. 

The money, weights and measures, are the same as those of 
Denmark. 



HAYTI (or Hispaniola, or St. Domingo.) 

Accounts are kept in current LoUan (c&Iled Gourdes) and 
Centi. 

Hantian value, 8y»Umatie name, EnglUh value. 

1 Cent - ^d. 

100 Cents » 1 Gourde, or Dollar — 8|d. 

The native currency consists of Depredated Paper Gourdes, 
and of copper coins. 



98 MOHET. 

The yalne of the Paper Gourde is yery flaetnating. It may 
be taken, however, at about 16 Haytian Gourdes or Dollars for 
1 Spanish Dollar. This would give 8 id. sterling as the English 
value of the Paper Gourde, or about 77 Gourdes for £1 sterling. 

The chief medium of payment in all small transactions is 
copper money, consisting of 1 and 2 Cent Pieces, 

Some old silver pieces of 25 and 50 Cents (called Gourdins) 
and of 2^ cents are still in circulation. Their value is four 
times that of the paper money, the 25 Cent Piece being equal 
to 1 Paper Gourde. 

In large commercial dealings with foreign countries the chief 
medium of payment consists of Spanish, Mexican, and South 
American gold Doubloons and silver Dollars, and their subdi- 
visions. The Doubloon » 64s. and the Dollar ■■4s. 2d. sterling. 



COLOMBIA (United States of). 

VIZ., • 

NEW OBANADA, VENEZUELA AND BCVADOB. 

In wholesale commercial transactions, merchants reckon in 
Dollars of 9 Beali^ or 10 Decitnost or 100 Ceniavot^ but generally 
in practice only two denominations, namely Dollars and Cen- 
tavos, are used in keeping accounts. 

Colombian vahu, SyttematU} name, BnglUh value. 

1 Centavo ■■ |d. 

100 Centavos- 1 Peso « 4s. 2d. 

* 

In domestic trade retail dealers and shopkeepers are in the 
habit of reckoning by the Sencillo or Macuquina Peso, divided 
into 8 Reals, thus : — 

8 Reals « 1 Sencilla, or Macnquino Dollar ■■ 8s. 4d. 

The Maeuquino or Peso Dollar is a coin of an inferior standard 
of fineness, and is equal in value to about f ths of a Spanish or 
an American Dollar ; so that 4 Spanish or American Dollars 
are equal to 5 Macuquina Dollars. 

Colombia having no special coinage of her own nsei the 
currencieB of other oonntries, assigning thereto definite rates. 



qviajsjl. 99 

GOLD COINS. 

4 8. d. 

Donbloon of Spain and America —IS Dollars «8 6 8 

Half ditto „ „ „ - 8 „ -1 13 4 

Qnarter ditto „ „ „ b 4 ,, -^O 16 8 

French 20 Frano Piece . 4 ,, «-0 16 8 

,. 10 «, „ - 2 „ -0 8 4 

,. 6 „ .. • 1 „ -0 4 2 

English Sovereign „ - 4 „80Cntv8. -1 

M Half-Sovereign .2 ,,40 ,, »0 10 

SILVER COINS. 

Dollar of Spain and America » 1 Dollar ••0 4 2 

English Crown (5b.) -• 1 

„ Half-Crown (28. 6d.) - 

,, Florin (28.) - 

„ Shilling — 

French Five Franc Piece « 1 

„ Two Franc Piece — 

., Franc a 

Dntoh 2i Golden Piece * 1 

it Gnilder « 



20C6ntavo8— 6 

60 „ -0 2 6 

48 ,, -0 2 

24 H -0 1 

-0 4 2 

40 „ .0 18 

20 .. -0 10 

-0 4 2 



•I 
1} 



40 „ -0 18 

COPPER COINS. 

The Centayo and the Half-Centavo, eqnal respectively to id. 
and |d. sterling, are the nominal copper coins, hnt all copper 
moneys of equal value are accepted, such as the French 
5 Centime Piece, the English Half -penny, and the American 
Cent. 



GUIANA. (British.) 

O^ion^ Sjfttematie tMm$, EnglUh Value. 

1 Cent - |d. 

100 Cents - 1 Dollar - 48. 2d. 

GOLD COINS. 

English Sovereigns and Half-Sovereignt at their fnll nominal 
value; Spanish, Mexican, and South American Doubloons, at 
the rote of 64s. sterling each, and United States Ea^lee, Half- 
Eaglet, Quarter-Eagles, and Gold Dollars at the respective rates 
of 41b , 208. 6d., lOs. 8d., and 4s. Id. sterling. 



100 HOKET. 

SILVER COINS. 

Tho silTer coins of Great Britain are in circnlation, as also 
Dollars of Spain, Mexico, and Sonth America. 

PreyiouB to the year 1889 accounts in British Guiana were 
k«pt in Guilders, Stivers, and Pfennings, 

BnglUh Value* 

16 Pfennings » 1 Stiver » |d. 

20 Stivers - 1 Guilder i- Is. l^d. 

The Current coins were tokens of rarions denominationB, 
from 3 Guilder Pieces downwards, coined at the British Mint ; 
of British silver coins at the rate of 14 Guilders for 20 shillinors 
Fterling, and of Mexican and South American Dollars. In 1889 
Dollars and Cents were estahlished as the legal moneys of 
account ; there were no rates fixed hy law for the Doubloon 
and the Dollar; but the old currency was converted into 
Dollars at the rate of 8 Guilders for a Dollar. The local 
government paper currency, consisting of Joe notes and 
Half-Jofi notes (the Joe being equal to 22 guilders), was 
at the same time rendered convertible into specie of the Dollar 
currency at the same rate of 3 Guilders for a Dollar. 

In order to meet the wants of the negroes and the labonring 
peasantry, who were in the habit of computing by Biits, that ia 
fractionad parts of the currency, the Dollar was declared equal 
to 12 i ISilts, the Shilling to 8 BitU, and Fonrpenny Piece to 
1 Bitt and the Twopenny Piece to Half-a-BitL 

BANK NOTES. 
There are notes (of the British Guiana Bank and of the 
Colonial Bank) for 5, 10, and 20 Dollars. These are payable 
in silver on demand. 

CAYENNE (or French Guiana^. 
Money, weights and measures, same as those of France. 

BUBINAM (or Dutch Guiana). 
Money same as the Netherlands. 

BRAZIL. 

Brazilian value. SyttemaHe name, Englith vt^lue, 

1 Rei » yj-d. 

1000 Beis » 1 Mihreis (1(000) « 2s. Od. 

The only denomination of money used in accounts is the Bei, 
with the same system of notation of thousands, miUiouB, and 
thousands of millions, as in Portugal. 



nsv. 101 

The oironlatinpt mediam ooasiits of an inoonyertible Paper 
oarrenoy, greatly depreciated, and of an irregnlar and debased 
copper coinage. 

PAPER MONET. 

The paper money oonsistB of Treasury Notes for a Milreit 
and upwards. When first issued this paper money was equal 
to specie in value, thus a 960 Rett NoU was equal in value to a 
8 Fatacon Pieee^ or Brazilian Silver Dollar (a Spanish Dollar 
restamped). Taking the Brazilian Dollar (960 Reis) at 4s. 2d. 
sterling, the original value of a paper Milreis (1000 Reis) at that 
rate was 48, 4^d. sterling. In like manner a note for 4000 
Reis was originally equal to a gold Moeda of 4000 Reis. 

Before the introduction of the paper currency, the ohwi 
media of payment were the gold Moeda of 4000 Reis, and the 
silver Dollar of 960 Reis. 

The value of the Moeda in the paper currency is about 
7800 Reis, and that of a Dollar about 1620 Reis. So that at 
that rate the value of a Milreis in the paper currency is about 
2s. 6d. sterling. 

COPPER COINS. 
The copper coins are pieces of 10, 20, and 40 Reis. 



PBBIT. 

Accounts are kept in Peiost or DoUartt and Centetimot^ as 
follows : — 

Ptfuvian vakM. By*t€inatU name* EfiglUh value. 

1 Oentesimo — A'o^* 

100 CentesimoB — 1 Dollar* «■ 8b. Id. 

The actual coined Dollar is, as in Spain, equal to the 19th part 
of a gold Doubloon ; but the Dollar of Account, also called tho 
Current Dollar, a denomination used in commercial reckonings 
is equal to -^ih part of a Doubloon, and is therefore 6i per 
cent, less valuable than the ooiuod Dollar. 

The coins hitherto current in Peru have been gold Doubloons 
and their subdivisions, and the depreciated Bubdivisions of the 
Bolivian Dollar. 

By the law of 2Qd October, 1857, it was ordered that the fol- 
lowing coins should be struck. 



* This value is taken from the quoted exchanges, and refers to the 
old aurrenoy of Bolivian DoUarM. 



1U2 




MONET. 








) 


GOLD COINS. 


Weight 
in grains. 


Finenttt. 


Sonne 


(20 Dollar Piece) 


669 


■f^\h% 


Half- Sonne 


(10 


tf a I 


284i 


II 


Doubloon 


( 6 


tt M ) 


142| 


II 


Crown 


( 2 


i» »i ) 


eev'^ 


II 


Half- Crown 


( 1 


ti If J 

SILVER COINS. 


28A 


II 


Dollar 


(100 Centesimos) 


476 


II 


Half-Dollar 


( 60 


»i J 


237i 


II 


Peseta 


( 20 


fi J 


95 


II 


Dinero 


( 10 


II ) 


474 


II 


Half-Dinero 


( 6 


** } 
COPPER COIN. 


231 


11 



1 Centesimo Piece. 

It 'has been recently announced that tbe Goyemment of 
Peru has made arrangements for introducing a new standard 
national coinage. All Bolivian coin will be sent out of the 
country or melted in Lima within two years (from 1864). 



CHILI. 

The denominations of money in which accounts are kept 
are Pfton current, and Centavott i.e.. Dollars current and Cents t 
as follows: — 

Chilian value. Byttematie navM. English ffnlue. 

1 CentaTO — /,d. 

100 Centayos b 1 Dollar or Peso current b 8s. 91. 

Tbe current coins of Chili since 1861 have been as follows :— 

GOLD COINS. 

The Condor - 10 DolUrs* - £1 17s. 6d. 

Doblon <- 6 Dollars ■> 18b. 9d. 

EKcudo •• 2 Dollars ■• 78. 6d. 

Tbe gold coinn are aU -^^tbA fine. Tbe Condor weighs 
16 253 grammes, the Doblon 7*626 grammes, and the Escudo 
3*051 grammes. 



* 100 Dollars In silvtr are reckoned equal to 107i Dollars in gold. 



■B 


8fl. 


9d. 


a 


l8. 


lOid. 


« 




9id. 


wm 




4|d. 


a. 




24d. 



BOLIVIA, 108 

SILVER COINS. 

The Dollar (weighing 25 gramm«fl] 

• Half'Dollar ( „ 12i „ 

Piece of 20 CentavoB ( „ 6 „ 

n it 10 n ( i» *9 »» 

M M O ,, ( ), 14 II / ^ 

The silver coins are also -As^^' ^^* 

COPPER COINS. 

The copper coins ore the Cent^vot worth ahont ^%d, sterling, 
and the Il/rff-CentavOt worth ahoat ^gd. sterling, or a id. and 
\d, respectively. 

The following foreign coins are also cnrrent at the under- 
mentioned rates : — 

Pillar Dollars at 8 per cent, premium. 
Other dollars at 7 1, ,. ,» 

Englinh Sovoreign at ahont 5^ Dollars. 
French 20 Frano Piece „ 4f „ 
American Eagle „ 11 ,, 

The old national Dollar of ('hili, Issued prior to 1851, was 
coined at the rate of 8^ Dollars to the Oastifian Mark ( » 8860| 
Troy grains) of silver of the flneness of 10| Dioeros. that is, 
10} parts pure out of 12. It weighed 417*7 Troy gi'aius, con- 
tainod 374*19 Troy grains of puro pilver, and was valued at 
4s. 2d. sterling. This was likewise the standard of the Spanish 
Dollar, and of the Dollars of all the South American Repahlics, 
except Columbia. 



BOLIVIA. 

Accounts are kept in Dollars and Centenoi as follows : — 

Bolivian value, Syttemaiic nam«. Sngliih valu€» 

1 Centena ■» I'nVd. 

100 Centenas » 1 Dollar « 8s. Id. 

COINS. 

The current coins are gold Doubloons and silver Dollars and 
their subdivisions. The Bolivian Silver Dollar, when of the 
fall weight of 4I7|f Troy grains, and of the flnonoss of 
10 dwts. 20 grains in 12 dwts. ?that is, ^ pure), is worth 4s. 2d. 
sterling, but for many years tne coins iBsaed from the Potosi 
Mint (with the exception of the Dollar) have all been 25 per 
cent, below the standard. This circumstance has reduced the 
exchange value of the Bolivian currency to about 8s. Id. 
sterling per Dollar. 



104 HONBT. 



ABGENTINE BEFUBLIC, or, LA PLATA. 

BUENOS ATBBS.* 

The denominations of money nsed in keeping aocoonts are 
PataconSf or Dollarti and Oentgsimos, as follows : — 

Buenot Ayre$ value. Byitematie name. BngUeh value. 

1 Oentesimo — |d. 

100 Centeslmos «- 1 Dollar or Patacon * 2s. Id. 

In the year 1867, the Baenos Ayres Goremment made the 
gold Donbloon, at the rate of 17 to the Patacon, the chief 
monetary nnit and divided the Dollar into 100 parts. Previoas 
to that time accounts were kept in Dollars^ ReaU^ and Quartos. 

The circnlatin^ medinm of Baenos Ayres consists principally 
of an inconvertible paper currency 100 Paper Dollars, Patacons 
being equal to 90 Silver Dollars ; but the value of the Paper 
Currency is constantly fluctuating, and for the present it 
would be impossible to resort to Specie payments or to au ex- 
clusive Specie Currency. The Paper Dollar had the same 
value as originally the Silver Dollar of South America, but it 
has become greatly depreciated, mainly through oveMuue. 
Its present value is about 2s. sterling. 

GOLD COINS. 

The gold coins, very few of which are in circulation, are 
Doubloont of Mexico, Peru, and Chili, at the rate of 16 silver 
Patacont or Dollars each ; the DoubU Eagle (20 Dollars), the 
Eagle (10 Dollars), the Half-Kagle (6 Dollars), the Quarter- 
Eagle (2^ Dollars), and the 3 Dollar Piece of the United States 
of North America, at par ; the British Sovereign^ at 4 Pataoons 



* The States of the Oonfederation were Buenos Ayres, Entre-Rios, 
Oorriente-*. Bants F6. nordova, Bantiago. Tacuman, salta, Catamaroa. 
Bioja, San Jaan, Ban LoIm, and Mendoza. Civil disputee led to a 
dlSBoIntioa of the Confederacy, and the country is now so many indepen- 
dent provinces, the leading one of which is Bnenos Ayres. Bnenos Ayres, 
from its maritime position, is the emporiam for the produce of the whole 
of La Plata, and also for Chili and Pern. The wealth and prosperity of 
Baenos Ayres have been rapidly increasing of late years, and no doubt 
if peace continue, the currency will be placed on a sounder footing. The 
honorable arrangement made by the Buenos Asrres Oovernment with 
British Bond holders has inspired commercial confidence, and British 
capital is finding its way into the province. Railways have been con* 
Btructed. A Bank with London Directors has been opened at Baenos 
Ayres, and an English Bank unier the protection of the Buenos Ayres 
Government is likely to be established at Cordova and Baenos Ayres. 
Bonds in the London Market are steadily increasing in price. 



UBUGUAT. 106 

90 Gents; the British Half- Sovereign, at 2 Pataoons, 45 Cents ; 
the French Napoleon^ at 8 Pataoons, 90 Cents, and the Chilian 
Condor, at 9 Pataoons, 20 Cents. 

The intrinsio valae of the Donhloon is about 64r., or perhaps 
648. 8d. sterling, and thns the value of the Dollar, dedaoed 
from that of the Doabloon, wonld be about 8s. lOd. sterling. 
In large meroantUe transactions gold is the most frequent 
medium of payment. 

SILVER COINS. 

The ifoUowing are the silTer coins which are occasionally met 
with in the circulation, but their amount is yery limited and 
they can hardly be considered a part of the legal currency. 
The Spanish Real, and 2 Real and 4 Real Piecee, 1. i, and i, 
Bolivian Dollar Piefiee, Peruvian and Chilian Do/lan, and the 
Pataeon or Silver Dollar of the Argentine Republic, but this 
latter has almost wholly dlRappeared from circulation. It was 
of the same weight and purity as the Spanish Hard Dollar. 

COPPER COINS. 

There are some copper coins in circulation which from being 
equal to |th of a Paper Dollar were called Reals, they are of 
the same value as the Centetimo^ viz., id sterling. 

PAPER MONET. 

The paper money in circulation consists of Notes of 5, 10, 
20, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 Dollars. 

The Paper Currency of Buenos Ayres is not admitted in any 
of the other states of the Argentine Confederation. The 
principal medium of circulation in those States is the Bolivian 
Dollar. Doubloons are also used, but are considered more as 
merchandize, being sold and bouf^ht for a variable number of 
Bolivian Dollars, generally from 18 to 19. This would give 
the nominal value of the Bolivian Dollar from 8b. 4|d. to 8s. 6|d. 
Some of the Provinces have also a depreciated Paper Currency. 



XTRUQITAY. (Montevideo.) 

Accounts are kept in Dollars^ ReaUt and Centimei, as in 
Spain. 

The currency consists of gold Doubloons, silver Dollars and 
their subdivisions. The Doubloon is rated at 64s. and the 
Dollar at 4s. 2d. sterling, but the exchanges are usually quoted 
ower. 



106 ICONBT. 



PABAOUAY. 

Aooonnts are kept in Dollars of 100 Centimeif and the cnr- 
rencj is the same as that of Bolivia. 



FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

The denomination! of money used in aooounta are Pounds^ 
ShillififjSf and Pence sterling, and the enxrency of the islands 
consists chiefly of British coins. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 

TIOTOBIA, SOUTH AVSTBALIA, WEST AUSTBALXA, TASUANIA 
(OB TAN DIXUEN'S LAKD). 

The moneys in which reckonings are made and acoonnts 
kept are the same as those of Great Britain. The currency 
consists almost wholly of British siWer coins and of Bank notetf" 
for £1 sterling and upwards. These notes are all payable in 
speoie on demand. 



NEW ZEALAND. 

Accounts are kept in Poundt^ ShilUnatt and Pence sterling, 
and the current coins are those of Great Britain. 



New Caledonia, the Botomah Islands^ Wallls 
Islands, Gambler's Island, the Marquesas, 
or Mandana Islands, 

The money is the same as that of France. 



THE SAl^BWICH ISLANDS. 107 



THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

The British denominations of Poundst ShilUngSt and Fencg 
sterling (see p. 6^ have been declared the official moneys of 
account for the wnole kingdom, but merchants almost always 
keep their accounts in Dollars and Cents, or Dollars and Heals, 
as follows : — 

Haiioaian vahie, Byitematie name, English value. 

100 Cents, or 8 Reals « 1 Dollar i- 4s. 2d. 

The currenpy consists of coins of other countries to which 
are assigned rates fixed by custom, and by the rates at which 
the Government receives them in payment of duties and taxes. 
These rates depend on the intrinsic value of the coins, and also 
on the extent of commercial intercourse with the countries to 
which the coins belong, and the proximity or distance of those 
countries. The following are the rates at which the undermen- 
tioned foreign coins are now current. 

GOLD COINS. 

Yaltie in sterlinff Value in 
Pounds, ShilgB., Pence. Dollars, Cente. 

Doubloon of Bolivia and Chili ..326 15 

Chilian Ten Pesos 1 13 4 8 

Eagle of the United States of North 

America 2 1 8 10 

Brazil, 20,600 Beis 2 18 10 

Sovereign of England,and Australia . 19 9i 4 75 

Half- Sovereign „ 9 lOf 2 37i 

Ten Thaler Piece of Denmark .. 1 11 3 7 50 

Twenty-five Francs of Belgium . . 19 2 4 60 

Twenty Franc Piece of France . . 16 8 4 

Ten „ „ „ ..084 20 

Five „ „ n ..042 1 50 

Central America, Two Escudos . . 14 7 3 

South American Gold Dollar . . 3 1^ 75 

California Twenty Dollars .... 4 1 3 19 60 

„ Ten Dollars 119 7 9 50 

„ Five Dollars 18 9 4 50' 

As the gold coinage of the United States of North America 
is the chief standard of value, and almost all other coins are 
estimated relatively thereto at a depreciated value for circu- 
lating purposes, the consequence is that other coins are kept 
out of the circulation, or driven from it. 



108 MONET. 

SILVER COINS. 

Value In iterlin? Value in 
Founds, Bbilgfl., Fence. DoUara, Centa 

Five Frano Piece of France .... 4 2 1 

Dollar of Columbia (Macuqnina) ..026 60 
Half-DoUar of BoHvia, ChiU and 

Peru 1 6f 37i 

Quarter Dollar of Bolivia and Chili 6^ 12i 

SUver Buble of Bnssia 8 Ik 75 

Thaler of North Germany .... 2 7i 62i 

Rupee of India 1 6} 87^ 

Half-Crown of England 2 7} 56| 

Shilling 1 0| 25 

Sixpence „ 6^ U 6i 

The French 5 Franc Piece being bo convenient in the absence 
of any American silver Dollar subtains a relatively high current 
value. It passes for a Dollar, and is the common silver coin. 

COPPER COIN. 
Cent of the United States of North America « id. 



THE MABIAN ISLANDS. AND TINIAN. 

The money is the same as that of Spain. 



AVEBAOE COITBSE OF BXCHANOB 

Fos THB Teabb 1864^1872. 



109 



LONDON reoeiTei from or glvei to— 






Amsterdam 


Short .. 11 Qalden 


17 cents 


For Ml Sterling. 


Amsterdam 


8 months. . 11 Golden 


79 cents 


It » II 


Rotterdam 


H ..11 Onldea 


88 cents 


n It It 


Antwerp 


n ..85 Francs 


48 centimes 


M » II 


Bmssels 


„ ..86 Francs 


49 centimes 


» It It 


Hamburg 


Short .. 18 Marks 


8 schlllinge 


•• i> n 


Hamburg 


8 months. . 18 Marks 


10 schlllinge 


ti II li 


Paris 


Short .. 86 France 


81 centimes 


>l H 11 


Paris 


8 months.. 86 Francs 


60 centimes 


II II »• 


ManeUIes 


1, ..86 Francs 


60 centimes 


n » II 


Franklort-on-Main „ .. 180^ Florins 




1. *io „ 


"Vienna .. 


„ . . 18 Florins 


19 cents 


» *1 .. 


Trieste .. 


t, ..18 Florins 


81 cents 


•1 H 11 


St. Petersburg.. 


,f . . 80d. sterling 




For 1 Ruble. 


Oopenbagen . . 


„ . . 9 Rigsdalert 17 skOUng . . 


For £1 Sterling 


Berlin . . 


„ ..6 Thalers 


87 groschen 


II M II 


Leipslo .. 


„ ..6 Thalers 


87 groschen 


i« II n 


Madrid .. 


„ . . 48d. sterling 




., 1 Dollar. 


Cadla 


ft . . 48d. sterling 




It II 


Barcelona 


„ . . 49d. sterling 




t» If 


Malaga . . 


„ . . 48d. sterling 




II II 


Bantander 


„ . . 48d. sterling 




II •• 


Legbom . . 


„ ..86 Lire 


86 cents 


„ £1 Sterling. 


Milan 


„ ..86 Lire 


86 cents 


II II It 


Oenoa 


„ ..86 Lire 


86 cents 


II 11 II 


Venice . . 


,, ..86 Lire 


86 cents 


II II II 


Naples 


„ ..86 Lire 


86 cents 


M II II 


Palermo . . 


„ ..26 Lire 


99 cents 


II 11 l> 


Messina . . 


„ ..86 Lire 


89 cents 


•1 11 11 


Oporto . . 


90 days . . 6ad. sterling 




»i IMUreis. 


liisbon . . 


„ .. Slid. „ 




•• II 


New York 


60 days .. 109^* „ 


Per cent. Sterling. 


Bombay 


.. 88id. „ 


« 


,1 1 Rupee. 


Calcutta 


. 88|d. .. 




II II 


Canton .. 


48. 6d. „ 




„ 1 Dollar. 


Shanghai 


Cb. Id. „ 




II i» 


Hong Kodg . . 


4s. 6d. ., * 




II II 


Buenos Ayres .. 


49d. „ 




II 11 


Rio Janeiro 


. . 81d. ,» 




„ IMUreis. 


Babia 


.. 88id. ., 


A 


II II 


Montevideo 


61d. II 




„ 1 Dollar. 


Pemambnoo . . 


.. 88d. ,. 




M IMUreis. 


SonUago (OblU) 


.. 44d. 1, 




M 1 Dollar. 


Lima 90 days .. ^ 87d. „ 




II » 



* The exchange for '* Qreenbaoks " (or paper currency) was exceptionally Ugh 
dnr1n<{ the Civil War (1861--6). In 1864 the average was 808| ; in 1866 it was 168 : 
in 1866 it was 146) ; in 1867 it was 109 ji. The average price of gold In the year 
1871 was 111}. ^ 



110 



PAET II. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



GBEAT BBITAIN AND IBELAND. 



The yard id the Btandard meagnre of leogtb ; when compared 
with a pendulnm vibrating seconds of mean time, in the 
latitude of London, in a vacnnm at the level of the sea, it is in 
the proportion of 80 inches to 89*1898 inches. 



Kngliih value, 

12 Lines •* 
12 Inches — 
8 Feet - 

6i Yards' - 

4 Poles, or \ 
100 Links j 



Syitematlc name, 

1 Inch » 

1 Foot - 

1 Yard 

1 Pole, Rod, or Perch — 
1 Chain 



40 Perches, or \ , iji„^v.„- 

10 Chains 1 ^ ^"^^"» 

8 Furlongs, or \ - ^,. 

1760 Yards J ^ ^^^ 



8 Miles 



» 1 League 



Equivalent value, 

in the Metric Hyetem 

CentimeirM. 

2*5899 
80*4794 
91*4888 

Metref. 

6*02911 
20*11643 

201*16486 

Kilrmieiret. 

1*610981492 



4882794476 



The Inch is also divided into feurihs and eighthtt and some- 
times into tenths. 



A perch in Burleigh or Woodland measure ") 

is 6 yards j 

Cunuingh^m 6^ 
Irish 7 

Forest < 8 






t> 



it 


»» 


tt 


It 


tt 


It 



UetrM. 

6-486298 

5*714894 
6-400681 
7-8160C4 



OBEAT BBITAnr A.VD IBELA.VD. Ill 

The Irieh mUe of 820 perches or 2340 yards • 20-i8 kilo- 
metres, and 6 1 Irish miles — 7 English miles, or 11 Irish » 14 
English miles. 

To reduce Irish miles to English miles multiply by 14 and 
divide by 11. 

To reduce English miles to Irish miles multiply by 11 and 
divide by 14. 

A Palm is 8 ioohes, a hand is 4, a span 9, a cubit IB, and a 
sacred cubit 22 inches. A Military Pace is 2| feut. A 
Geometrical or Itinerary pace is 5 feet, it is the space from* 
** the elevation of one foot to the same foot set down again, 
mediated by a step of the other foot " ; 1000 of such paces were 
reckoned to a mile. A fathom is 6 feet. A Cablets length is 12U 
fathoms. A degree of the Equator is 691618 miles, and a 
degree of the Meridian is 69*046 miles or 864565 feet. 

CLOTH MEA8UBB8. Oentlmetres. 

2i Inches - 1 NaU - 5^V 

4 Nails - 1 Quarter - 22^ 

4 Quarters - 1 Yard - 914 

5 Quarters « Ir EU « 114^ 

A Flemish Ell is 8 and a French Ell was 6 Quarters. 
IMPERIAL MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Equivalent poIus 
BnglUh valtM 8}f$t«matie name, in the Metric SyeUm, 

144 Sq. Inches - 1 Bq. Foot - .000929 

Sqaafe Metres. 
9 Sq. Feet « 1 Sq. Yard - 008S61 or .836097 

49 Bq.Ya.. ( -(J„][J:^:^„V }- •*09687or4O-968753 

( 4840 Sq. Yds. ) Heotaree. 

4 Roods- 10 Sq. Chains or • -1 Acre -40*467102 or '404671 
^100,000 Sq. Links ^ 

100 Acres make 1 Hide of Land -4046*7102 or 40*467102 

640 H M 1 Square Mile 



* Holder 



112 



WIIOHTS AKD MIA8T7BE0. 



MEASUBES OF OUBIO 

EnglUk valut, BjnUmatie name 



OAFAaTY. 

Equivalent value- 
in t\e Metrie Syttem, 



1728 Cnbio Inchei 
27 Cubic Feet 
40 Cubic Feet] 
rongb timber j 
42 Cnbio Feet 
60 Cubic Feet] 
hewn timber) 
*108 Cubic Feet 
1128 Cubic Feet 



1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 



Cubic Foot 
Cubic Yard 



Onbio MetrM. 

- -028815 

- -764518 



Load - 1182600 

Ton of Shipping » 1-189280 

Load - 1-415750 

Btaok of Wood « 8 '058020 
Cord of Fire-wood -8 '624820 



A Cnbio Yard is sometimes called a Load (cart load) of 
earth. A Ton of Shipping is a weight as well aa a measure. 



LIQUID MEASURES. 
Enfflith value, Byetematie name. 

8-665 Cubic Inches - 1 Gill « 



4 OiUs 
2 Pints 
4 Quarts 



- 1 Pint: 

- 1 Quart 
« 1 Gallon 



Equivalent value 
in (he Metrie Syttem, 
MlllllltrM. Lltm. 

141-984 or -14198 
667-986 M -567986 
118587 
4-548487 



By the Act 5th Geo. lY. the unit and only Standard measure 
of capacity as well for all sorts of liquids as for dry goods not 
measured by heaped measure is the Imperial Gallon eontaining 
10 pounds Avoirdupois weight of distilled water, weighed in 
air at the temperature of 62 degrees of Fabrenheit*B thermo- 
meter, the barometer being at 80 inches. The gallon ImperiAl 
contains 277*27884 cubic inches. 

MEASURES FOR DRY GOODS (STRUCK MEASURE). 



Bngliih value, 

2 Pints 

4 Quarts 

2 Gallons 

4 Pecks (8GallonB) 

8 Bnshels 



Syitematie Name 



1 
1 
1 
1 



Quart 
Gallon 
Peck 
Bushel 



■i 1 Quarter 



. EfuivaUni va^ue 

in the Metrie SyeUm* 
Litre*. 

« 11858 

» 4*548487 

« 8-086974 

- 86*847896 

Uacto TJt 

. 2*90788168 



■*T 



It 



* A Staek of wood if 8 F««t broad, S Foot deep, and IS Feet long, 
ii ilto oaltod a Fnnoh oord. 

f A Oord of wood is 4 Feet broad, 4 Feet deep, 8 Feet long, and 
wei^lOCwt 

At tlie Rojal Arienal Woolwich, the terms Oord and Staek are used 
IndiieriiDiiiately to denote 106 Onbic Feet of wood. 

X An Imperial Pint of distilled water weighed in raeno, at its greatest 
deasitj, is eqoal to 8750 Grains Tro7, or 20 Onnoet AToirdupois. 



SBBAT BBITAUr USTO IVKLkTSTD.. 



118 



A. basherof wheat weighs on ui ayerage 


67 to 60 Ibt. 


»i ' rye „ 




66 lbs. 


„ barley „ 




47 to 49 lbs. 


., oats H 




88 to 40 lbs. 


ft malt „ 




40 lbs. 


fi bere „ 




42 lbs. 



STANDARD FOR H£APED XBASURI. 

The standard measure of capacity for ooals, onlm, lime, flsh, 
potatoes, fruit and all other soods and things commonly sold by 
heaped measure is the bushel containing 80 pounds Ayoirdnpois 
of water, the same being made round with a plain and even 
bottom, and being 19 i inches from outside to outside of such 
standard measure. — In making use of such bushel all coals and 
other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure shall 
be duly heaped in snob bushel in the form of a cone, such oona 
being of the height of at least 6 inches, and the'outsida of the 
bushel to be the extremity of the base of such cona ; threa 
bushels make 1 sack— 1*09042992 French hectolitres and 12 
sacks make one chaldron— 18*08615904. 



OAPAOZTY AND NAMB8 OF BEER AND ALB CASKS. 



9 Gallons* 

a FirkluB or 18 0«Uoa8 
S Kilderkins, or 86 „ 
8 KlldarkiuB, or 54 „ 
8 Hogsheads, or 106 „ 



1 Firkin of Beer 
1 KUderkin 
1 Barrel of Beer 
1 Hogshead of Beer 
1 Baft 



- «0*89n9 Utres. 
: ttl'789944 „ 
:ie3-664488 ,. 
S«ft-846789 „ 
•400*688464 M 



OAPAOZTY AND NAMES OF WINE OASK«k 



49 Gallons - 

68 Gallons, or U Tieree - 

84 Gallons, or 9 Tieroes \ -. 

orlii Hogshead / 

8 Tieroes, or 9 Hhds. -- 

8 Pipes 



< 1 Tieroe 
1 Hogshead of wine 

1 Panoheon 

1 Pipe 
1 Ton 



mm 100-896986,, 

=r tittO-9878M„ 

= 3II1*660479k 

z= ft»«*475708 „ 
—1144*961416 w 



I 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 



MI80BLLANB0US TABLE OF LIQT7ID MEASURES. 



Hogshead of Olaret . 46 galls. 
Butt of Shenj . . 110 „ 
Pipe of Port .... 115 „ 
Pipe of Madeira . . 09 „ 
Pipe of TeneriffiB . . 100 , 
Pipe of Lisbon ... 117 ,. 
Pipo of Malaga ... 105 
Hogtihead of Hook, 

Khein, and Moselle 80 
Hogahead of Gape . 99 
Hogshead of Texftt . 69 



•I 



It 
II 



Hhd. of Marsalas Bronte 96 galls. 
Pun. of S. Whisky 119 to 190 „ 
Pun. of Brandy . 100 to XlO „ 
Hhd. of Brandy . 46 to 60 
Oask of Brandy 90 to 96 
Pipe of Older . 100 to 118 
Piece of Qoneva, about 116 
Pun. of Rum . 90 to 100 
Hhd. of Hum . 45 to 60 
Ton of Wine .... 959 



i> 

u 

•t 
It 
11 
II 
II 



* Five Imperial Gallons are nearly eqoal to six Gallons of the old 
system used In the vine trade. 



114 WEIGHTS kVD MBASTTBSS. 

VL-MEDICAL BUB-DIVISIONS OF THE IMPERIAL PINT. 

Equivalent value 
BnglUh value, Syetematie name. in the Metric 8yeUm, 

Mimiitres. 
Minim (ni.) - •069159009S7 

60 Minim* -1 Fluid Drachm (f.3)- 3-5496765626 

8 flnid Drachms -1 Fluid Ounce (f.^.)-- 28*89661251 

Litre*. 

20 Floid Onncei -1 Imperial Pint (0*) « -567936 
8 Pint! -1 Gallon - 4*643487 

VII.— WBiaHTS. 

▲YOIBDUPOIft WEIOHTB. 

Equivalent value, 
Englieh value, Systematie name. in the Metric Syttem. 

Oramaiei. 

1 Grain - '0648 

2744 Troy Grains - 1 Dram (dr.) - 1-7718476 

16 Drams ' • 1 Oonoe (oz.) - 28'3495626 

" ^Z ^g3 1 - 1 f o*^ ab.) - 468-6926 

Kiloffrunmef. 

14 Pounds « 1 Stone • 6.360302 

28 Pounds « 1 Quarter (qr.) » 12*700604 

^ 112^8? ^^^] ■ ^ Hundredweight(owt.)-. 60*802416 
20 Hundredweight » 1 Ton » 1016*04882 

The unit and only standard of weight is the Imperial Troy 
pound, one twelfth of the said Troy pound is an ounce and one 
twentieth part of. such ounce is a penny weight, and one 
twenty -fourth part of such pennyweight is a grain ; so that five 
thousand seven hundred and sixty such grains are a Troy 
pound, and seven thousand such grains are a pound Avoirdupois ; 
one sixteenth part of the pound avoirdupois is an ounce, and 
one sixteenth part of such ounce is a dram. 

The standard Troy pound if lost might he restored by 
reference to the weight of a cubic inch of distilled water, which 
weighed in air by brass weights, at the temperature of 62 degrees 
of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the barometer being at 30 inches, 
is equal to 252*458 grains, while the standard Troy pound 
contains 6,760 of such grains. 

WXIOHTB IN TBB WOOL TBADB. 



7 Pounds 


^^ 


1 Olove 


14 Pntinds 


*"^ 


1 8tone 


9 Stone 


= 


1 Todd 



6i Tods 


— 


1 Wey 


a Weys 


zzz 


1 Back 


13 Sacks 


— 


1 Las# 



In the reign of Edward III. (A.D. 1827- 1877) a Sack of Wool contained 
26 Stone, as now. 



OBSAT BBITAIN AND XBKLAKD. 



115 



MISGELLANEOUB WEIOHTB, MBA8URBS, AND NUMJBBRIOAL 

QUANTITIBS. 



Bag of Hopi . . S4 owt 

Bag of H»mbarg K«g8 . . Sj owt 
BaffoffUoe ..108 lbs. 

Bale of Meditemaean 

Rags .. U to 6 owt. 

Bale of Featheri . . about 1 cwt. 

Ball or Boll of Scotch Oat- 

meal . 140 lbs. 

Barrel of American Flotxjr . .106 lbs. 
Barrel of Boap . .966 Ibe. 

Barrel (In Ireland for 

VlTheat. Peas, Beans 

and Rye) 
Barrel (Barley, Beer, Rap« 

Seed) 
Barrel of Goal Tar, or 

Stockholm Tar 
Barrel of Lime (Ireland) 
Barrel of Oata 
Barrel of Gunpowder 
Barrel of &Ialt 
Barrel of Anohoviei 
Baudle of Iron 
Bundle of Iron Wire up to 

80 «uftge 
Bundle of Iron Wire above 



90 stone 
16 stone 

86 gallons 
. . 88 gallons 
. . 14 atone 
..100 lbs. 
.. 18 stone 
.. 80 lbs. 

66 lbs. 

68 lbs. 



80 guage 
Bushel of Flour 
Gaak of Blaoklead 
Gask of Bristles 
Cloye of Wool 
Clove of Gheese 
Dosen 



60 lbs. 
66 lbs.* 
abt. Hi lbs. 
10 owt. 

7 lbs. 

8 lbs. 

18 articles 



Great Hundred of Timber . .120 duals 



Faggot of Stoel 
Firkin of Bnttor 
Firkin of Raiains 
Firkin of Soap 
Fother of Lead 
Gr«i88 (a) 

Hundred feet of Timber 
Hogshead of Tobi^ooo 



Last of Gunpowder 
Last of Flour or Feathers 
Last of Herrings 

Load of Straw 



{ 



II 



„ New Hay 



II 

II 
It 



..120 lbs. 
.. 6611)8. 

.. iiaibs. 

.. 041bii. 
. . 19^ owt. 
. . 144 articles 
..IsiOdpalB 
.. 18 to 18 cwt. 



„ Old Hay 

of Bricks 
of Tiles 

of Potatoes (at Don 
caster) 
Paok of Wool 
Peck of Salt 
Pig Ballast 
Pocket of Hops 
Quarter of Timber 
Quintal 

Roll of Parchment 
Sack of Flour 
Score 

Seam of Glass 
Stone of Batcher's meat 
Gheese 
Fish 
Glass 
Hemp 
Iron 

Iron wire up to 
90 guage 
„ ., Iron wire aboye 



..9400 lbs. 
.. 17 owt. 
.. 10000 
.. 11 cwt., Sqrs. 
81bs...l306Ibs. 
. . 86 trusses of 
601bs...81601bs. 
. .86 trusses of 
661b8...a0161bs. 
.. 600 
..1000 



•I 

M 
II 
M 
II 
II 



II 
II 
It 
It 
II 



90 guage 
„ (, Wool sold 

growers 
., „ Wool sold 

Woolstaplers to 

other 
Truss of Straw 

„ I, Old Hay 

„ „ New Hay 



by 
each 



..9401b8. 
.. 14 lbs. 
. . 66 lbs. 
. . lA to 9 owt. 
.. 80 deals 
..100 lbs. 
.. 60 skins. 
..983 lbs. 
.. 80 articles 
..180 lbs. 
. . 8 lbs. 
.. 16 lbs. 
.. 8 lbs. 
. . 6 lbs. 
.. 88 lbs. 
14 lbs. 

10} lbs. 

10 lbs. 

14 lbs. 



18 lbs. 
86 lbs. 
66 lbs. 
60 lbs. 



EngUth valu«. 



24 Grfiins « 

20 Peunyweightfl « 
12 Onnoes — 



(b) TROT WEIOHT. 
ByittnMtic name, 
1 Grain (gr.) 

1 Pennyweight (dwt.) — 
1 Ounce or Oarat (oz.) » 
1 Pound (lb.) - 



Equivalent value, 
in tke Metrie tyetem, 
UtUifframmet. 

-. 64-799 

OrammM. 

1-555176 

81*10852 

278-24224 



Diamonds and other preoiouB stones are weighed by carats, 
each oarat being divided into halves, quarters, eighths^ and 
sixteenths. The ounce Troy weighs 151 1 diamond carats, so 



116 



WEIGHTS AND MEA8TTBES. 



that the diamond carat is equal to 3^ Troy grains, or 205 4 
French decigrammes. 

Pearls are weighed by the Troy standard, bnt the Penny- 
weight is divided into 30 grains instead of 24 ; and hence the 
Pearl ounce contains 600 Pearl grains, and 4 Troy grains are 
equal to 5 Pearl grains. 

Jpothecaries* Weight. 
The revised weights and measures of the British Pharma- 
copoea are the Grain, the Ounce, and the Pound, as follows : — 

Millif^ammes. 

1 Grain (gr.) - 64- 799 

Orammea. 

437^ Grains « 1 Ounce (oz.) « 38 -34956 

16 Ounces « 1 Pound (lb.) » 463*593 

The Apothecaries' Weights superseded by the aboye are as 
follows : — 

Old Jpothecariei Weight, 

( 



20 Grains 

3 Scruples 
8 Drachms 
12 Ounces 



. - 1 Scruple (3) = 

«■ 1 Drachm (3) ■« 
« 1 Ounce (5) « 
« 1 Pound <- 

TABLE OF THE SIZES OF BOOKS 



MlUifirmninea. 

1286-98 or 

Grammet. 

1-29598 

3-88794 

31-10352 

373*24224 



Folio Books . 
Qaaiio, or 4to 
Octavo, or 8vo 



paf^s. leaves, sheet. 
. 4 or 2 make 1 
.8.4. 1 
. 16 . 8 . 1 



pafpes. leaves, sheet. 
Duodecimo, or 12 mo 24 or 12 mk. 1 
Octodecimo, or 18 mo 86 or 18 . 1 
24mo, 82mo, 48mo, 7^mo, &c., &c. 

TABLE OF THE QUANTITIES OF PAPER. 

21 i quires 1 Printer's ream 

2 reams 1 bundle 

10 reams 1 bale 



24 sheets of paper . 1 quire 
20 sheets . 1 quire ontsides 

25 sheets . 1 Printer's quire 
20 quires . 1 ream 



Bizet of Paper, 



Pot . . 
Foolscap . 
Litlria . 
Post . . 
Large Post 
Demy . . 



ia| by Va\ inches 
by 16| Inches 



18 
18 
15 
16 
18 



by 17| inches 
by 18 inches 
by 20^ inches 
by 22 inches 



Medium . . 
Royal . . . 
Super royal . 
Imperials . . 
Double crown 
Dbl, foolscap 



by 23) inches 
by 24 inches 



Size» of Drawing Paper, 



Wove Antique . 25 by 27 inches 
Double Elephant 40 by 26 inches 
Atlas .... 83 by 26 inches 
Culumbier . . 84 by 28 inches 
Elephant . . 27 by 28 inches 



Imperial . 
Super Royal 
Royal . . 
Medium. . 
Demy . . 



by 27 

by 29; 

by 80 

16i by 26i 



81 by 21 
27 by 19 
24 by 19 
22 by 17 
20 by 16 



inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 

inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 
inches 



90 words in Chancery, 80 in Exchequer, and 71 in Common law, are 1 
folio. 
Quills are sold by weight, called loths—a loth Is about half an ounce. 



GBEAT BRITAnr AHD HtSLAKD. 117 

THE QUABTER DATS. 

Lady Day . . 25th Maroh 

MidBommer Day . . 24th Jane 

Michaelmas Day . . 29th September 

Christmas Day . . 26th December 

DIVISIONS OF THE CIRCLE. 

60 seconds » 1 minnte 

60 minates ^ 1 degree 

80 degrees « 1 sign 

90 degrees « 1 quadrant 

860 degrees, or 12 signs » 1 oironmferenoe 

MEASURES OF TIME. 

second (b.) 

60 seconds ■■ 1 minnte (m.) 

60 minntes ■■ 1 hoar (h.) 

24 hoars m, 1 day (d.) 

7 days » 1 week (w.) 

4 weeks » 1 ciyil month 

866 days, or 52 weeks . , — 1 oiTil year (yr.) 
866 days — 1 leap year. 

THE CALENDAR. 

A mean solar day is the average intenral between two 
snooessiTe transits of the meridian of any place past the 
centre of the son's disc. A solar year contains 366'212218 
mean solar days, or 865 days, 5 hoars, 48 minates, 48 
seconds. The civil, or common year, contains 865 days, 
and is, therefore, shorter by 5 hoars, 48 minates, 48 seconds, 
than the true year. This error, if not corrected, wonld lead to 
a confasion in the retam of the seasons, cansing sommer to 
fall sometimes in Joly, and sometimes in December. Jnlius 
Ciesar, peroeiYing this, ordered that eyeiy fourth Tear shoold 
contain 866 days. The extra day is added to Febrnary, and 
the year in which it occurs is called ** Leap-year." The Julian 
connection was too great by *007782 of a day. This error 
amounted in 1200 years to 8 '8384 days, and in 400 years to 
8*1128 days, hence the Vernal Equinox which had fallen on the 
21st Maroh, in the year A.D. 825, fell on the 11th Maroh, in 
the year A.D., 1582. At the council of Nice in 1582, Pope 
Gr^ory XIII., to rectify this error, ordered that 11 days 
should be omitted in that year. Causing the day succeeding 
the 41h October to be denominated the 14th so that in A.D. 
1583, the Equinoxes and Solstice happened on the same nom- 
inal days on- which they fell in the year A.D. 825. To preveut 



118 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

the recurrence of the error he ordered farther that every 
fourth year shonld contain ^66 days, but that in every cycle of 
400 years, the 100th, 200th, and 300 years should contain 
only 365 days ; and that every 400tfa year shonld contain 366 
days. Hence the Gregorian correction of the Julian Calendar, 
which is a deduction of three days from every 400 years, may 
be briefly stated as follows : — 

Every /our/A year is leap year, except in exact centuries, the 
first 3 of which are common years, and fourth is a leaj^ year. 
To find the average length of the Gregorian year, multiply 365 4, 
the average number of days in the Julian year, by 400. Sub- 
tract 3 from the product and divide the remainder by 400. 
Thus 365 i X 400 « 146100 and 146100-3 « 146097 and 
146097+400= 365^^'5«365-2425 days. 

The average year of the Gregorian Calendar, namely 
865*2425 days, or 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds, 
is greater than the true year by '000282 of a day, or 24*3648 
seconds, but this error amounts only to a day in 4000 years. 
It was not till the year 1752 that the Gregorian Calendar, or 
new styUi as it is called, (to distinguish it from the JaUan 
Calendar or old ttyle^ (still retained in Kussia) was introduced 
into Great Britian. In that year, the then Secretary of State, 
Lord Chesterfield, assisted by two able mathematicians. Lord 
Macclesfield and Mr. Bradley, prepared a BUI for reforming 
the Calendar. This Bill enacted that the new year should 
begin on the Int of January, instead of the 25th March, and 
that 11 days, intermediate between the 2nd and 14th of Sep- ' 
tember, 1752, should be omitted. 

In works of that period, and prior to it, a double date is 
often met with for the months of January, February, March, 
up to the 24th March ; as for instance the '* 15th February, 
1754 — 5." In such cases the former date indicates the year 
according to the old styles and the latter year according to the 
new style. 

Rule to find Leap-year. 

When the figures denoting the year, or in exact centuries 
when .the figures denoting the. hundreds in the date, can be 
evenljjT divided by 4, the year is leap-year ; when there is a 
remamder, it denotes the number of years that have elapsed 
since leap year. Thus, 1860 is divisible by 4 without re- 
mainder, it was therefore leap-year ; but 1863, on division by 4, 
gives a remainder of 3, thus showing that the year 1863 is the 
third after leap year. Again, 1600 and 2000 complete each an 
exact century, and the numbers 16 and 20, which denote the 
hundreds in the dates are each divisible by 4, hence the years 
1600 and 2000 are leap years ; but in 1700, 1800, and, 1900, 
the number 17, 18, and 19 are not so divisible, and therefore 
the years are not leap years. 



9BAKCS. 119 

THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

VIZ., 
aUERNSET, JERSBT, ALDBRNET, AMD SARK. 

The weights and measures are the same as those of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

FRANCE. 

The Metric system of weights and measures is now very 
generally used in many conntries throughout the world. France 
took the initiative in introducing this system into Europe. Tho 
fundamental basis of the Metric system is a quadrant of the 
meridian, that is, the distance from the Equator to the 
north pole. This quadrant is divided into ten millions of 
equal parts, and one of these parts is called a metre. The 
metre is the fundamental unit of measures of length as well 
as of all weights and measures, and from it, by decimal multi- 
plication and division, all other measures are derived. 

Delambre and Mechaiu calculated, from measuring an arc of 
the meridian between Dunkirk and Barcelona, the lengUi of 
the quadrant of a meridian from the Equator to the Pole. 

The ten millionth part of that meridian is the unit of length, 
and is called a Metre, It is equal to 89*87079 English inches. 

The square of 10 Metres (in other words, a square Deca- 
metre,) is the uuit of surface measure, and is called an Are. It 
is equal to 8*995 English perches. 

The cube of the tenth part of the Metre, that is, a cubic 
Decimetre, is the unit of measures of capacity, and is called a 
Litre, It is equ^ to 1*7607 Imperial British pints. 

The cube of a Metre is the unit of solid measure, and is 
called a Sfere, It is equal to 8*5817 English cubic feet. 

The unit of weight is the Gramme, it is the weight in vacuo 
of a quantity of distilled* water, at its greatest density (viz., at 

* Distilled wator is taken at its greatest density and weighed in vacuo 
tor the following reasons :— Between oertain temperatures the same 
yolame of water differs in weight at different degrees of heat. If a por- 
tion of water at the temperature of meltinff ice (82o Fahrenheit, or Oo 
Centigrade) be placed over a source of heat, its buU(, or volume, will be 
observed to decrease, and therefore its denaUff increcuee. This decrease 
of volame, or increase of density, continues until the water reaches the 
temperature of 89*2o F., or 4o 0. If the heat be applied beyond this 
point the water begins to increase in volume and decrease in density 
Water is therefore at its greatest density at the temperature of 89'2o F., 
or 40 0. Ordinazy water always contains, either in solution or suspen- 
sion, a quantity of saline and other substances, and the same volume, or 
bulk, of different specimens of water will vary in weight according to 
the quantity of foreign bodies contained in it. 

The weight of the same sise, or bulk, of any substance is greater, or 
less, according as the density of the atmosphere (whloh Is constantly 



120 



WEIGHTS AKB HXASUBE8. 



89'2* Far.f), wheih would be Btiffloient to flU a cnbe described 
upon |be ont hundredth part of a Metre. In other words, it is 
the weight of a cabio Clentimetre of distilled water at a tem- 
perature of 89*20 F. It is equal to 15*78244 Troy grains. 

The prefixes denoting multiples are deriyed from Greek, and 
those denoting divisions from Latin, thus : — Deoa, 10 times ; 
Hecto, loo times; Kilo, 1.000 times; Myrio, 10,000 times; 
Deoi, i^th part ; Centi, -riv^^ 1^^ > Milli, ttAfv^^ P^* 



MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 

French value. SyitematU name. 

1 Millimetre 
1 Centimetre 
1 Deoimetre 



Thousandth part of Metre ^ 
Hundredth part of Metre » 
Tenth part of a Metre a 

Ten millionth part of dis-) t tlt * 
tance from Pole to Equator/ * «Le%re 




En^Ueh value, 
InehM. 
•08987079 

•^987079 
8-987079 
39*87079 or 



10 Metres 

100 Metres 

1000 Metres 

10,000 Metres ^of a \ 
degree decimal j 
League of 4 kilometres 
League of 25 to a degree 
League nautical of 20 to I 

a degree | 

Mile, nautical of 60 to I 

a degree i 



■i 1 Decametre 

m 1 Hectometre 

M 1 Kilometre 

M 1 Mjriametre 

>■ 4000 metres 

- 4444 „ 

« 5556 



- 1852 



ft 



It 



Ft. In. 

8-87079 

Tard*. 

10*98688 
109*8638 
1098*638 

Mllcf. 

6*2188 or 

MnM.Tdf. Ft^fn. 

6 876 OU-9 
» 2 854i 
» 2 1840 

- 8 796i 

- 1 265^ 



X 

{ 



Tsning) if 1«M or greater »t different timef . The greater the bnoyanej 
of the air, the leea will appear the weight of each body, and vice verea. 

Therefore, to render the weight of water aeleoted as the nnit of weight 
free from variations arising from its impregnation with various salts, 
from difference of temperature, or from differenees in the density of the 
air, distilled water at its greatest density is weighed in vacuo. 

f There are three different sorts of Thermometers in use:— 1. Fahren- 
heit's which is nsed chiefly in Great Britain, Holland, and North 
America, the freezing point on which is at 82o, and boiling point at 
2120. 8. Beanmnr's, which was that chiefly nsed in France before the 
Bevolntion, and Is that now generally nsed in Spain, and In some other 
Continental States; its freezing point is Oo, and boiling point 8o. 8. The 
Celsius, or Centigrade Thermometer, now almost universally nsed 
throughout France and in the Northern and Middle Kingdoms of 
Europe; the Zero or freezing point is Qo, and boiling point 100 ». Hence 
to reduce degrees of temperature of the Centigrade Thermometer, and 
of that of Reaumur to degrees of Fahrenheit's scale, and conversely :~ 
BulA 1. Multiply the Centigrade df>grees by 9, and divide the product by 
6, or multiplv the degrees of Reaumur by 9, and divide the product by 4: 
then add 82 to the quotient in either case, and the sum is the degree of 
temperature on Fahrenheit's seal*. Ruub 2. From the'nnmber of de* 

Sreott on Fulireitheit's scale, substract 80, multiply the remainder by 5 for 
entigrade degrees, or by 4 for those of Reaumur's scale, and the product, 
in either caee, being divided by 9, will give the temperature required. 



TBijrOB. 121 

MEABUBES OF SURFACE. 

AppromimaU 

8quMr« Inchti. 

100 Bq. MillimetreB -1 Sq. Oentimetre -^ *150O69 1062199 
100 Sq. Oentimetrei »1 Sq. Dedmetre ■•16*600691052192 

100 B,. Dedmetre. - {^<?-^ *^} -^oSS' " 

^ 04. j»oi«« } x-19608326 



100S,.Met«. -{^^treSlj- '■ 



FoU 



1 Are or Bq. ) 8*968828969 or 



Bouw 

U9' 



[uwe Tftrdn. 

608826 



Roodi. 

9*8846724* or 
100 sq. Deo^atre, -{J|J<|t|^,^,,}-^J.«%^ 

2 22808326 

AcrM. 

100 Sq. Hectometres «1 Sq. Eiloxnotre • 247*11481 
100 Sq. Kilometres -1 Sq. Myriametro- 24711*481 

The nnits most nsaally adopted for the measurement ot 
snrfaoes, are, the square Metre, the square Decametre, and the 
square Kilometre, hat the measurement *of surfaces of very 
great extent is calculated in square Myriametres. 

The xmit for measurement of land is the square Decametre, 
called in this case an Are, Its subdivision is the Centiare 
(100th part of an Are), or square Metre, and its multiple is the 
Hectare (100 Ares), or square Hectometre. There is also the 
Jkcare of 10 Ares equal to about 89i Boods. This may be 
Bhova in a tabular form as follows : — 



LAND MEASUKE. 

' ApproBBimitt 

JVmmA VdlMt, SyittmaHe name, XnglUh pdhu, 

100th of an Are -1 Oentiare or 1 Sq. Metre- 1*196046 
100 Oentiares -il Are or 1 Sq. Decametre- 118*6046 
100 Area ^flHcotareor \ 11960*47 or 

- I ISq. Hectometre | -^7- a|V6lfii26 

* The Hectare is equal to 8 Acres Rood, 86 Perches, Engliuh statate 
measure, nearly. 



122 WEiaHTS AJSH HZASUBXS. 

CUBIC, OB SOLID MEASURES. 

In the measnrement of idxnber and other solid coherent sub- 
stances, the Cttbic Metre^ in this case called a Stere^ is the 
nnit employed as follows : — 

Approximate 
French Vehu. SyMtematie name. EnglUh tfoUte, 

Cubfo Feet. 

■^jfii of a Stere — 1 Decistere =^ 3*531714 
10 Decisteres -« I Stere » 36*31714 

10 Steres « 1 Decastere => 363*1714 



MEASURE OF CAPACITY. 

The nnit of measures of capacity is the Litre; it is a 
measure whose length, width and depth are each equal to 1 
Decimetre. It is therefore a Cubic Decimetre. 

Approximate 
French value, Syttematie name. English vetlue. 

Mininui. 

1000th of a Cubic Decimetre =.lMilinitre - 16*9034247744 



10 Millilitres, or 100th of > , _ ,.,.^ o^o?JI^??^*. 

a Cubic Decimetre ] = ^ Centilitre = 2*81723T4624 

10 Centilitres 3= 1 Decilitre 



/ Plnid OuDC^H. 

< 3*521546828 or 



{ 



10 Litres = 1 DecaUtre 



-1 



Imperial Ptnts. 

•176077339526 

^ Ve'cSe """ "" ^""^^ } = 1 ^"^'^^ - 1*70077339525 

17-6077389526 or 

Imperial Gall nit. 

2*2009667440625 

(22*009667440625 or 
10 Decalitres = 1 Hectolitre = \ imperial BuBbei. 

(2*751208430078125 

2 Bushels & 3 Pecks, nearly 
Imperial Galloas. 

r 220*09667440626 or 
T^lcTc^'e^ier } -^ ^o^tre^ J 21^^SS.^'s or 

Inperlal Qoartem. 

L 3*43901053759 

8 Quarters, S Bushels, 2 Pecks, nearly. 

To facilitate the transactions of the shop and the market the 
use of the Half -Litre and Double-Litre, and the Half-Lictlitre 
and Double-Decilitre, are sanctioned by law, and these , with 
the Litre t are the chief measures in daily use. The English 
value of the Decilitre may be roughly stated at a little more 



TBAKOX. 



123 



than (ths of a Gill, and that of the Litre a little less than a 
Quart. As a matter of conTenienoe these measures, and also 
the multiples of the Litre, are made in a eyliiidiieal form, hut 
the oorreotness of the measure depends upon its oontaining 
preeiselj a Cuhio Decimetre, and not upon its shape. 

WEIOHTB. 

The Gramme, that is the weight in vacuo of a Cuhio Centi- 
metre of distilled water at a temperature of 39*2° Fahrenheit 
(4® centigrade), is the unit of weight. It is equal to 16*432349 
grains Troy. 

The Gramme and its subdivisions the Decigramme (10th of 
a Gramme) the Centigramme (100th of a Gramme) and the Milli- 
gramme (1000th of a Gramme) are the weights usually em- 
ployed in the minute operations of adentifio experiments. 

In the large transactions of trade and oommerce, the weights 
most frequently used are the Kilogramme (1000 Grammes), the 
Metrical Quintal or 100 Kilogrammes, and the Nouvemi Tann- 
eaudemer^ or Tonneau Metriquet of 1000 Kilogrammes. The 
Kilogramme is equal to 2*204611>8. Avoirdupois, and the 
Qukital and Ton are respectively equal to 220*4661bB. and 
8204*661bs. Avoirdupois. 



TABLE OP WEIGHTS. 



French viilue. 



1000th of a Gramme 

100th of a Gramme or 10 '^ 
Milligrammes ) 

10th of a Gramme or 10 \ 
Oentigrammes j 

10 Centigrammes, or the "^ 
weight in vacuo of a | 
cubic Centimetre of y 
distilled water at i 
89-2® F. J 

10 Grammes 



100 Grammes or 
10 Decagrammes 

1000 Grammes or 
10 Hectogrammes 



)- 
}- 



8y$Umatie name, 
b1 Milligramme 

al Centigramme 
ibI Decigramme 

■■1 Gramme 

>" 1 Decagramme 
1 Hectogramme ■ 



1 Kilogramme * 



Approximate 
SnglUh value* 
Qralitii Troy, 

•015432349 
•154323488 



1^54323433 



15*4823438 

154*823488 
1543-23488 or 

Oi. Drams Av. 
8 8*4883 

IIm.At. 

f 2*2046(i or 

Iba. 01. Dramt. 
2 3 4*3830 



{ 
( 



124 



WEIGHTS ABD MEASVBE8. 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS. (Continued,) 



French vaJ/ut, 

10000 Grammes or 
10 Kilogrammes 

10 Myriagnuxunes 



10 Quintals 



Spttematio name. 



I oilMyxiagramme*" < d 



Approximate 
Englieh value. 

lbs. At. 

22*0466 or 

lbs. Dnuna. 

8 U'8804 



•■ 1 Quintal Metriqne >» 

cwt. cwt. st> 

1-97 or 1 7 
»1 TonorMillier ■» / 

ewt« cwt* stb Ibta 

19*7 or 19 6 6 



IbB. At. 

220*466 or 

lbs. oz. Drams. 

10 7 6-304 

lbs. At. 

2204*66 or 

OS. "Drama. 

9 16*04 



It will be readHj understood that since a Litre or Cubic 
Decimetre is eqnal to lOOC Onbio Centimetres, and a Cubio 
Centimetre is a Gramme, therefore a Litre of distilled water 
at 39'2°F is eqnal to a Kilogramme, and it therefore follom 
that any nnmber of Litres of distilled water at that tempera- 
tore are eqnal in weight to a corresponding nnmber of Kilo- 
grammes. 

Conversely the nnmber of Grammes representing the weight 
of a quantity of water contained in a vessel will be the num- 
ber repreBeuting the cubio capacity of the vessel in Centimetres. 
Hence, when fiie cubic capacity of a vessel is known, the 
weight of water which it would contain can be readily calcu- 
lated without having recourse to actual weighing. 

From this mutual relation of the Kilogramme and the Litre, 
the weight of any substance of known density or spedfio 
gravity can be calculated from its cubic capacity, or conversely, 
its cubic capacity can be calculated from its weight. 

Specific gravity or density may be defined to be the weight 
of a given bulk, or volume of any substance as compared with 
an equal bulk of distilled water*t 39*2"^ F. (4o centigrade), the 
weight of the water being taken as unity, or it may be more 
briefly defined as the comparative weight of equal bulks ci 
difierent substances. ' Thus, for instance, if the weight of a 
given bulk of water be 100 Grammes, then the weight of an 
equal bulk of spirit would be 80 Grammes, that of iron 750, 
and that of mercury 1350 Grammes. It thus appears that 
(bulk for bulk of each being taken) spirit is ^th lighter, iron 7 1 
times heavier, and mercury 13^ times heavier thw water. 



BCSSIA. 125 



BxrssiA. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Jpproxiwtatt 
Rutaian vdtur, SifBtemaUe nawu. Xngluh value, 

Inche*. 

1 Yenhok « If 

8 Venhoks »1 Stopa ^ » 14 

2 Stopas, or 16 Yerslioks — l Arschine* » S8 

Feet. 

3 Arschines >al Saschen » 7 

r S500ft.,or6629mile8, 
500 Saschens '-I Yerst «* } or 5 Furlongs, 12 

(, Poles, 2 feet. 

The Fnss is equal to 13*75 inehes, the Kosoow Foot to 18*18 
inches, and the Paletz to i an inch. 

The lithoanian Meile is equal to 9781 jards, or 6*5574 
miles. 

Since 1831 the English Foot of 12 Inches, each Inch of 10 
parts, has heen used as the ordinary standard of length 
measures. The Bhein Fnss (28530 to a Lithuanian Meile) is 
used in calculating the export duties on timher. 103 English 
Feet » 100 Rhein Fuss. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Approximate 
Bu»$ian value. Spatemalle namei SHglUh value, 

Sq. Inohe*. 

9 Square Archines » l Square Sachine ■■ 784 

SquanTard. 

2400 Square Sachines » 1 Desatine »* 13067 

The Desatine is equal to 2 Acres, 2 Roods, 32 Poles, EngUsh. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Buuian value. 



100 Tscharkeys 
3 Yedros 
40 Yedros 



Syatematie name. 
1 Tscharkey 


Approximate 
English value. 
OfaOm.nettlf. 
•86 


1 Vedro 
1 Anker 
1 Sarokowaja 


Imperial Gallona. 

« 2*7049 
=> 8*1147 
» 108*196 



* Usod in Cloth Measare. 



126 



WSIOHTB AliTD ICEASITBSS. 



100 Vedros are eqnal to 270*6955 BritiBh Imperial gallons. 
The EniBchka is a measnre equal to 10 Tscharkeys or tibe -^th 
of a Yedro, and eqniTalent to 1*08196 Imperial Qnart. 

MEASUBES OF GAPAGITY FOB DBT GOODS. 



Biuiian value. 



2 Gamietz 



4 Tschetwerkaa 



2 Techetwerilu 
2 Pajaks 
2 Osnuns 

16 TschetwertB 



BvttitnaHe nams, 
1 Gamietz ■■ 

■> 1 Teohetwerka ■■ 



■■ 1 Tschetwerik 



ik - I 



« 1 Pajak 

M 1 Osmin 

a 1 Tschetwert 

•> 1 Last 



Approximate 

SnglUh value, 

ImpLQiiarte. 

6-7696 

'Impl. QaUoD* 

1-4424 or 

Bnaheli. 
.•1803 

Feclu. 

2*8862 or 

Bnghel. 

•7213 

BtuheU^ 
1-4426 

2-8852 

5-7704 

ImpLQiurten. 
11-5408 



A Tschetwert is nsnallj reckoned as eqnal to 5f Imperial 
BnshelB, and 100 Tschetwerts to 72 Imperial Quarters, bnt its 
more exact yalne is 72*1308 Imperial Qnarters. At St. 
Petersburg a Tschetwert is sometimes reckoned at 70^ Imperial 
Quarters. 100 British Imperial Qnarters are equal to 188*637 
Tschetwerts. 



WEIGHTS. 



Btueian value, 

96 Dolis 
8 Zolotnicks 
8 Zolotnicks 

12 Lanas, or 
32 Lotti 

40 Funts 
10 Puds 
3 Berkovitz 



1- 



Systematic name. 

1 Dolis 
• 1 Zolotnick 
'1 Lotti 
1 Lana 



Appromimate SngUeh value. 
■>f of a Troy Grain 
^2 Dwts. 17| Gms. Troy fl) 
-8 „ 6k „ „ (2) 
B n Ounces Av. (3j 



1 Funt (Pound) »14| 



If 



ft 



w 



1 Pud (or Pood) 
1 BerkoTitz 
1 Paoken 



- 1 Qr. 8t\7 Ihfl. (5) 

»3Gwt. „ 25Vrt* (6) 
-:9 ., 2 „ 19+ „ (7) 



The Pud (or Pood) is very commonly estimated at 86 lbs. 
Avoirdupois. The Nuremberg Pound, used by Apothecaries, 
is equal to 5527 Troy Grains. The Dutch Carat, used in 
weighing pearls and precious stones^ is equal to about 3^ Troy 
Grains. 



TOIuLVD. 127 



FOIiAim. 

Binee 1881 the legal meaBues have been those of BoBsia. 
PftYiooa to that date they were as follows : — 



MSA8UKES OF UBNQTH. 


1 Gal 
« lOwiexo 
» 1 Stopa 


Ap]frotHimatB 
EngUtkvaliu, 
Inohei. 

*98i4 

6-eo64 

11-2128 


a* 1 Loziee 
■> 1 Sazen 


- 1-8688 or 22*4256 
« 6*6065 



PoUih voliM. 

6 Calow 
2 Cwiero 

2 Stopas 
8 Loziee 

1 Stopa of Graoow -> 14*08 

Tuila. 

1 Pretow - 4-7245 

10 F^etow, or n 

100 Preoikow, or [ - 1 Bznurow • 47*245 

1800 Galow ) 



ITINERABT MEASUBE. 
The Verst of Russia is the xmit of distance measnres. 

Tdi. WlM. 

The Short MUe » 6075 or 8*452 

The Long Mile » 4*6028 

. The MHe is divided into 8 Stale. 

A Leagne->8 Versts, or 29688 Stopas -6*8048 Miles. 



SUBFAOE OB SQUABE MEASUBES. 

Approminutie 
PolUhvdiMe* BvtiewuMe namt, BnglitkvdUM, 



1 Morgow -> 1-8829 

80 Morgow - 1 Wloka » .) 41*486 

The Morgow is snhdlTided into 90 Square Basnnrow, each 
Square Sznurow into 100 Square Pretow, eaoh Square Pretow 
into 100 Square Preoikow. 



128 



IVEIOHTB ASJ> MEAirSES. 



AUSTBIA. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Auitrian value, SyiUmatU name. 



12 Punkte 
12 Linien 

12 ZoU 

2 FUHB 

6 Fusi 



1 Ftmkt* 
s-1 Linie 
i-l ZoU 

b1 Fusb 
-1 EUe 

»1 Klafter 



Approwimte Englith value, 
Uam. 

Inehe*. 

or -0864 
10871 



- '0864 

- 10^68 

- 12-4416 



ft 



4000 KlafUr -l Heile (Post) - 



Vnt. 

- I'OJiTl 
«- 2 0742 

- 6-2226 

Yftrdf. 

^8297 



If 
>» 



12-445 
806756 

Yardi. 
27042 



»♦ 

MllM. Yarda. 

or 4 156*992 

Uritlih BUtute If ilM. 

or about 4| 

The Bohemian Elle of 22*548 Vienna Zoll is equal to 23*85 
IncheB EngliHh. In Trieste the Elle for woollen goodgai26*0f 
and that for silk goodn 25*22 English Inches. The EUe of 
Upper Austria is equal to about 81*5 Inches EngUsh. 100 
EngUsh Yards are equal to 117*34 Vienna Ellon. 



MEASUBES OF BUBFAOE. 



Austrian value. 



Bifstematie name. Approximate EnffllMh value* 

Hq. LiOM. Sq. lochM. 



144 Square ZoU 
86 Square Fuss 



Hq. LiOM. Sq. lochM. 

1 Square ZoU - I64| or 1-9756229 

Sq. PMt. Sq. Iticta«w. 

- 1 Square Fuss <- 1*0756229 or 154| 

Sq. Yards. 

-1 Square Klafter- 4*8026 
84 Square Klafter»l Square Bathe -* 86*52088 
192Sq. Buthen -1 Metze ». 2294| 

Sq.Ydf. StatnteAcre. 

JeSSIriSiter} - 1 ^'^'^ '«">^' «884 or 1-43281 

The Yoch or Johart is nearly equal to IJ British statute 
Acre. An Austrian square MeUe is equal to 14200 British 
statute Acres. 



▲V8TBU. 



129 



MEABUBES OF CUBIC CAPACITT OB SOLIDITY. 



AmWUm PoUtt* SfftUmtUU nam», dfprwrtmaiU XnglUh voIim. 

Cubio Ineh, 

1 Cubio Z6U - 11162 

Cnbio Fooi Ottbio laohM. 

1728 Cubio Z6U-1 Cubio Fubs -1-116167668 or 1926-991296 

Ottblo WML <}ablo Tardi, 

216 Cubio Fuss -1 Cubio ElAfter- 240-8882 or 8*9216 



MBASUBES OF CAPACITT FOBT DB;T GOODS. 



Auttri«m vakM. 


^tUmoHo nam*. 


dfpro9iiMi$ BnglUk valu 


8 ProbmetMn 
4 Beoher 
2 FuttemuMSBel 
2 MuhlmaBsel 
2 Aohtel 
4 Viertel 


— 1 Beoher 
«1 FuttermasBel 
«1 Mnhlmaasel 
-1 Aohtel 
•1 Viertel 
—1 Metze 


^ 


jiuaiiMS. 

•0182 
•0629 
•1067 
•2116 
•4280 
1*6918 


80 Metien 


.1 Muth 


I 

y 


60*7686 or 

Qtutften. 
6*8442 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITT FOB LIQUIDS. 



Auitrkm valiM. 


S^tUmaHo namt* 


JpprowlmaU EnflUh value. 










Imperial Plat 

•6282 


2 Pflff 


" 


1 Seidel 


■■ ■ 


i or 2« 


2 Seidel 


- 


lEaane 


- 


InuMrial Pint : j 
T2464 


2 Eannen 


- 


1 MaiB 


» 


Qnarl 
1-2464 


10 Mass 


. 


1 Viertel 


^ 


(Hllong. 

8*1148 


4 Viertel 


m 


1 Eimer 


M 


12*4672 


82 Eimer 


m 


1 Fuder 


« 


888*6804 



130 



WEIGHTS AVB MEABUBES. 



WEIGHTS (COMMERCIAL). 



4 Pfenning 


» 1 Quentchen 


a. 


Drachms. 

2*4694 


4 Qnentclien 


= 1 Loth 


OttBoe. 


9-8776 


2 Loth 


= 1 Unze 


» 1 


8-7652 


4 Unzen 


— 1 Vierdinge 


- 4 


16-0208 


2 Vierdinges 


» 1 Mark 


-> 9 


14'0416 

lbs. ATolr. 


2 Marks 


« 1 Pfnnd 


~ } lbs. 


1-2347 or 

, Oz. Drachms. 






C 1 


9 12-0832 

lbs. At. 


100 Pfnnd 


= 1 Centner 


a 


123-47 



A Hnnd (Tariff) is equal to 1*10, and a Centner (Tariff) to 
100 U>B. Avoirdnpois. 



SILVER AND SILVER MONEY WEIGHTS. 

The Mark, snbdiyided into 2 Vierdinge, or 8 Unzen, or 16 Loth, 
or 64 Qneutchen, or 256 Pfennings, is the chief unit employed 
in weighing silyer and silver money. It is equal to 4331*019 
English Troy Grains « 9 oz. dwts. 11*019 grs. 100 Vienna 
Marks are equal to 76-191 English Troy Pounds. 



APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 



Austrian value, 
20 Gran 

8 Scruple 

8 Draohmen 
12 Unzen 



Byitetnatie name. Approximate Englith value. 

Troy Grains. 

= (1) 22-52 

Dwto. 
» (2) 2 19-536 

Oz. 

=> (3) 1 2 12-384 
- (4) 18 10 H 



1 Scrupl^ 

1 Drachme 

1 Unze 
1 Pf und 



The Apothecaries* Pfnnd is {ths of the Commercial Pfnnd, 
that is, it is equal to 1| Marks, or 24 Loth. 



0) -0488 Om. Troy: (3) 67*56 Orains, or 'USf! Os. Tr«y; (8) 540*4 
%aliifl, or I'laca Ox. Troy ; (4) 6484*8 OraiOB, or 13-610 Oz.Troy. 



To face p. 181 of the " Merehanti Handbook:' 

From Ist Janq^rj, 1872, under the law of ISth June, 1868, 
the Metric System of Weights and Measures (see France, pp. 
119-122) became compulsory for the whole of the German 
Empire. 

METRIO MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Metre, or Stah* ; Centimetre, or New-ZoU* ; Millimetre, 
•or Strich* ; Dekametre, or Kette* (Chain) ; and Kilometre. 
The Mile of 7,000 Metres is the measure of distance. 

METRIC MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Square Metre, or Quadrat-Stab ; Ar, or 100 Square Metres ; 
and Hectar, or 1,000 Square Metres. 

METRIC MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

The Cubic Metre is the basis ; the Litre or Eanne* is the 
unit, and is the tt^^^ P^^ ^^ ^ Cubic Metre ; \ litre, or 
i Kanne « Schoppen (chiefly a beer measure) ; \ Litre ; 
\ Litre ; and -j^ Litre ; Hectolitre or Fass* (cask) ; 50 Litres, 
or ^ Hectolitre, or Scheffel* (bushel) ; \ Hectolitre, or 25 
Litres, or \ Bushel. 

METRIC WEIGHTS. 

The KUogramm is the unit of weight ; it is the weight of a 
litre ot distilled water at i9 Centigrade ; the Dekagramm, or 
Mew-Loth* » 10 Gramms; the Dezip[ramm; Zentigramm ; 
Milligramm; Pfund-^^ Kilogramm or 500 Gramms; Zentner* 
or 50 Kilogramme, or 100 Pfonds ; and Tonne, cft 100 Kilo- 
gramms, or 200 Pfnndfl. 

The old system of Weights and Measures is as given, pp. 
181-167. 



* Th« names Stab, ZoU, Strloh. Katte. Kanne, Schoppen, SoheflTel. 
Loib, Pf QDd, and Centner, Miigned m altematiTe nameii in the Metric 
Svitem, were denomlnationi in the old fyftem, whoieToltteTftried in the 
different Statei, m appean in pp. 181-167 ; but their talne in the Metrio 
S/etem if the ume for the whole of Oermany. In each case where an 
Old name if applied to a new weight or meaanre, the old name mnat be 
preceded by the Metric name. 



TBUBSIA. 



181 



GERMANY, (North). 



PBUSSIA. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
Sorth German valM. StfiUmatio name» ApproximaU BnglUh vahu. 







1 Linie 


LiiiM. 
. - 1-029 or 


Inohet. 

•0859 


12 Linien 
12 ZoU 


■ 


1 ZoU 
1 Fuss 


-12-966 „ 
- 102966 „ 


1-029 
12*856 


2 FUB8 

6 EUen or 12 Fuse 


- 


1 EUe 
1 Rutho 


F«et. 

- 2-0596 
-12-8676 „ 


Yardii. 

4-1192 


2000 Ruthen 


. 


1 MeUe 


Imp]. Yda. 
- 8238t „ 


Mtlei. 

4-6806 



The ohief measureB of length are the Ftits and the Slle^ bat 
the value of those mcaBures and of their flubcUyisions varies 
in different Btatea and often in difforont provinces of the same 
state. The foUo\ving are a few of the vtuiationB in the length 
of the Fuss in North Germany. 

The FttBB English 

In ■ ■ 

BniuBwick — 

Hanover « 

HoHsia (Electorate) — 

Oldonburgh «= 

Prussia » 

Saxuuy » 

The Lachter, of C Fuss, and the Spanne of 9 Fush, are 
measures used by miuers. The Liichter is equal to 6*864 
English Feet, and the Spanne to 10*2975 English IncheR. 

The Laohtor ib divided into 8 Aohtel, each of 10 LaohterzoU, 
and each LachterzoU of 10 Lachterliuien. 

The Decimal System in Measures of Length is being intro- 
dnoed into the'ooimtry, and Engineers and Surveyors now 
use it. 



InchM. 




Foot. 


11-230 


m* 


•935 


11-484 


■e 


•957 


11-316 


M 


•043 


11-640 


a 


•970 


12-356 


M 


1-029 


11*155 


SB 


•029 



182 



WXIGHT8 AVB HXjUFBSS. 



BUBYEYOBS' UEASUBEMENT. 



Frvff dm voliM. 



10 Sorapel 
10 LLoien 



10 Zon 

10 Land Fobs 
2000 Baihen 



Bffitematie fum§» AyproartmaU EngUth wiUte* 



1 Bcnipel 
1 Lizue 
1 ZoU 



* 1 LaadFufls 

-> 1 Blithe 

- 1 Meila (Poii) 



IndiM. 

•0148 

•1482 

1-4828 

a4'828or 

Foot. 

1-2856 

Vaot 

- 12-856 

- 4*6807 



MEABUBES OF SUBFAOE. 



North O^rwuMvaJMt. BffttemaHe tumt, AppratimaU BngUih vahis, 

flqiuufo LiiiM. SqiiMro Inolu 

144 Square Linien « 1 Square Zoll •>l62'4672 or 1-05884 

aqnwiFook. Sqiuve lodiaf. 

144 Bqnare Zoll • 1 Sqnare Fnsa 1^1*05884 or 152*4672 

144 Bqnare Fnss — 1 Bqnare Bathe ■> 16*96. 

^ — Sq. Tdi. Ed«. Pto. 

180 Bqnare Bathen -> lUorgen ->8054 or 2 21 nearly 

80 Morgen » 1 Hofe - 91620 or nearly 19 



100 Morgen 



abont 68*094 Engliah Acres. 



IfEASUBES OF CUBIC CAPACITT. 



North Cferffian value, BytUmnMo noiM. 
1728 CuMo Linien -1 CnUeZoU 

1728 CnUe ZoU -l CnUe Fnsa 

1728 Cnbio Fobs -1 Cnbio Bntfae 

100 PraBBian Cnbio Fnaa are eqnal to 100*184 Emdiah 
Cubic Feet. 



Approwimate Engliih uUui. 
Cnbio Lines. 

[1886*69952 or 
I 1-09184 

CaUo InohM. 

1886*69952 or 



■[ 



Cabio FMt. 

or 1-09184 

Cnbio Ftofe. 

• 1886-69952 



PBUS8IA. 183 

Stone and brickwork, earth, peat, faaoines, and firewood are 
mea»iired by the Cnbio Klafter of 108 Oubio Fuse - 117.91872 
En^flh Cubic Feet, or 8 '8869 Steree. 4| Klafter make 1 
Haufe. In architecture the Schachruthe is 144 Cubic Fubb -> 
4*45188 Steree. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

North German «a<««. S}f$t«matia name. EnglUh value. Metric value. 

Quarto. BuskaL Lltras. 

4 Massohen) 1 ^^^^ ^ g.^g^ ^^ .^0^5 . 3.^35 
or 3 Quarts J 

OallonB. BttiheU 

4 Metzen -1 Yiertel •• 8*024 or 878 » ld'7403 

Buab«li. Qi»rt«». 

*48QuMtr} -1 Scheffel - 1-6121 or -189 - 54*9615 

4 Soheffehi -1 Tonne -6*048 or •75604-218*846 
12 Soheffein -1 Malter erl8a452 or 2 '26815 -66 8 '588 

5 Malters or ) 

60 Soheffein } -1 Last - 18*60890-8287*690 

5^ Soheffein are nearly equal to 1 British Imperial Quarter, 
or, more exactly, 100 Soheffein are equal to 18*901 British 
Imperial Quarters. 

The Tonne given in the table, is the measure for salt, lime, 
and carbon; a Tonne of Flaxseed is 87f Metzens, or 8 '5595 
British Imperial Bushels, or 128*888 Litres. 

The Wispel is a measure varying in quantity. In wholesale 
business and in railway freight it is usually reckoned as 24 
Soheffein. The Wispel of wheat or barley is 25 Scheffehi, of 
oats it is 26 Soheffein. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

VwikOermian value. B^eiemaWi nom§. EngUeh value. MetrU value. 

Pint. Quart. LltrM. 

82 Cubic ZoU-l Ossel -1*0079 or •1259876- -57251 

Quart. GtaUlon. 

2 Ossel -1 Quart -1.0079 or •251975- 1*1450881 

60 Ossel -1 Anker- 7*55925 - 84.85095 

2 Ankers -1 Eimer- 16*1186 - 68-7019 

2 Eimers -1 Ohm - 80*287 -187*4088 

or?»^hm} "^ O^oft- 46'8655 -206'1057 

or6fe}-l^*«^- 181*422 .824-4228 

The Fuder and its subdivisions are used for wine and spirits. 
The flasohe for wine is {- quart, and equals 1*512 British 
Imperial pint, or ^858 Litre. In Beer Measure there are 
the foUowmg denominations, which, however, are rather names 



134 



KEABTTBES. 



of casks than deflnite measarea. The Oebraude of 9 Knfen, or 
18 Fass, or 86 Tonne, or 8600 Quarts. The Tonne of 100 
Quarts is equal to 25*1975 British Imperial GaUona, or 
114-508 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The ZoUpfimd is the unit of weight, and is equal to ^ Kilo- 
fpramme, or 500 Grammes. 1 lb. Avoirdnpois is equal to 0*907 
Zollpfnnd, and 1 Zollpfund is equal to 1-10288 lbs. Ay. In the 
^ollverehi States, the subdiyisions of the Zollpfund' most 
generally used are the ^ and the -^ Zollpfund. 

North German Yalue. Syatematle name, 

10 Com « 1 Cent 

10 Cents ■> 1 Quentche a 

10 Quentchen » 1 Loth « 



BnglUh value. MeMe value, 
Drauw At. Qnmm§§. 



80 Loth 
100 Zollpfund 



1 Zollpfund 
1 Cen&ier 



•09407 
•9407 
9*406464 

Iba. Af . 

1102 
110*282 



•166 

- 1.66 

- 16*6 

Kllograininc*. 

- -500 
« -50 



20 Zollpfund - 1 Stein; 8 Centner « 1 Sohifliq^fund; 40 
Centner » Schiffslast. 

This Decimal System of Weights, with the Half-Kilogramme 
(500 Grammes) or Zollpfund as its unit, has been, or is being 
adopted in almost all the States of Germany. In Conmiercial 
Weights the Zoll-Center is diyided into 100 Pfund, the Pfund 
into 82 Loth, the Loth into 4 Quentchen, and the Quentche 
into 4 Ff ennige. 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 



North Qermaat value, Byttematie name, 

1 Scrupel » 

> 1 Dracnme » 

1 Unze s= 



20 Gran 
8 Scrupel 
8 Drachmen 



12 Unzen 



1 Pfund 



Englieh value. 


Metrie value. 


Oralns Troj. 


OnmunM. 


18-8 - 


1*21799 


564 - 


8*65899 


451*2 - 


29*28198 


Os. Troj. 


OrsmmM. 



11*2779 -860*78826 



GOLD, SILVEB, AND JEWEL WEIGHTS. 

The Pfund of 500 Grammes is now used for the precious 
metals, formerly the Mark was the weight used. It ■■ 
8608*9506 English Troy Grains, or 288*855 Grammes, and 
is divided for gold into 24 Carats, each of 12 Grains, and for 
silver into 16 Loth, each of 18 Grains. Predons stones are 
weighed by the Carat, 160 Carats being equal to 9 Quentchen. 



PBUS8IA. 185 

BAZONY. (Kingdom of) 

A DeoimAl SyBtem of Weights ajid MeasnreB, Bimilar to that 
of France, («m Franee^) oameinto operation on the Ist NoYember, 
1868, but the old syBtem giyen below is still in yery oonunon 
Qse. It 18 as follows : — 

MEASyRES OF LENGTH. 

Saxon vaIim. SjfiUwuUie nam€» XnglUk valut, MetrU mIim. 

LIdm. 

1 Linie • -92918 
12 Linien - 1 ZoU - 11*149414 or •92912 - -02859 

Inehtt. 

12 ZoU « 1 Fttss « 11*149414 „ *92912 - '28819 
2 Fnss « 1 EUe -> 22*298828 „ 1*85824 - *5663H 
2 Ellen - 1 Stab • 44*597656 „ 8*71648 « 118276 

The Ruths is the name of a Land Measure, and also of a 
Rood Meature» In Land Measure it contains 15 Fnss, 2 ZoU ; 
and is equal to 4*69721 English Yards, or 4*29504 Metres. 
In Boad Measure it contains 16 Fnss, and is equal to 4*955806 
Yards English, or 4*58104 Metres. The Laohter used by 
miners is equal to 2 Metres, or 2*18726 English Yards. 

The MeU€ Post formerly contained 2000 Buthen, or 16000 
EUen, but since 1841 it consists of 18241*987 Ellen, and is 
equal to 7500 French Metres, or 1*01072 Geographical Mile, or 
4*660368 EngUsh MUes. 

The Leipsic Foot of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Linien, is equal to 
11*1494 EngliBh inches, or to *28819 of a French Metre. A 
Leipsic EUe (of 2 Leipsic Fuss) is equal to 1*85888 English 
Feet. 7 Leipsic EUen are equal to 6 Prussian Ellen, or to 4 
French Metres. 8 Leipsic EUen are nearly equal to 5 English 
Yards* 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Square Fuss of 144 Square ZoU is equal to *86826 
EngUsh Square Foot, or 124*81001 Square Inches English, or 
•081196576 Square Metres, and the Ackerof 800 Square Ruthen 
18 equal to 66*8428256 French Ares, or 1 Acre, 1 Rood, 18 
Poles English statute measure. 

MEASURES OF CUBIC CAPACITY. 

The Cubic Fuss of 1728 Cubic ZoU is the chief Measure of 
Cubic Capacity, it is equal to -8020758288 English Cubic Foot, 
or *0227108688 Cubic Mdtre. In the measurement of firewood 
there is the Schragen of 8 Klafter. The Elafter contains 108 
Cubic b uss (i. e., 6 Fuss high, 6 Fuss broad, by 6 Fuss thick) ; 
and is equal to 8 6*62418898 EngUsh Cubic Feet, or 2*45277878 
Cubic Metres. 



186 



IfEASUBEB. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DRY GOODS. 



Saxon value, 8y$temaHe name. 



4 MaBchen 
4 Metzen 

4 Viertel 

12 Scheffel 

2 Malter 



1 Masche 

1 Metze 
1 Viertel 

1 Scheffel 
1 Malter 
1 Wispel 



BnglUk value. 
Quart. 
1*446302 

f44e802 

6-786208 
ImiMsrlal Dushela. 

2-892704 . 
84*712448 
69-424896 



Metrle value. 
Litre. 
1*64285 

e-6714 
26-2857 

1051429 

1261.7148 

2628-4296 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Saxon value, Syttematie name, 

1 Qnartier 
4 Qnartier » 1 Nossel 



2 N0B8^ 

36 Kannen 

72 Kannen, 

or 2 Anker 

8 Elmer 

6 Elmer 



I- 



1 Kanne 
1 Anker 

1 Eimer 



EnglUh value, 

•84368 « 
- 8-37472 - 

ImperUl Pint<i. 

» 1-64786 » 
IB 7*42868 - 

bnpertiil Oilloni. 

« 14-82624 - 67*36284 



Metric value. 
Litre*. 

*11695 
•46779 

•98559 

88*68124 



1 Oxhoft 

1 FasB or Barrel 



7-41812 - 
88-98744 « 



202*08744 
404-17488 



In French wincB the Oxhoft is reckoned at 8, hnt in French 
hrandy at 8g Dresden Eimer. The Ohm is a measure of 2 
Eimer or 4 Anker. In heer meaBtire 420 Kannen al Fass ; 
the Viertel is 210, and the Tonne 105 Kannen. 

The ahove are the Dresden standards of liquid measures, 
and are those most generally used in Saxony. 

IiEIPSIC. 

In Leipsic there are two Kannen of diffisrent sizes, in use, 
namely, the publicans* Kanne, called Schenk-Kanne^ and the 
excise Kanne, called Visir-Kanne, The Visir-Kanne «* 
2-47288, and the Schenk-Kanne ib 2-11997 British Imperial 
Pints, or 1*4044 and 1*204 litre respectiyely. The Leipdo 
Eimer contains 54 Visir-EanBen, or 68 Schenck-Eanneu. The 
Fuder is 12 Eimer. The Kanne, which goes under the name 
of the *' Dresden Kanne "in Leipsic, is a little smaller than 
the real Dresden Kanne, and is equal to 1*644489 British 
Imperial Pint, or '98898 litre. A Leipsic Eimer of 68 Schenk- 
Kannen contains 81 Dresden Kannen of the Leipsic standard, 
and is equal to 16*69476 British Imperial Gallons, or 76*852 
litres. Nine Dresden Eimer are commonly reckoned equal to 
6 Leipsic Eimer. In beer measure the Gebraude of 8 Knfe, 



• AUttlelesfthftnlOUl. 



PBUSSIi.. 



187 



each of 2 Fass, each of 2 Yiertel, each of 2 Tonne) each of 75 
Kannen (SohenJE-Eannen), each of 2 NoBsel. Tho beer Eiiner 
is 72 Schenk- Kannen, and is equal to 18*07974 Britiith Imperial 
Gallons, or 86*688 litres. The Tonne - 18*874729 Britinh 
Imperial Gallons, or 80*800 litres. The Yiertel - 38*7494oU 
British Imperial Gallons, or 180*6 litres. The Fass ■> 
78*498918 British Imperial Gallons, or 361*2 litres. The 
Knfe - 168*99788 British Imperial GaUons, or 722*4 litrtH. 
The Gebriiade - 1271*98269 British Imperial GaUons, or 
6778*2 Utres. 

WEIGHTS. 

Same as Pmssia, viz., the Zolipfund with its decimal subdi- 
visions and multiples. {See Prussia). 

HANOVEB. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Hanoverian value. 


SjfiUmatie name. 
1 liinle ■> 


BnfflUh value, 
ur a Line. 

•95838- 


Mftric value* 
Meirei. 

•00'202H 


12 Tiinien 


- 1 ZoU 


liinea. 

114 - 


•0243412 


12 ZoU 


- 1 Furs* - 


Inct'M. 
11* - 


•2020947 


2 Fuss 


- lEUe - 


28 •» 


•5841894 


8 Ellen or 
6 Fuss 


1 1 Eh&fter « 


FMt. 

6} «. 


l-7u2r>682 


16 Fuss 


» 1 Ruthe - 


fardi. Inches. 
5 4- 


4-673.'5152 



MUee. 

15874 Buthenf » 1 MeUe - 4*61016 -7418-205HK 

In thread and yarn measurement the unit is the Stikk or Lop 
of 10 Gihenden (Skeins) or 90 Faden (threads) ; but sometimes 
these are only 82 or 87 Faden to the StUok. 20 Lop « 1 Bund. 
The length of the Faden is 8| EUen. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 
Hanoverian value, Syetematie name, 

1 Square Linie -^ 



Englith value, 
Sq. Line. 

•9184 - 



Uttria value, 
Sq. Mi'trvH. 

)00004 



144 Square 

Linien ■> 1 Square ZoU ■■ 
144 Square 

ZoU ■■ 1 Square Fuss ■> 
256 Square 

Fuss ■> 1 Square Ruthe « 
120 Square 

Ruthena 1 Morgen - 8134*79300- 2621*00981 { 



Sq. Inch. 

•9184 

Sq. Feet. 

•9184 

Square Yardn. 

2612327 



•OOOtJ 
•085319 
21-84174 



* 24 HanoTorian feet are equal to 28 F«ngliih Feet 
f 12700 Ellen, or 25400 Fuss. 
t S6'21009 French Ares. 



138 



MEAStTBEB. 



MEASURES OP CUBIC CAPACITY. 

The chief unit is the Cubic Eubb of 1728 Cubic Zoll, the ZoU 
being subdivided into 1728 Cubic Linien. The Cubic Fuss is 
equal to 1620*875 Cubic Inches English, or -024921319 of a 
^ French Cubic Metre. The Klafter of 144 Cubic Fuss is the 
* chief measure for wood, it is equal to 3*58867 French Steres. 
The Malter of Ealenberg or Hanover, measure for timber, is 
80 Hanoverian or Ealenberg Cubic Fuss, and is equal to 1*9937 
French Steres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Hanoverian value* 



4 Sechzehntel 
4 Spint or Metzen 
6 !^mten 



Systematic name. English value. 

Biuhel*. 

« 1 Spint - 
■> 1 Himten« 
^ 1 Malter = 



Metrie value. 
Litret. 

7*788 

81152 

186*912 



8 Malter 
16 Malter or 2- Wispel 



•21426 « 

•85704 =r 

6*14224 » 

Quarters. 

1 Wispel « 6*14224 « 1486*296 
1 Last « 10*28448 - 2990*592 

The Vierup is If Himten, or 2 Hanoverian Cubic Fuss, and 
equals 49*843 French Litres, or 1*371265 British Imperial 
Bushels. A Tonne is 4 Vierup, and 15 Tonne make 1 Last. 
The Erug is -^ part of the Vierup, it is used both for dry and 
liquid measure. It is -^ths of a Himten, and equals 1*38452 
Litre. 22 ^ Krug a 1 Himten or 8 Stubchen. 

100 Himten are equal to 10*713 English Imperial Quarters. 
The Himten is equal to 1| Hanoverian Cubic Fuss, or 2160 
Cubic Zoll. The Last « 29*90592 Hectolitres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Hanoverian value* Systematic namt 


;. 


English value. 


Metric value. 






Imperial nnto. 


Litres. 


2 Nossel «= 1 Qna-rtier 


■■ 


1-714092 « 

Imperial Quarts. 


•973489 


2 Quartier ^ 1 Eanne 


a 


1-714092 = 


1*946976 


2 Eaunen « 1 Stubchen 


■■ 


8*428184 a 

Imperial Gallons. 


8*893956 


2 Stubchen « 1 Viertel 


^ 


1-714092 « 


7*787912 


5 Viertel = 1 Anker 


M 


8*57046 - 


88*939560 


8 Viertel « 1 Eimer 


S3 


18*712736 « 


62*303296 


4 Anker «= 1 Ohm 


CB 


84*28184 - 


166*758240 


li Ohm = 1 Oxhoft 


a 


61*422276 = 


233*63736 


4 Oxhoft or 








6 Ohm a 1 Fuder 


B 


206-69104 « 


034*54944 


Hanover, as also Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe, use the 


following special measures in 


collecting the customs of the 


• 8 Himten 


^^ ( 


5 Vierup. 





FB1788IA. 189 

ZoUverein Urnon :— >the Steuer-Ohm of 40 Steusr-Stuheherij each 
of 4 Steuer-Qxtartiers. The Stetier-Quartier is exactly equal to 
the BnmBwiok Qoartier. It is equal to *962S66 HaaoveriAn 
Quaitier, or -986844 French Litre. 

WEIGHTS. 

The weights are now the same as those of Prussia, which see. 
Formerly they were the Hund of 82 Lotii, each of 4 Quentchen 
'^ 467*71101 Grammes ; the Centner of 100 Pfund, and the 
Last of 40 Centner. 



HESSB-ELSCTOBATE, or. HESSE-0A88EL. 

MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 

Cocm) vhIim. SjfttewuMe name, EnglUh valu$. Metric vaIm. 

Inoh. Metre. 

12Limen - 1 Zoll « -94891 - -028976 

Foot. 

12Zoll -» IFuBS - -94891 - -287699 

2 Fuss « lEUe - 1-88782 » -675398 

The Brahant Elle is also used. It is equal to 2-27796 English 
Feet, or -69481 Mdtre. The Bnthe of 14 Old* Cassel Fuss » 
4*862289 English Yards, or 3*98876 Metres. It is now only 
used in land measure. 

MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. 

The Square Buthe — 18-029189 Ent^llsh Square Yards, or 
16-9102 Square Metres. The Acker of 150 Square Buthen — 
2854*86986 English Square Yards, or '68974 Acre, or 28*866 
Ares. 

CUBIC MEASUBES. 

1728 Cubic Zoll » 1 Cubic Fuss » -8409918 English Cubic 
Foot. The Elafter of (5 x 6 x 6 Fuss) «» 150 Cubic Fuss » 
126-14877 EngUsh Cubic Fuss, or 3*672 Steres. The Elafter 
of Hanau is 144 Cubic Fuss » 121*10281 English Cubic Feet, 
or 8-4291 Steres. 24 Cassel Elafter » 26 Hanau Elafter. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. 



CoMtfl value. 


Systematie name* 


EnglUh value. 


Metrie valui 






Quarters 
•084548 - 


Litre*. 


4 Maaschen 


« 1 Metzen =» 


10-0461 


4 Metzen 


« 1 Himten ■■ 


•138196 - 


40-1845 


8 Metzen 


» 1 Scheffel » 


-27689 » 


80-3691 


2 Scheffel 


= 1 Viertel - 


•55278 » 


ieO'7382 


4 Viertel 


- 1 Malter » 


2*21112 « 


642*9528 



* 1 Cassel Fuss - 1<0098 Old Cassel Fuss. 



140 HEAStTBES. 



MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Cattel value, Syttematie name, English value. Metric value. 

Pint. Litres. 

ISchoppe « -85816 » -487375 

OalloM. 

4 Schoppen » 1 Maass = -42908 « 1-94950 

4Maa8B - 1 Viertel - 1-71632 « 7*7980 

20 Viertel - 1 Olun » 34'3264 « 166'96 

6 Ohm » 1 Fader « 206'9584 « 936*76 

The measures in the table are used for Wine, Brandy, and 
Vinegar. The Beer Ohm, also divided into 20 Viertel, each of 
4 Maass, each of 4 Schoppen, is equal to 38*172673 BritiBh 
Imperial Gallons, or 174*755 Litres, and the Viertel, Maass, 
and Schoppe, in proportion. 8 Beer Ohm are equal to 8*964 
Wine Ohm, but in round numbers 8 Beer Ohm are usually 
reckoned equal to 9 Wine Ohm. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Pfund of 500 French Grammes, mth its divisions and 
multiples, as in Pmssia, is beginning to be pretty generally 
used (see Prussia), but the former system is still common, viz : 
In wholesale trade the (Schwere) heavy Pfund of 32 Loth, each 
of 4 Quentchen « 1*06755 lbs. av. English, or 484*2425 
French Grammes. In retail trade the (Leichte) light Pfund, 
with the same divisions » 1*03136 lbs. av. English, or 467*812 
French Grammes. 57 Schwere Pfund are equal to 59 Leichte 
Pfund. The Centner « 108 Pfund, heavy or light. 



SAXE-ALTEKBOHBG. 

Length.— Fusa of 12 ZoU =» 11*1222 English Inches, or -2825 
Mdtre. Elle of 2 Fuss » 1*8537 English foot, or -5650 Mdtre. 
The Surveyors* Fuss is exactly equal to the Elle. It is divided 
into lOZollof lOLinien. The Meile is 13242 EUen» 8182*2318 
English Yards, or 4*648995 EngUsh Miles, or 7*48173 Eilo- 
mdtoes. 

Surface. — ^Acker of 200 Square Buthen » 64*431 Ares, or 
7706-24398 English Square Yards, or 1*592199 Engtish Acre. 
The Hufe is 12 Acker. 

Capacity, (a) dry goods. — Malter of 2 Scheffel, each of 4 
Viertel, «ach of 4 Metzen, each of 4 Maschen » 1*010 British 
Imperial Quarter, or 293*9436 Litres. Scheffel » 4*040, and 
Viertel » 1*010, British Imperial Bushels, or 146*9718, and 
36*74295 Litres respectively. Metzen « 4*040, and Maschen 
» 1010 British Imperial Gallons, or 9*18573 and 2*29643 



PBT788IA. 



141 



Litres respeotiTely. A Sack is d Yiertel. (h) liquids, — Elmer 
of 60 Eannen, each of 2 Nossel. In Beer Measure the Tonne 
is 1| Eimer. A Tonne « 2 Metzen, and 128i Eannen m, 1 
Scheffel, bat it is the custom to reckon onlj 126 Kannen to the 
Scheffel. 

Weights, — The same as those of Prussia, which see. 



SAXE-COBima-GOTHA. 
MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 



Ootha value. Syitematie nanu. 


English value. 


Metric value. 




inches. 


m^tre. 


12 TiinieB « 1 ZoU 


•94365 


- -02896 


12 ZoU » 1 Fuss « 


11*3238 


- -28762 



An Elle is equal to *61632 English Yard, or -562641 Mdtre. 
A Ruthe, Land Measure, of 14 Fuss » 13*2111 English Feet, 
or 4*0264 Metres. A Buthe, Forest Measure, of 16 Fuss » 
16-0984 English Feet, or 4*6016 Metres. A Lachter is 7 
Saxony Fuss. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



An Acker, Land Measure, is 140 Square Ruthen, Land Mea- 
sure, and equals 2714*9603166 English Square Yards, or 
-560942 English Acre, or 2269*6655744 Square Metres. An 
Acker, Forest Measure, is 160 Square Ruthen, Forest Measure, 
and equals 4062*6521344 English Square Yards, or -837324 
English Acre, or 3387*9556096 Square Metres. The Hufe is 
90 Acker. It is diyided into i, i, i Hufe. 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

The Klafter for Wood - (6 x 6 x 3) = 108 Cuhio Fuss - 
-840297 English Cuhic Foot, or 2*4389 Cuhic Mdtres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Ootha value, Syttevuitie name, 

4 Nossel a 1 Masschen 
4 Masschen » l Metzen 

4 Metzen « 1 Viertel 
2 Viertel = 1 Scheffel 
2 Scheffel « 1 Malter 



English value. 




MeMe value. 


Quarts. 




Litres. 


- 2*42736 


e= 


2*76726 


Gallons. 






- 2*42736 


s 


11*02900 


Qonrter. 






= -16171 


B 


44*116 


« -30342 


BS 


88*232 


= -60684 


BS 


176*464 



144 HEA8UB£8. 

OLDEKBIJBa. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Oldenburg value. Syetematie name* English value* MeMe value. 

LinM. Hetrea. 

12 LiBien - 1 ZoU - 11*649 - -024656 

Inchei. 

12ZoU m IFuBB - 11*049 - *295879 

Feet. 

ISFniB - 1 New Bathe «- 17*4735 - 5*82582 

20Fas8 » 1 Old Rathe - 19*415 - 5*91758 

The Elle is equal to -63529 English Yard, or -5809 Mdtre. 
An Oldenburg Meile contains 33357 Oldenburg Fuss, or 1667 
Old Rathen, 17 Fuss, and is equal to 6*1328 English Miles, or 
8*8693558 Kilometres. There is also in use the Geographical 
or German Meile of 25079 Oldenburg Fuss, and equal to 
4*610878 EngUsh Miles, or 7*42084944 Eilomdtres. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Oldenbwg vaJMe, Syttematie neme, EngU$hvatne. Metric vaUte. 

8a. Yd. So. M«trM. 

1 Sqr. FusB- '104706 - -0875449 

^^i®?- - Square I- 88*92479 « 28*8645717 

*^" I Ruthe J 

160 New f 6427*96692 or ^ Arat. 

Square - 1 Juok -^ Aor«. L •45-88881472 

Ruthen [ 1-1214807 J 

400 Sar. flOldSa. ) oq.YA. Bq.mhtm. 

FusY -{ Ruthe^ }- 41-892460815 - 85^017989 

850 Old rl4e58*86128544^ ^^ 

Square = 1 Morgen ->•] Acrt. L »122'562964 

Ruthen (. or 8*02869 J 

The JUck contains 5180, and the Morgen 140000 Square Fubb. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Oldenburg value; Syttematie name* Bnglieh value. Metric value 

Impnnal QaarU. Litre*. 

4 Ort - 1 Eanne - r25472 « 1*42518 

Imperial Qallona. Litres. 

16 Eannen -> 1 Scheffel « 5*01888 - 22*808 

8 Scheffel - 1 Tonne » -62786 -> 182-424 

Imperial Quarten. Litrei. 

li Tonne « 1 Malter » -94104 - 273*686 
12 MalterB » 1 Last « 11*29248 » 8283*632 



PfiUSSIA. 145 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Olienhurg value. Sgittwtatic nawu* Engliih value. Metric value. 

Qallons. Litre*. 

4 Ort - 1 Kanne •* '80234 s 1*373 

26 Kanne » I Anker - 7*86034 - 35*698 

6 Anker - 1 Oxhoft - 47*16504 » 214'!^^ 

The Anker is also divided into 40 Quarfcier ; tlie Qnartier ■■ 
-19652 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*67216 British Imperial 
Pints, or *88985 litre. For Beer Measare, there is the Touue 
of 4 Heukeman, each of 28 Bier-Kannen ■> 168*61 Litres. 
The Bier- Kanne is larger than the Wine-Kanne, and is equal to 
1*425 Litre, or -313638 British Imperial Gallon, or 1*25455 
British Imperial Qoarts. 

WEIGHTS. 
Same as in Prassia (see Prussia). 



BIBKENFELD. ^ 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Prussia. 

AWHALT. 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Prussia. 

SCHWABZBUBO-SONDEBHAUSEN. 

(1.) High Sovereignty and Arnstadt. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fuss and Elle are those of Leipsio (see Saxony). The 
Buthe, in Land Measure, is 14, and in Road Measure* 16 Fuss : 
but sometimes this latter Buthe is also used in Land Measure. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker of 160 Square Ruthen, each of 196 Square Fuss 
«- 2993-43129074 English Square Yards, or -618545 EngUsh 
Acre : or 26*027 Ares : but when the Ruthe of 16 Fuss is used, 
then the Square Ruthe is 256 Square Fuss : and the Acker of 
160 of such Square Ruthen ■» *807895 English Acre, or 
32*688 Ares. 

o 



140 MEASUBES. 



CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Klafter (Firewood) of 126 Cubic Fobs » 100*47212 
English Cubic Feet, or 2'84 Stores. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The MaaBH of 4 Viertel - 82'8016675 British Imperial 
GallouB, or 148*088 Litres. 

WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR 

LIQUIDS. 

Same as Leipsio. (see Saxony). 

(2.) Low Bovereignty and Sondershaiuen. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The FusB of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linien • 11'8809I EnglUh 
Inches, or -2878 M6tre. The Surveyors' Fuss - 11*12803 
English Inches, or '28252 M^tre. The Rnthe of 14 Fuss — 
12*976874 EngUsh Feet, or 8*05528 Mdtre. The Elle is ssid 
to be exactly the Leipsic EUe, (see Saxony) but it is only equal 
to 1-84288 English Foot, or '5617 mdtre. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker of 120 Square Ruthen - 2246*828698 EngUsb 
Square Yards, or '468909 Acre, or 18*778 Ares. 

CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Malter of 64 Cubic Fuss - 58*87994624 English Cubic 
Feet, or 1*528 Store. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Scheffel, each of 4 Metzen » 10002298 British Imperial 
Gallons, or -156285 Quarter, or 45*445 Litres. The Metzen 
- 2*500578 British Imperial Gallons, or 1-250286 Peck, or 
11*86125 Litre. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Kanne of 2 Maass, each of 2 Ndssel i- (for Brandy), 
1*746687 British Imperial Quart, or 1*984 Litre. The Maass 
m, 1'746687, and the Ndssel '8788486 British Imperial Pint, or 
•992 and '496 Litre respeotivehr. The Beer Ndssel » 7941087 
British Imperial Pint, or '451 Litre. 



PBUSSIi.. 1^7 



WEIGHTS. 

The PInnd of 811 Loth, each of 4 Qnentohen • 1*080056 lbs. 
Ay. EngliBh, or 467'218 Grammes ; the Loth « '515028 os. 
Ay. English, or 14*60056 Grammes ; the Qnentohen - 2*060118 
English Drachms Ay., or 3*65014 Grammes. The Gold and 
BilYer Weight is the Mark which is exactly half the Pfund. 

SCHWABZBUBO-BTJDOLSTADT. 
(1.) High Sovereignty. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The FnsB of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linieu «- 16 047515 En^liiih 
Inches or *S822 M6tre. The Buthe of 16 Fuss - 608778486 
English Yards, or 6*1152 MMres. The Kilo is the name as 
that of Leipsic (see Haxouy). The I^achter is 7^ Fuss ■> 
8*0652847 English Yards, or 2*8028 MCtren. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker of 160 Square Rnthen, or 40060 Squaro Fuss ■■ 
8 801*8824474 English Square Yards, or '80007 Acre, or 
82*610 Ares. 

CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Klafter is sometimes (6x6x8 Funs) 108, or Romo- 
times (6 X 6 X Sjt Fuss) 126 Cuhio Fuss. Tho Klafter of 108 
Cuhic Fuss » 212*048 English Cubic Feet, or 2*427 Cubio 
Metres. The Klafter of 126 Cubio Fuss - 248*480 EngUsh 
Cubic Fuss, or 2*882 Cubio Mdtres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Schaffel of 8 Achtel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 24 Nossel 
• 5-152269 British Imperial Bushels, or 187*27296 Litres. 
The Achtel • 5*162269 British Imperial Gallons, or 23*40912 
Litres. The Metzen -> 2*5761847 British Imperial Gallons, or 
11*70456 Litres. Tho Niiasel (87* Cubio Zoll) - -85871157 
British Imperial Pint, or '48769 Litre. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Elmer of 72 Maass each, of 2 No«ro1 - 13*2488048 
British Imperial GallonH, or 60*1704 Litres. Tho Maass -> 



14G MEASXrilES. 



CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Klafter (Firewood) of 126 Cable Fuss ^ 100*47212 
English Cnbic Feet, or 2*84 Steres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Maass of 4 Viertel « 32*8016675 British Imperial 
Gallons, or 149*033 Litres. 

WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR 

LIQUIDS. 

Same as Leipsio. (see Saxony). 

(2.) Low Sovereignty and Sondershaiuen. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fnss of 12 Zoll each of 12 Linien » U'33091 English 
Inches, or -2878 MStre. The Surveyors' Fuss = 11*12303 
English Inches, or -28252 M^tre. The Ruthe of 14 Fuss « 
12*976874 EngHsh Feet, or 8*95528 MStre. The EUe is said 
to be exactly the Leipsic Elle, (see Saxony) but it is only equal 
to 1*84288 English Foot, or -5617 mStre. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker of 120 Square Ruthen - 2245*323693 Eng^b 
Square Yards, or '463909 Acre, or 18*773 Ares. 

CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Malter of 64 Cubic Fnss - 68*87994624 English Cubic 
Feet, or 1*523 Store. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Scheffel, each of 4 Metzen » 10*002293 British Imperial 
Gallons, or *156285 Quarter, or 46*445 Litres. The Metzen 
» 2*500573 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*250286 Peck, or 
11*36125 litre. 

MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Eanne of 2 Maass, each of 2 Nossel « (for Brandy), 
1-746687 British Imperial Quart, or 1*984 Litre. The Maass 
« 1-746687, and the Ndssel -8738436 British Imperial Pint, or 
•992 and -496 Litre respectively. The Beer Nossel » '7941087 
British Imperial Pint, or '451 Litre. 



PBUSBIA. 1^7 



WEIGHTS. 

The Ffand of 82 Loth, 6Aoh of 4 Qnentohen - 1*080056 lbs. 
Ay. EngliBh, or 467*218 GrammeB ; the Loth « '516038 oz. 
Ay. English, or 14*60056 Grammes ; the Qnentchen « 2*060113 
English Drachms Ay., or 8*65014 Grammes. The Gold and 
SilYor Weight is the Mark which is exactly half the Pfond. 



SCHWABZEHBG-BUDOLSTADT. 

(1.) High Sovereignty. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fass of 12 ZoU each of 12 Linien - I6'047ol5 EngHsh 
Inches or -8822 M^tre. The Rathe of 16 Fuss « 6*68778486 
English Yards, or 6*1152 Metres. The EUe is the same as 
that of Leipsic (see Saxony). The Lachter is 7^ Fass » 
8*0652347 English Yards, or 2*8028 Metres. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker of 160 Square Rathen, or 40960 Square Fuss » 
8 901*8824474 English Square Yards, or '80607 Acre, or 
82*619 Ares. 

CUBIO MEASURE. 

The Elafter is sometimes (6x6x8 Fuss) 108, or some- 
times (6 X 6 X 3^ Fuss) 126 Cuhic Fuss. The Elafter of 108 
Cuhio Fuss - 212*948 English Cubic Feet, or 2*427 Cubio 
Metres. The Elafter of 126 Cubio Fuss « 248*439 English 
Cubio Fuss, or 2*832 Cable Metres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Schaffel of 8 Achtel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 24 Nossel 
-* 5-152269 British Imperial Bushels, or 187*27296 Litres. 
The Achtel -> 6-152269 British Imperial Gallons, or 28*40912 
Litres. The Metzen « 2*5761347 British Imperial Gallons, or 
11*70456 Litres. The NSssel (374 Cubic Zoll) « -80871157 
British Imperial Pint, or -48769 Litre. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Eimer of 72 Maass each, of 2 Nossel « 18*2433048 
British Imperial Gallons, or 60*1704 Litres. The Maass « 



148 UEASrBES. 

1-471478 British Imperial Pint, or -8557 litre. The NdBsel 
(3213 CaMc ZoU) » •735789 British Imperial Pint, or '41785 
Litre. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are the same as those of Schwarzhnrg-Sonders- 
hansen (which see). 



(2.) Low Sovereignty and Frankenhaiisen. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fnss of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Linien, is the same as that 
of Pmssia (see Pmssia). The Elle is that of Leipsic (see 
Saxony). 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Acker 160 Square Rnthen, or 40960 Sqnare Fnss » 
3 9 09 874374 English Sqnare Yards, or '80782 English Acre, 
or 32*69 Ares. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Schefi'el of 4 Yiertel, each of 2 Metzen, each of 2 
Miischen. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

The Eimer (Wine, Brandy, Vinegar), of 72 Maass, each of 
2 Nossel. The Kanne is 2 Maass, or 4 Nossel. The Fass of 
34 Stnhchen, each of 4 Maass, is also nsed for Brandy. Beer 
is sold hy the Ohm Kanne of 8 Maass. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are Ihe same as those of Pmssia, (which see). 



WALDECK AND PYBMOKT. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fnss of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linien - 11-5120189 En^h 
Inches, or '2U24 M^tre. The Rhein Fnss is also nsed, it is 
eqnal to 12*356522 English Inches, or -81385 Mdtre. The Elle 
of 2 Fnss « 1*9186698 English Feet, or *5848 M^tre. 



PBrssiA. 140 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Mutte of 4 Soheffel - 45*26596 British Imperial 
Gallons, or 206*664 Litres. The SohefTel (for Wheat, Barley 
Rye, Peas,) - 11*31649 British Imperial Gallons, or 51*416 
Litres. The Oats-Scheffel - 12*465835 Brilibh Imperial 
Gallons, or 56*688 Litres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Ohm of 16| Eimor, each of Maass* « 81*4842060 
British Imperial Gallons, or 142*82 Litres. The Eimer -> 
1*8860524 British Imperial Gallons, or 8*5692 Litres. The 
MaasB -» 2*5147865 British Imperial Pints, or 1*428*2 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are the same as those of Prussia (see Pmssia). 
Formerly two systems of Commercial Weights were in use, 
namely. Heavy {Schicere) Weight, and Light (Leighte) Weight; 
the Pfnnd heing in each system divided into 82 Loth, each of 
4 Quentchen. The Schwere Pfund - 1*050194 lbs. Av. English, 
or 476*852 Grammes. The Leighte Pfund = 1-030480 lbs. 
Av. English, or 476*41 Grammes. The Pfund of 84 Loth (for 
Butter and Meat) - P09559 lbs. Av. EngliKh, or 406*013 
Grammes. 

BEIJSS. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fuss of 12 ZoU, each of 12 Liiiieu, » 11*27973 English 
Inches, or *28G5 M6tre. The Leipsic Fuss is also used (sco 
Saxony). The EUo is 2 Fuss « 22*65946 English Inches, or 
•6780 Mt^tre. It is divided into \, h i EUe. The Ruthe of 16 
Fuss - 6*0182189 English Yards, or 4-684 Metres. Tho 
Leipsic Ruthe of 16 Leipsio Fuss (see Saxony) is also used. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Tho Scheffel of 120 Square Ruthen, or 80720 Square Fuss, 
e 3016*8776 English Square Yards, or •62811 Acre, or 
25*2156672 Ares. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Scheffel of 4 Viertel, each of 4 Maass « 2*92068286 
British Imperial Bushels, or 106*16 Litres. The Viertel « 



150 MEASITBES. 

6 941' 657 British Imperial Gallons, or 26*54 Litres, The 
Miass*» 1*46034143 British Imperial Gallonst or 6135 litreB. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Ehncr of 72 Kamien •* 14*6025339 British Imperial 
Gallon!?, or 66*346 Litres. The Kanne « 1*6225037 Brittsh 
Imperial Pint, or -9214 Litres. The Fass (Beer) of 6 Eimer 
» 87*6152034 British Imperial Gallons, or 398*076 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The weights are the same as those of Prussia (see Prussia). 

SCHATJMBTJBG-LIFPE (or LIFPE 
BUCKEBUBG.) 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Fuss of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linien, = U*421466 English 
Inches, or '2901 Mfetre. The Elle of 2 Fuss = 22*842932 
English Inches, or •5802 M6tre. The Lachtcr of 7 Fuss — 
2-2208408 English Yards, or 2*0307 Metres. The Rnthe of 
10 Fuss = 6*0762076 English Yards, or 4*6416 Mfitres. The 
Faden is 2 Ellen. Yam is measured hy the Stuck of 20 Bind, 
each of 66 Faden. The Great Stuck is douhle the Stiick, and 
contains 5280 Ellen, the Stiick contams 2640 Ellen. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Morgen of 120 Square Ruthen - 8092*0980744 
Jinglish Square Yards or -030797 Acre, or 25*8533406 Ares. 
The Square Rutbe » 26*7674839 English Square Yards, or 
21*54445 Square Metres. 

CUBIC MEASURE. 

The Kla'ter of 216 Cubic Fass « 196-67119 EngUsh Cubic 
Feet, or 6*27347 Cubic Metros. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Fuder of 12 Malter, each of 6 Himten, each of 4 Metssena 
8*1634874 British Imperial Quarters, or 23'737890 HectoUttes. 
The Malter = 6*4423240 British Imperial Bushels, or 1-978158 
Hectolitres. The Hunten « 7 '256 133 British Imperial Gallons, 
or 32*9693 L'trcs. The Mctzcn = 1-814108 British Imperial 
Gallon, or 8-2123 Litres. 



PBU88IA. 151 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Oxhoft (Wine) of 6 Anker, each of 28 Maass, each of 4 
Ort - 46'136897 British Imperial Gallons, or 2*050776 Hecto- 
litres. The Anker » 7*522816 BritlBh Into^ial IGidlons, or 
84*1796 Litres. The Maass -^ 1*074688 British Imperial Qnart, 
or 1-2207 Litre. The Ort » '58784 BriUsh Imperial Pint, 
or •306175 Litre. The Dreiling (Brandy) of 108 Maass » 
29*016576 Gallons, or 131*8856 Litres. The Dreiling* (Beer) 
» 168 Maass -> 45*186897 BritiBh Imperial Gallona, or 
2*050776 HectoUtres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are the same as those of Pmssia (see Prussia), 
hat the Centner is 108 Pfund. 



LIPPE. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Pass of 12 Zoll, each of 12 Linnon » 11*89835 English 
Inches, or '289513 MHre. The Elle of 2 Fnss « 22*7967 
English Inches, or '579026 Metre. The Ililthc of 16 Fuss m 
5*065985 EngHsh Yards, or 4*632208 Metres. 

MEASURES OF. SURFACE. 

The Morgen of 120 Square Rnthen = 8078*60113 English 
Square Yards, or '636281 English Acre., H)r 267488 Ares. 
The Scheffel of 80 Square Ruthen -* 2053*06742-18 English 
Square Yards, or '424187 Acre, or 17*1658 Ares. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Rye-Scheffel of 6 large, or 8 small Metzen, or 24 Meal- 

Metzen. The Oats-Scheffel of 7 large Rjre-Metzen « 1*21855698 

British Imperial Bushel, or 44*2917 Litres. .' 7 Rye-Schoffel « 

6 Oats-SohefToI. 

« 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Kanno of 4 Oi't -« 1*2116057 British Imperial Quarts, or 
1'87G22 Litre. The Ort -» -6058028 British Imperial Pint, or 
•34405 Litre. The Oxhoft of IJ Ohm or, 6 Anker, or 162 
Kannen » 49*07003 British Imperial Gallons, or 2*2294764 

* The Beor Drolling contains the same quantity as tho Wiuo Oxhoft. 



152 MEASUBES. 

Hectolitres. The Anker is 27 Eannen, and » 8*17688 British 
Imperial Gallons, or d7'15794 Litres. The Ohm is 4 Anker, 
Bnd - 82*71882 British Imperial Gallons, or 1*4868176 Hecto- 
litres. The Beer Ohm « 100 Eonnen - 121*16057 British 
Imperial Quarts, or 187*622 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The weights for the Zollvcrein Customs' Duties are the same 
as the weights of Prussia (see Prussia) ; but the Pfnnd of 82 
Loth, each of 4 Quentchen, is also used ; it is equal to 1*0804801 
lb. av. English, or 467*41 Grammes. The Centner of 108 
Pfund a 111*2918508 lbs. av. English, or 60*48028 Kilo- 
grammes. 



GEBMAKY. (South.) 
BADEN. 



MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 

South German value, SyiUmatie name. Bngllth value. Metric value. 

Inches. Metres. 

lOPunkte - 1 Lmie - -118 - •003 

10 Linien - 1 ZoU « 1*181 - '03 

lOZoll - IFuss » 11*811 a -3 

Feet. 

2 Fuss - lElle - 1*96858 - -6 

10 Fuss * IRuthe - 9*84269 » 8 

The Elle is divided into i, \, i, -^ EUe. The Elafter of 6 
Fuss -i 6*905618 English Feet, or I-8 M(^tre. For Itinerary 
measures the Stundeof 14814*8148 Fuss « 4860*5911 Yards 
EnffliHh, or 4444*4 M6tres, and the Meile of 2 Stunden *- 
6*5284 Miles EngUsh. 

MEASUBES OF SX7BFACE. 

South Oerman value, SyBtematie name, Bngli$h value. Metric value, 

84. Yards. So. Uetres. 

100 Sq. ZoU - 1 Sq. Fufs- '1076429824- -09 

100 Sq. Fuss -ISq.Ruthe-i 10*76429824 - 9 

100 Sq. Buthen •• 1 Viertel - 1076*429824 » 900 
4Viertel - 1 Morgen «4d05*71929C »8600 

For Land Measure the Square Buihe is also divided into 10 
FeUlschtihe, each of 10 Thcilo (Fcld Zollj. 



PBUSSIA. 



158 



CUBIC MEASURES. 

The Klafter of (G x x 4 Fnss) 144 Cnbio Fa8B-il87'81507 
Enfflish Cubic Feet, or 8'BB8 Cubic Mitred. The Cubic FuBS 
» -OCSSTOB English Cubic Fuss, or -OOO Cubic Mdtre. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

South Otrman Falue. Sytttmailc nam, 

1 Glass - 
>i 1 Maass « 



10 jQlass 

10 Maass 
10 Stutzcn 
10 Ohm 



1 Stntze 
lOhm 
1 Fuder 



BmpihhvalM, Metric valut, 

Ulll. Uttw. 

r05C82 - *16 

Quart. 

1*8304 » 10 

UallonB. 

8-8014 » 16 

88014 - 160 

880*140 « 1600 



The Maass is also diviiled into 2 Half-Maass, each of 2 Quar- 
ter Maass or Sclioppeu, each of 2 Half-Sohoppeu. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS, 



South Qerman valuta By$t€wiatto name, BnglUh valuf, 

DuHheli. 

» IMiisslein * -0418 

« 1 Bester « -4127 

» IMaltcr » 4-12<}8 

- 1 Zuber - 41-2670 

WEIGHTS. 



10 Beoher 
1^ Mjisslein 

10 Maltir 



South German value, Syetematlo name, EngUih value, 

UraliiKTroy. 

10 As - 1 Pfennig - 7'710d - 

10 Pfennig -* 1 Contas » •()il028» 
10 Centas •- 1 Zehnling « *11028 » 
10 Zehnling » 1 Pfund - 1*1028 - 



Metric value, 
LltrsR. 

1-6 
16 

- 160 

- 1600 



l^ftrlo value, 
Graminci. 

*5 



6 

60 

600 



KlloffntmintR. 

100 Pfund » 1 Centner » 110*280 - 60000 or 60 



BAVABIA. 



Bavarian value, 
12 Linien 

12ZoU 

6 Fnss 

10 Fuss 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Syetemaiic name, Bngliih value, 

InohQM. 

IZoU -i '95750 

1 Fuss -- '05750 
llClafter • 6-74586 
IRuthe « 8*5756 



Metrie value, ^ 
Motritii. 

•02'i82 

*20180 
. 1*75116 
• 2-0186 



154 MEASUBE8. 

Snrvejors divide the Fuss into 10 Zoll, each 10 Linien. The 
EUe contains 2 Fuss 10^ Zoll, and equals '91101 English Yard, 
or 2'73S0a EngUsh Feet, or -QZS M^re. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Bawirian value, Syitematie name. English value. Metric value. 

Sq.Yarda. Sq. Metres. 

^^2^j[j-|lSq.Fu88 - -10187970 - -0851818 

"^^^^^-jlSq.Rnthe - 10-187970 » 8-61818 

(4076-18810 



400 Sq. 
Ruthen 



1 Tagwerk,] 
Morgen, or v 
Juchert j 



Acre. 

or -842 



-8407-272 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



The Cubic Fuss of 1728 Cubic Zoll » -878 English Cubic 
Foot, or -02486 Cubic Mdtre. The Klafter of (6 x 6 x 3^ Fuss) 
126 Cubic Fuss -» 110-628 English Cubic Feet, or 3*1325 
Cubic Metres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Bavarian valv£, Syitematie name. EngUsh value, Metrie value. 

Btubels. Litres. 

4Dreisiger8 » 1 Maassl - '12745 » 463245 

4Maas8l8 - 1 Yiertel » -5098 - 18*5298 

2Viertel - 1 Metze - 1-0196 - 87-0596 

6Metzen - 1 Schaffel » 61176 « 222*3576 



Quarten. 

4Scha&l - IMuth - 8-0588 - 889-4304 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Bavarian value. Systematic name. English value. Metrie value. 

imperial Oallons. Litres. 

1 Maaskanne » -23529 » 1-00903 
60 Maaskannen » 1 Eimer » 16*05856 « 68-4179 

25 Eimer » 1 Fass » 876*464 » 1710*448 

m 

The Schenk-Eimer, the ordinary Eimer used in the Wine 
trade, contains only 60 Maaskannen, and equals 14-1174 British 
Imperial Gallons, or 64*1418 Litres. 



WEIGHTS. 

II Av. Qrammei. 



urami Av. uramm 

4 Quentchen - 1 Loth - 9-87656 - 17-5 



Bavarian value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value, 

82 Loth - 1 Pfnnd - 1-28467 - 660 

KllograinineB. 

100 Pfund » 1 Centner « 128*457 - 66000 or 66 



PBrssiA. 155 

The Apothecaries* Pfand, or Pftud of Nnremherg, is diyided 
into 24 Loth, each of 12 Unzen. 14 Apothecaries* Pfnnd ■■ 9 
Commercial Pfond. The Apothecaries' Pfond « -793652 lbs. 
ay., or 360 Grammes. 

The Mark for weighing the precious metals » 8608*9506 
English Troy Grains, or 283*855 Grammes, and is divided as 
in Prussia, for Gold into 24 Carats, each of 12 Grains, and for 
Silver into 16 Loth, each of 18 Grains. 

Li Bhenish Bavaria the Fuss « i M^tre, or 18*128596 
English Inches, and the Elle » 1| Mdtre, or 47*244948 English. 
Inches. The Cuhic Klafter is 6 x 6 x 6 - 144 Cuhic Fuss. 
Dry goods are measured by the Hectolitre, (see Fnmce) divided 
into 4 Yiernfel, each of 2 Simmer, each of 4 Vierling. 



WTTBTEMBXTBa. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Wurtemburg value, SifsUmatic name. EngUth value. Metric value. 

Line. Metres. 

IPunkte - -11126 - -00028^ 

Inehee. 

lOPunkte - 1 Linie - -1126 - -002864 

lOLinien » 1 Zoll » 1*126 - -028649 

Feet. 

10 Zoll - IFuss a •9399& - -28649 

10 Fuss - 1 Buthe « 9*3995 « 2*8649 

The Elafter of 6 Fuss « 6*6397 English Feet, or 1-71894 
Mdtre. The Elle of 2*144 Fuss - 2*01525 English Feet, or 
•614234 Metre. The MeUe of 26000 Fuss - 8146*28316 
EngHsh Yards, or 4*6285 English Miles, or 7*44876 KUo- 
me&es. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Wurtemburg value, 8y$Umaiic name, EnglUh v<Uu0, Metric value,. 
inn fl/infl.rA 1 Bq. Feet. 8q. Metre. 

ZoU f"^^-^*^*- -888606 - -0820766 

lOOSquare j . J ^S^.} _ 88-8606002 - 8-207662 



The Morgen is also divided into 4 Yiertels. 



Sq.Terds. 

(3768*625608) 

Acre. \ - 8161*78887 
or -77884 j 



156 



ICEASTTBES. 



CUBIC MEASURES. 

Wurtembwrg vcUtie. Systematic name, 
1000 Cubic 



BnglUh name. 
- Cubic Feet. 



Metric value. 
Cubic Metres. 



Linida 
1000 Cubic 

, ZoU 
lU Cubic 
Fuss 



=1 Cubic ZoU = -00083046= -000023614 
=.1 Cubic Fuss = -8304514 = -023514176, 
»1 Cubic Elafter- 866-985 -d'386 



The Elafter is used for measuring Firewood, it is 6 Fuss by 
6 Fuss by 4 Fuss. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

WurtemJmrg value. Systematic name 
4 Viertlein » 1 Ecldeiu 

uaiions. 

BEcklein = 1 Vierlinsr = 1-21896 = 6-5383125 
4 Vierling 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

-692289 



SSimri 



EnaUsh valu>e. 
Quarts. 

= 1;21896 = 

Gallons. 

= 1 Vierling = 1-21896 = 

Bushels. 

= 1 Simri - 1-21896 = 22-15325 

= IScbeffel - 4-87584 =177-226 



There is also the Mdsshin of 2 Ecklein = 2-43792 English 
Quarts, and the Achtel of 2 Masslein, equal to half a Vierling, 
or to -60948 of a British Imperial Gallon. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Wurtemburg value. Systematic name, 

1 Quart or \ 



English value. 
GiUs. 



Metric value, 
Litres. 



4 Quarts or) 
SchoppenJ. 



Schoppen 

7 1 Helleich ) 
\ Maass ) 



Maass J . 
16 Imi -■' 1 Eimer 

6 Eimer = 1 Fuder 



8-23464 

Quarts. 

= 1-61732 

Gallons. 

= 4-0433 

= 64-6928 
«d88'1568 



-45926 
1-83704 



18-3704 

203-9264 
1783-5584 



WEIGHTS. 



Metric valuer 
Gnunmes. 

14-5853 



Wurtemhurg value. Systematic name. English value. 

Oz. At. 

4 Quentchen = 1 Loth >- -515575 = 

lbs. ar. 

32 Loth = IPfund - 103115 = 466-73 

lS2SMPf?nd}= ^^^^^^^ -107-2396 - 4858-992 
100 Light Pfund -103-115 = 4673-0 



PEUSBIA. 



167 



The Zollpfnnd (| EHogramme) with its decimal BubdiTisions 
(see ProsBia) is also used. 



HESSE-DABMSTADT. 



MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 



Jkmuiadt •oIm. SjfBttmatie nawu. 

1 Linie 
10 Linien « 1 ZoU 

10 ZoU « 1 Fobs 

10 Fuss » 1 Elafter 



Engli$hvdl,ut. 
InchM. 

- -098426 

- -984269 

- 9*842697 

Faet. 

» 8*2022 



Mttrie value. 
Metre. 

•0025 
•025 
i» -25 

« 2*5 



The EUe of 24 ZoU « 1-9685395 English Foot, or •« Mdtre. 



Darwutait value, 

lOOSq. ZdU 

lOOSq. FasB 

100 Square \ 
Elafter | 

4Viertel 
Morgen 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Sifitematie tume, EnglUh value. 

8q. Fee(. 

-1 Sq. FosB - -6727608 

1 Sq. Elafter» 67*27608 

'Knl- 6727-60848 
' ] [26910-48398 

r " ■ Acre. 

J I or -61788^ 



( 



1 Morgen 



Mttrie value, 
8q. Metres. 

•0625 
- 6-25 

" 625 

r2600or 

i 26 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



Damtitadt value, Syitematie name. EnglUh value, MeUie voZtie, 

Cubic Feet. Cubic Metref . 

1000 Cubic ZoU = 1 Cubic Fuss = -6518119- -015626 
1000 Cubic Fa8s» 1 Cubic Elafter - 661*811903 « 16*625 

The Stecken of 100 Cabic Fuss » 56*18119 English Cnbio 
Feet, or 1*5625 Metre. It is used for measuring Firewood, and 
is 5 Fuss by 5 Fuss by 4 Fuss. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Darmiiadt value. 

4 Maaschen 
4 Gescheid 
4 Eumpf 
4 Simmer 



SijitemaHc name. 

1 Gescheid 
1 Kumpf 
1 Simmer 
1 Malter 



EnjUih value. Metric value 

Bushels. Litres 

•055 « 2 

•2201 « 8 

-8804 = 82 

3*5216 =- 128 



158 icEAsrBi;8. 

The Maasehen is eqnal to i Litre, or *44 Britisli Imperial; 
Gallon. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Darmttadt value, Systematie name. English value. Metric value, 

Galloni. LifefSi. 

4 Quarts or Schoppen ss 1 Maass ■- -44019 •■ 2 

4Maas8 - IViertel » 1*76076 » 8 

20 Viertel » 1 Ohm « 86*2152 « 160 

6 Ohm - IFuder » 211*2912 « 960 

The Qnart or Schoppen is eqnal to | Litre, or *44 British 
Imperial Qallon. 



WEIGHTS. 




Darmttadt value. 8y$tematie name. English value. 
4 Pfennig = 1 Qu6ntchen=. •mW « 


Metrl€ vahie, 
Onunnea. 

8*90625 


4 Qnentchen » 1 Loth » '55116 = 
32 Loth - 1 Pfnnd - ri623 » 


16-625 
600 


100 PfuBd - 1 Centner « 110*233 « 


_ Kiloffnmma*. 

60000 or 60 



MECKLENBUBQ - SCHWEBIN : MECKLEN- 

BUBQ STBELITZ. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Mecklenburg value. Systematie name. Englieh value. Metric value, 

InchM. MetfM. 

10 Punkte - 1 linie «. , ^ -11456 « -00291 

10 Linien «= 1 Zoll = * 114568 « '0291 

lOZoU » IFnss » 11-45689 « -291 

Yards. 

IGFuss » IRnthe » 6*09182 » 4*656 

The Linear measm-es given in the tahle are those of Mecklen- 
hurg, and are nsed in Land Surveying. The Rostock Fuss » 
11*326936 English Inches, or -287699 Metre. The Fass nsed 
h.y Bonders is the same as that of Hamburg. The Rostock 
Elle of 2 RoBtock Fuss » 22*653872 En^sh Inches, or 
'575398 Metre. The Mecklenburg Meile is the same as that of 
Prussia. 



PBVSSIA. 150 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Hufe is a TariAble ineasnre, signifying as much land as 
300 Rostock Soheffeln of Grain will sow. The Morgen is also 
a Tariable measnre. In some places it is 400, in others 800, in 
others 200, and in others 100 Square Hnthen. A Square Ruthe 
- 26*9266527 English Square Yards, or 84*7578 Square 
Metres* 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

The (Builders') Cubic Furs is the same as the Hamburg Ciibio 
Fuss, and » '88115 EugliRh Cubic Foot, or '023584 Cubic 
Metre. The Faden of 147 (Builders') Cubic Fuss - 122*17905 
English Cubic Feet, or 8*459498 Cubic Metres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Mchwerin value* Suitfrnatle name, Xnglhh value, Metrte value, 

Iiuperial Quarter. Liircn. 

4 Spint or Metzen- [ ^ vlertel] * -088485- 972225 

4 Viertel or Fass - 1 Soheffel « *18874 - 38-889 

•12 Scheffel - 1 Drttmt - 1'60488 - 466*668 

8Dramt - 1 Last - 12*88904 -8788*844 

Salt and Coal are measured with a smaller Last of 12 Tonne, 
each of 6 Soheffeln. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Sehwerin valuei Sif$temaUe tumie, 


EnfflUh value. 


Metric value. 


lPoll,or\ 
Quartier i 


Imperial IMnta. 

- 1*594706- 


Lltrci. 
•905685 


2 Poll, or Quartier — 1 Kanne 


- 8-18941 - 


1-811.']? 


2 Eannen ■- 1 Stubchei 
2 Stubchen » 1 Viertel 


I- 6-87882 - 

Imporial (}aUoiM. 

« 1*59470 - 


3-62274 
7-24548 


4 Viertel - 1 Eimer 


- 6*87880 - 


28-9H192 


l\ Eimer, or 5 Viertel- 1 Anker 


- 7-97850 - 


86-22749 


4 Anker, or 24 Viertel- 1 Ohm 


- 81*89400 - 


144-909C(> 


U Ohm, or 6 Anker - 1 Qxhoft 


-47-84100 - 


217-7644e 


4 Oxhoft, or 6 Ohm - 1 kudcr 


-191*86400 - 


871-05700 



160 



HEASX7BES. 



WE^j&HTg. 



Sehwerin value. 
4 Qnentclien 
32 Loth 

112Pfand 



Sjatematie naiie. Englhh value. Metric value, 

Oz. At. Orunmes. 

ILoth ^ '56022 » 16*88215 

lb«. At. 

IPfund 112044 - 608*229 

(66921-648 or 

Centner — 126*48928 ^ \ Knosnmunes. 

66*921648 



The Schiffspfond of 20 LieBpfimd, each of 14 Pfnnd » 
313*7232 IbB. ay. English, or 142*30412 EilogrammeB. There 
is also the Schiffspf nnd of 20 Liespfond, each of 16 Pfnnd. It 
is equal to 368*5408 n^s. av. English, or 197*76137 Kilo- 
grammes. In Bostock there are two Pfnnds of different wei^ts 
in use, namely, the Stadt-gevncht (public scales weight) Pfond, 
and the Kramer-gewicht (retail weight) Pfnnd. The former is 
that given in the table. The Eramer-gewicht Pfond = 1*06708 
lb. ay. English or 484*028 French Grammes. 



HAMBUBG. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Hambv/rff value. 

8 Achtel c 
12 ZoU 

2 Fnss B 
6 Fuss 



SyttemaUc name, 

IZoll 
IFuss 

lElle 

1 Klafter or Faden 



English value, 
InchM. 

= *94021 
= 11*28252 

Feet. 
= 1*88042 

-= 6-64126 



MeMe «altt#. 
Metres. 

« -02388 
- -28667 

= -67314 
= 1-71942 



The EUe giyen in the table is the Hamburg EUe, used for 
Silk, Linen, and Cotton goods. The Brabant Elle used for 
Cloths and Stuffs is equal to 1\ Hamburg Elle, and therefore 
to 2-2565 English Feet, or -687768 M^tre. In practice, 4 
Brabant Ellen are reckoned equal to 3 English Yards. There 
are 8 sorts of Buthe used in Hamburg, namely the Marsch- 
Buthe of 14 Hamburg Fuss, and equal to 13*16294 English 
Feet, or 4*01198 Mdtres ; the Geest-Buthe of 16 Hamburg 
Fuss, and equal to 16*04336 English Feet, or 4*58512 Mdtres ; 
and the Bheinland-Buthe of 12 Bheinland Fuss, and equal to 
12*35592 English Feet, or 3*7662 Metres. The Bheinhmd or 
Prussian Fuss, used by Snryeyors and Engineers, is divided 
into 12 Zoll, each of 10 Linien, each of 10 Theile, and is oqaal 
to 1*02976 English Foot, or -31385 Metre. 



HAHBrBG. 



lOL 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 
Bumhurg valuta 8jf9tematie luime. 

U4Sq.Zolls ISq.Fasa » 
1 Square' 



EiulUh value. 
M.7e«t. 
•%8400 « 



196 Sqr. 
Fobs 



966 Sqr 
Fuss 



■}■ 



i)00 Sqr. 
Geest- 
Bnthen 



600 Sqr.] 
Horsch-r 
Buthen j 



Marsch- 
, Rathe 

1 Sqnare' 
Geest' 
, Rnthe 

(iSchefbl 
•< Geest 
land 



1 Morgen 



173-264 - 



226-304 - 



/ Sq. Yard*. \ 

6 028-977 or | 

AOIM. 

1-039 

8q. Yards. 

'11660*983 or I 



I 



Acres. r 

2-386 j 



Metric vMlue, 
8q. Metres. 

082123 



16-0961fi 



21-0234M 



4204-G97 

Ares. 

42046 

8q. Metres. 

9667-664 ar 

Ares. 

96*576 



A space called Trayelboden is 5600 Hambnrg Square Fass, 
and is equal to 660*4 English Square Yards, or 469'8889 
Square Metres. 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

Hamburg value, Syitematie name, EnglUh valite. Metric value. 

Cubic Feet. Cubic Metres. 

1728 Cubic Zoll » 1 Cubic Fuss - -38115 - 2*3534 
88f Cubic Fuss - 1 Cubic Elafter - 73*88 » 2*091911 

120 Cubic Fuss :=» 1 Tehr - 99*788 «» 2*82408 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Syttenialic name. 



Sawiburg value, 

2 0ssel 
2 Quartier 
2 Eannen 
2 Stubchen 
4 Viertel 
6 Viertel, or ) 

l^Eimer/ 
6 Eimer, or ) 

24 Viertel J 
4 Anker, or [ 

6 Eimer j 
6 Anker, or ) 

U Ohm j 

6 Ohm 



1 Qnartier 
1 Kanne 
1 Stubchen 
1 Viertel 
1 Eimer 

1 Anker 
1 Tonne 
lOhm 
1 Oxhof t 



EnglUh value. 
Imperial OaUoiw. 

•1998376- 

•398675 - 

•79786 = 

1-69470 - 

6*37880 - 



Metric value, 
Lilrw. 
•905689 

1-81137 

3-62274 

7-24648 

28*98192 



7*97360 
88-27280 
81-89400 
47-84100 



CI Fuder, or) ___ ^^.^^ 

X Tonn;au|-lW-36400 



- 86*2274 
= 178*89162 
« 144*9096 
= 217*3644 
= 860*4576 



1«2 



HSASUBJEI. 



The above are the mearares for Wines and Bfiriiti, For Beer 
there are the Tonne of 48 Stnhchen, the Kleine-Tonue of 40 
Stubchen, and the Schmal.Tonue of 82 Stnbchen. The TomM 
af Vinegar is 80 Stubchen. The Tonne of Oil is 32 Stnbchen. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Eamburg value. SytUmatle name. 


SnglUh value. 


Hetrie value. 




ImMriAl Bu«heU. LitrM. 


% Small Maass a 1 "Ltx^e Maasa 


- -04725 - 1-71762 


4 Large Maass » 1 Spint 


'18001 B 6-870187 


4 Spint - 1 Himten 


- -75604 - 27-48075 


2 Himten » 1 Fass 


- 1-51208 - 64*9615 


2 Fass » 1 Scheifel 


«. d'02416 - 109*928 


10 Scheffeln « 1 Wispel 


» 80-2416 « 1099*28 






8297*69 or 


8 Wispel - 1 Last 


-» 90*7248 « ■ 


Hectolitre^ 

82*9769 







Of Wheat, Rye, or Peas, the Scheffel contains 2 Fass ; but 
of Barley or Oats it contains 8 Fass. 100 Fass -> 18*9010 
British Imperial Quarters, or 64*9615 Hectolitres. The Tonne 
of Salt - 4*5387 British Imperial Bushels, or 164*794 Litres. 
The Tonne of Lime is 6 Himten or 8 Fass, and is eqoal to 
4*58624 British Imperial Bushels, or 164*8845 Litres. 



WEIGHTS. 

Eamhurg value, Systematle naiHe. BnglUh value, 

lb. •▼. 
•0110282 

•110282 



10 Qninten 



10 Half Grammen « 1 Quint » 

fKNew)) 
" \ Unze ) - 

fl(New' 
10 (New) Unzcn » \ Metric) 

(Pfund 



Meirie vahte, 
Qnxamm. 

6 
60 



110282* -i 



600 



100 Pfund 



1 Centner - 110*282 » 



r 60000 or 

KUofrrunmu. 

60 



600 (New) Hnnd 



- 8000 



1 Last ' 

(Com- ■ B 6619 '92 
^raerciolj^ 

This (New Metric) weight is employed in the trade of gold 

and silver bullion, hut special weights called hank weights, and 

gold and silver money weighu are employed for weighing silver 

n the Hamburg Bank, and U r weighing gold and silver money. 

There are also JpoOiecariee* weights used in mixing medicines. 



• Or,*6265MofaTn>ylb. 



HAMBUBe. 163 



(a) GOLD MONEY WEIGHTS. 

Hamhurff value* 8if$tematic ttanu, BnglUh val«tf. M«Me 9mlu$% 

Troy QraiiiB. OrmmmM. 

12GramB . 1 Carat - 1*2511 « 9*744 

24 Carats, 

or 
288 Grains 



1 Hamburg ^ 
Cologne 
Mark 



» 80*0264 -288*856 



(h) SILVER MONEY WEIGHTS. 

18 Grains « 1 Unza » 1-87665 - 14*61A9I 

IftUnzenor' 

Loth, or 
288 Grains 



1 Hamburg 
Cologne 
Mark 



-* 800264 -288*855 



The Hamburg Cologne Mark is equal to '62655 of the English 
». Troy. 

(c) APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 

20 Grains - 1 Scruple - 2*893815 a 1*25 
8 Scruples- 1 Dram - 67*866800875- 8*75 

8 Drams - 1 Unze - 462*98047 - 80 

The Apothecaries' Unze is equal to 6 Quints (J-) ef the Ham- 
burg (New Metric) Unze, or to *96 &c, of the English Onnee 
Avoirdupois. 

For weighing Precious Stones the Loth or Unze (see Silyer 
Money Weights) Is divided into 71 Karats of 4 Grains each. 

Com, Pulse, and Seeds are sold, wholesale, by iceightt not 
measure, viz. :-^ 

Wheat per Last of 5400 lbs. <7roM-weight. 

Rye J .1 . . . . II 5100 „ ,, 

Buck-Wheat and Barley.. „ 4800 „ „ 
Anhalt and Magdeburg Barley according to measure. 

Small Danish Barley . . per Last of 4820 lbs. ^»'OM-weighC 

Oats . . . . . • „ 8600 „ ,y 

Malt • * . • „ 8000 ,, HcU 

Peas and Vetches . . „ 5600 „ gross-weighi. 

Beans . . • . • • »i 5520 ,| », 

Rapeseed and Turnip-seed „ 4800 „ „ 

Linseed per 180 lbs. 

Other Seeds . . . . at 100 lbs. net 

Wheat-Flour for exportation per Barrel of 177 lbs. net^ ditto 
EBglieh, per Sack of 280 lbs. (including the Sack). 



164 



HlABt7BB0. 



BBEMEir. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Bremen value. 


By9Umatle name. 
1 liinie 


. 


EnglUh value, 
iDcbe*. 
•09498 




Metna. 

•002009 


10 liiliieii 


« IZoll 


a 


•94988 


'« 


•02411 


12ZoU 


» IFnss 


a 


11-89196 


s 


•28985 


2FnHR 


» lEUe 


» 


22-78892 


\ 


•67870 


8 Ellen 


= 1 Klafter 


» 


reet. 

6-69598 




1-7861 


8 Ellen 


1 1 Bathe 


■■ 


16.18928 


B 


4-6296 



Snrreyorfl and Engineers divide the Fnss into 10 Zoll. 

100 Bremen Ellen are eqnal to 68'2888 English Yards, and 
100 Eng^sh Yards are eqnal to 168*006 Bremen Ellen. The 
Bremen Brabant EUe is 1| Bremen Ellen, and is eqnal to 
•769468 English Yard, or -66444 M^tre. 



MEASTJBES OF SURFACE. 



Bremen talue. 



Systematic nam£. 



144 Sq. Zoll* - ISq.Fnss » 
266 Bq. Fuss « 1 Sq. Rathe » 

120 Sq. Rnthens 1 Morgen • 



EnglUh value. Metric valmg, 

S4anT4«. 8qu*re Matna. 

•10088 «. -084 

26-6868 « 21-604 

fd082'2896| 2680-4801; 

AcTM. f ^* Am. 

or -68682] 26'8048 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



Bremen value. Sy$t€matie name. Snglieh value. Metric vakie. 

Cable Feet. CaMcKetim. 

1728 Cnbic Zollf - 1 Cnbic Fnss « -857 » '024 
72 Cubic Fnss - 1 Faden » 61*704 « 1-728 

The Faden is 6 Fuss x 6 Fuss x 2 Fuss. 



* Or 100 Square Dedmal Zoll. 
•f Or 1000 Cubic Decimal Zoll. 



BBEHSK. — L17BSC. 



166 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Bremsn vdlut, SffttemaHe name, 

4 Miiigeln » 1 Qnartier i 
4 Qnartier a 1 Stiibchen « 



BnglUh value. 
Imperial Pints. 
1-4180726 - 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

•787 



9 Qnartier, or] , ,r. . , 
SiStubchonj 1 Viertel 

6 Viertel 



4 Anker 
6 Anker 
6 Ohm 



« 1 Anker 
« lOhm 
- lOzhoft 
B IFnder 



6-67229 a 

Imperial Oallons. 
» 1-560 

- 7-800 

- 81-200 
» 46-800 

- 280*800 » 



8*149 



7*086 

85-430 

141-720 

212*580 

1275*480 



The principal Measures for Wines and Spirits are the Viertel, 
the Anker, and the Ozhoft. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

BretMH value, Syttematiename, Englith value, Metrievdlue^ 

Imperial Bushels. Litres. 

4 Spinta - 1 Viertel « -50 » 18*526 

4 Viertel » 1 Soheffel - 2-0388 - 74*104 

Imperial Quarters. 

40 Soheffeln « 1 Last » 81*552 or 10*194 » 2964*160 

WEIGHTS. 
The Weights are the same as those of Hamhorg (see Ham* 

LXJBEC. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Luhee value, 

12Punkte 
12 Linien 
12ZoU 

2Fn38 
8 Ellen 



Syttemaiie name, 

1 Ponkte 
■ 1 Lime 

- IZoU 
» 1 Fass 

- lElle 

B 1 Rathe 



EnglUh value. 
Inches. 

•00655 
•07868 
•94865 

11-8288 ' 

Feet. 
1-88730 

15-0984 



Metrie value. 
Metres. 

•0001666 
•0019978 
•0289688 
•28762 

•57624 
4*60192 



The Lnhec Geographical Mile of 15 to an Equatorial Degree, 
IS eqnal to 4*6807 English MUes. 



166 



KEiiSTrBES. 



Lubee value. 



MEASURES OF SUBFACE. 



Syit&matie name. 



English value. Metrie value, 
Squnre Feet. Square Metrea. 

144 Square Zoll »1 Square Fuss ^ -8904758 « -0827252 

Square Tarda. 

256 Square Fuss - 1 Square Bnthe « 25*32907 « 21'177667 

The Scheffel is as much kud as a Sche£ffl of Grain will sow, 
«nd is therefore an area which varies with different Grains, and 
with different qualities of the same Grain. From 60 to 70 
Scheffehi ai'e. reckoned to the Square Buthe, and 24 Scheffeln 
to the Tonne, and 4 Tonne to the Last. 

The Scheffel of 60 Square Buthen « 1569*7446 English 
Square Yards, or 1270*66006 Square Metres. 

MEASUBES OP CUBIC CAPACITY. 

The Faden- 74.912 Cuhio Feet English. For the mea- 
surement of Firewood there are the Stadtfaden and the Forst- 
faden. The Stadtfaden a 6 Fuss 7i Zoll high, 6 Fuss 7i Zoll 
broad. 10 Forstfaden are reckoned equal to 11 Stadtfaden. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 



Lubec Value. 



2 0rt 

2 Plank 
2 Quartier 
2 Kannen 
2 Stubchen 
4 Viertel 
6 Viertel 
4 Anker 
6 Anker, or 

80 Viertel, or 

1^ Ohm 

4 Oxhoft, or 
6 Ohm 



} 



Syitematie name, 
lOrt 

- 1 Plank 

»*1 Quartier 
a 1 Kanne 
« 1 Stubchen 

- 1 Viertel 
an 1 Eimer 
>" 1 Anker 
» lOhm 

-i 1 Oxhoft 
= IFuder 



English value. 

am. 
1-6012 = 
Imperial Pint. 

•8006 « 
Imperial OaUona. 

/ -20015- 
*40080» 
•80060- 
1*6012 = 
6*4048 B 
8 0060 » 



Metrie value* 
Litres. 

•22734376 
•4546875 

•909376 

1*81876 

3*6376 

7-276 
29*100 
86*375 



- 32-0240 » 146*500 

- 48*0360 -218*250 



192144 -878 



The Fass for Brandy (in the wholesale trade) — 1 Oxhoft. 
The Fass or Ohm for Beer (m the wholesale trade) is 80 
Kannen, each of 2 Quartier or krossi and is equal to 82*79798 



* Th« Quartier is also called a Bonteille in Wine measnrenient. 



IilTBlO. — SPAIK. 



167 



British Imperial Gallons, or 140 '01 6 Litres. The Beer Kanne 
-•40997 British Imperial Galloxis, or 1*8627 litre. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

XngU$h value, Metrie voIim; 
BxuImIs. Litres. 

- -95448 - 84*694 
= 8-81792 - 188*776 

Qtturteni. 

- 1-48172 » 416-828 

- 11-45876 - 8880-624 

The Soheffel and its multiples ahoye giyen are nsed for mea« 
snring Wheat, Rye, Barley, and Peas. The Soheffel for Oats 
and Fmit is larger, and » *18589 British Imperial Quarters, 
or 88*514 Litres. Its multiples, the Tonne, Diomt, and Last, 
are in proportion. 



Lubee value. 




Syttematie name. 


4Fa8S 


a 


1 Soheffel 


4 Soheffel 


« 


1 Tonne 


8 Tonne 


a 


IDromt 


8Dromt 


» 


ILast 





WEIGHTS. 


« 


Lubec value. 


8if$temaHe fume* 
1 Pfennmg 


XnglUh value, Metrie vaUte, 
Os. At. Ormmmefi. 

» -03851 - -958607 


4 Pfenning 


— 1 Qnentche 


» 


•18406 « 8-814429 


4 Quentchen ^ 


« ILoth 


a 


•53625 » 15*257718 


2 Loth 


•■ 1 TJnze 


- 


10726 - 80-415487 


8 XJnzen 


» IMark 


. 


IM. •▼. 

•53625 » 248*8236 


2 Marks, or ^ 
82 Loths } 


» IPfund 


». 


10725 » 486-647 


14 Hund 


» 1 Liespfnnd 


. 


Kllonammes. 
15-015 • 6-813058 


8 Liespf nnd, or ) 

110 1>fnn<1 


* 1 Centner 


s. 


l-'0725 » 54*504464 



21^ Centner » 1 Sohifi^fnnd » 2805875 - 1171-845976 

The Freight Schifii9pfand contains 820 Pfand, or 20 Lies- 
pfnnd of 16 Pfund. 



SPAIN. 



MEASURES AND WEIGHTS. 

The Measures and Weights are exactly the same as those ol 
France. The Metro is the Mdtre ; the Litre is the Litre ; the 
Gramo is the Gramme; and the Area is the Are, and the 

* Doubtless Lnbeo will soon adopt the New Metric Weights which hare 
been introduced at Hamburg and Bremen. 



168 



lasAsriafl. 



Tonelada is 10 Metric Quintal of 100 Eilognunmes each. Tba* 
Metric system came into use on the Ist January, 1859 (see- 
France). It is also the legal system for all the Spanish 
Colonies, hnt the Old Spanish system of Weights and Measures 
is still occasionally referred to, it is therefore giren below. 



OLD MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 



Old Spaniih value, 8f»temaUe name, 

12 Pnntos ■> 1 Linea ■* 

12 Lineas » 1 Pnlgada » 

6 Pnlgadas •> 1 Sesma » 
3 Sesmas, er\ f 1 Pies de) 

12 Pnlgadas j ^ iBorgos J " 



8 Pies de 
Bnrgos 

2 Yaras 
4yaras 



} 



« IVara 

•- lEstado 
«- lEstadal 



5000 Varas - 



SOOOVaras - 



1 Legna ] 
(CastiUan) [ 






I 



1 Legoa 
(Spanish) 




Engliih value, 
InobM. 

•07725 : 

•927 « 

6-564 I 



11-128 
feet. 

2-782 

6-564 
11-128 

Miles. 
2-68446 or) 

Tardi. 

4636f 

MUm. 

2161 or^ 
74181 



Metric value. 
Mvtns. 

•001962 
•028558 
•1418ia 

•28264 

•84792 

1-69584 
8-89168 

"^ 423:9 

KiloinotrM« 

4-289^ 

Metres. 

f 6788-86 or 

XUoiMlree. 
6'7888& 



The Vara was also sobdivided into 4 Palmos of 9 Pnlgadas, 
or 12.Dedos, and eachDedo of 9 Lineas. 8 Pnlgadas » 4 
Dedos. 

The PuBo ==» 6 Vftras; the Ouerda » S^ Varas b88 Palmos. lOG 
EngUBh YardB =r-. 107*84 Yaras, and 100 Varag = 92-78 English Tarda. 
The Codo for measuring timber and masts was tiro-fhirds of the Tara. 

^ The Oeographloal Legna = 7606-84 Varas : the Legoa MftTft*"** = 
eessae Yaras. 



OLD MEASUBES OF SURFACE. 



Old SpanUh value, Syatematie name, English value. 

Square Yards. 

9 Sqr. Pies -rl Sqr. Vara » -8599409- 
16 Sqr. Varas^l Sqr. Estadal- 18*759064 - 
50Sqr. VarasslEstajo -42*9970 - 

576 Square > . „ ^***** 

EEtidals i --1 Fanegada - 1-6874 - 

50 Fanegadas-sl Yngada — 81*87 



Metric value. 
Sqaare Metres. 

-7189688 

11-5084982 

86-9484163 

▲ree. 

66*26012096 



8813*00604805 



fiPAisr. 



169 



The Faneg^da was a very rarying measure, in gome diBtriots 
it contained only 600 Square Estadals, or 8000 Square Yaras. 
It was divided into 12 Geleminos, eaoh of 4 Cuartillos and was 
a square whose side was equal to 24 Estadals. The Aranoada 
was the surface measure for Vineyards, and was uniform 
throughout Spain. It was a square whose side was equal to 
20 Estadals. It contained 400 Square Estadals, or 6400 Square 
Yaras, and was equal to about ri370 Acre British. The Cahi- 
zada was a vague measure denoting the area on which a Cahiz 
of Com could be sown. 



OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Old Spaniih value* 



4 Capos 

4 Cuartillos 

2 Azumbres 

4 Cuartillas^ 

or 
8 Azumbres^ 

16 Cantaras 



ByiUmaHe name, SngUth value. 

Imperial OllU. 

- -8877 - 

Imperial Gallons. 
« •11099- 

- -44396 » 

- -88798=1 



1 Capo 

1 Cuartillo 
1 Azumbre 
1 Cuartilla 

1 Arroba Mayor 
or Cantara 



Metric value. 
Litre*. 
•12607 

•6C4286 
2017145 
4*03429 



-B 1 Mayo 



- 8-55173- 1613716 
-56*2768 -258-19456 



The Cuaftilla - 8 Cuartillos. The Wine Bota - 30 Can- 
tares. The Measure for Oil was the Arroba Menor of 25 Libras, 
each of 4 Panillas. The Arroba Menor — 2*7652 British Im- 
perial GallonB, or 12*564 Litres. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Old Spaniih value. Syetettuktie name. 



4 Oohavillos < 

4 Radones < 

2 QuartilloB 

2 Medios 

12 Almuerzas ) 
(Celemines) j 

12 Fanegas 



1 Raoion 
1 Quartillo 
1 Medio 
1 Almude 

1 Fanega 
1 Cahiz 



English value. 
Bushels. 

•00785 
•031409 
•062819 
•126638 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

•2889 

ri558 

2-3116 

4*6233 



1-507664 - 55-480 
18-0919C8 - 665*76 



170 


HXAIITBSS. 








WEIGHTS. 






Old Spanith value 


. Bj/Btematie name, EnglUh value. 


Metric veUue, 


12 OranoB 


- 1 Tomin - 


•02113 - 


OnuniM*. 
2-89656 


8 Tomines 


a> 1 Adarme ■■ 


•06840 » 


7-18968 


2 Adarmefl 


f 1 Ochavo, or ) 
"* 1 Drachma j 


•12680 - 

lU. At. 


14-87987 


8 Ochavofl 


— 1 Onza -• 


•06840 - 


28-76875 


8 Ouzas 


-• 1 Marco -• 


•60721 « 


280-07 


2 Marcos 
100 Libras 


( 1 Libra 
■■ t (Castiliaiia) 

» 1 Quintal 


. « 1-01442 « 
- 101-442 - 


460-14 

KilofrnuDtDM. 

46014 


10 Quintals 


■■ 1 Tonelada 


-1014-42 - 


46014 



Besides the ordinary Quintal of 100 Libras there was the 
Quintal Marco of 160 Libras (the Oarga of Peru), equal to 
152-168 lbs. av. Englinh, or 690'21 Kilogrammes. In Ships' 
Freight the Tonelada equal to 20 Quintals. 

In Apothecaries' Weights the Onza of the above table was 
divided into 8 Drachms, eaah Drachm into 8 Scruples, each 
Scruple into 2 Obolos, and each Obolo into 8 Caracteres. 

The chief unit in Gold and Silver Weights was the Marco 
of the above table. For Gold Weights it was divided into 60 
Gastellanos, each of 8 Tomineb. For Silver Weights it was 
divided as in tfio table. The fineness of Gold was expressed 
by dividing the unitH of weight into 24 Carats, each of 4 Granos ; 
and the fineness of Silver by dividing it into 12 Dineros, each 
of 24 Granos. 

The Diamond Onza of 140 Carats contained only 560 Granos, 



GIBBALTAB. 



The Weights and Measures are chiefly those of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the following Old 
Spanish Weights and Measures, viz. : — ^the Pipe ■■ 105 Impennl 
Gallons ; the Arroba (liquid measure) « 2*77 Imperial Gallons ; 
the Arroha (weight) » 26 lbs. Avoirdupois ; the Quintal «»f 100 
lbs. «- lOlJ lbs. Avoirdupois ; 6 Fanegat of Grain «■ 7| Im- 
perial Bushels. (See Spain, p. 167). 



POBTiraAX. — HOLLARS. 



171 



POBTUGAL. 

The Metric Bystem of Weights and Measares is now used in 
Portugal. This system, which is exactly the same as that of 
France (see France), was introduced gradually, and the change 
was effected in a remarkably short period. In 1852 the Govem- 
ment decreed that the Weights and Measures should be re-or- 
ganized upon the metric basis, and a period of ten years was 
fixed for its introduction and adoption. Metric metwirei of 
length came into use in Portugal in January, 181)0; Metric 
iteighU in July, 1861 ; Metric surface measures in July, 1862 ; 
and Metric measures of capacity in January, 1868. 



HOLLAND. 

In 1820 Holland adopted the Metric system ; and tho Weights 
and Measures are the same as those of France, but have differ- 
ent names, as will be seen by the following tables : — 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
Jhiieh «aKM. Systematic name. 



Xetrie valm. 



1 Streep 
10 Strepen « 1 Duim 
10 Puimen >- 1 Palm 
10 Palmen 



10 EUen 
100 Roeden 

Dutoh value. 



« lEl 
« 1 Roede 

- 1 Mijle 



English value, 
Inoheii. 

•03937 - IMillimfitTe 

•8987079 - lOentimfttre 

8-937079 - lD6oim6tre 

80*87079 « IMdtre 

YardH. 

10*986808 a 1 D6oamdtre 
(1003-6082 or) 

i nearly 5 fur- I- ■■ 1 KUomdtre 
( longs 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



By»tematle name* 

1 Vierkante ) 
Streep t " 

100 Vierkante ) . ( 1 Vierkante \ 
Streepen / ' Duim J " 

100 Vierkante ) ^ f 1 Vierkante j 
Didmen ) t Palm J " 



100 Vierkante i f 1 Vierkante > 
Palmen f " t El i 

100 Vierkante ) _ j 1 Vierkante i 



English value. Metric value, 
Bouare I nchei. Sq. Millimetre. 

•001550069- 1 

Sq.OenMmetrp 

•1550059 - 1 

Sq. Deotmi'tro 

16-500591 » 1 

Bq. Tardt. Centiare ur Sq. Iiilt>lk'« 



■q. Yards. Ceimare ur Bq. . 
ri960332 - 1 



Are or Bq. Deoaraclre 



EUen f-{*B^dr"}-ll»'«08821 - 1 



1 Vierkante \ 



100 Vierkante i . j 1 Vierkar 
Roeden ) " t Bunder 

100 Vierkante) . f 1 Vierkante) «a7.1U2J9 
Bunderg J"t Mijle |-a4711«99 



Bq. Aorei. Hectare. 

2'471U299 - 1 



MjnHlart or Sq. Kilometr* 



172 MEASTTBE8. 



CUBIC MEA8X7BE. 

Dutch value. SyttenuUie name. tlnfflUh vdhte. Metric value. 

Cubic Feet. Millistexe. 

1 Enbieke Siareep - •035ai7628» 1 
lOOOKubickej 

Streepen 
1000 Enbicke 
Duimen ' 

1 000 Enbicke ^ <Btere or Oabie 

Mmen } "^ ^ ^^® KuWcke El=.36-317628 « 



Centibttre. 

1 Kabioke Dnim » -35317628 » 1 

Decivtere. 

1 Enbicke Palm «» d'5317628 » 1 



In measuring the tonnage of Ships, 1| Eiibicke Ellen « l 
Scheepston, and 2 Scheepstonnen » 1 Scbeepslast. The 
Scheepston is equal to 62*9765 Cubic Feet, and the Scbeeps- 
last to 105*951 Cubic Feet English. The Wisse is nsed in 
measuring Firewood. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. 

Pints. 
1 Vingerhoed = -0176077 = 1 Centilitre 
10 Tmgeriioeden- 1 Maatje « -176077 =1 Decilitre 
lOMaatjes == 1 Kan = 1-760773 =1 Litre 

100 Eannen » 1 Vat or Ton » 22*009667 =1 Hectolitre 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value. 

Imperial Pints. 

1 Maatje -= -176077 « 1 Decilitre 

10 Maatjcs » 1 Kop - 1-760773 = 1 Litre 

Imperial Gallons. 

10 Eoppen » 1 Schepel « 2*200967 » 1 Decalitre 

Imperial Bnshels. 

10 Schepels « 1 Mudor Zak - 2*751208 « l Hectolitre 

Impeilal Qnarters. 

30 Mudden - 1 Last - 10*31703 » 30 HectoUtre 

A Market Schepel contains 2^ Schepel, or 25 Eoppen, and is 
equal to 5*5024175 Imperial Gallons English. 

• WEIGHTS. (C0MHEROIAI4). 

Dutch value. Systematic name. English value. Metric wiht9, 

GnunsTroy. 

1 Eorrel - 1*5432349 » 1 Decigramme 
10 Eorrel - 1 Wigtje « 15*432349 « 1 Gramme 
10 Wigtje ^ 1 Lood <- 164*32349 - 1 Decagramme 

lbs. AT. 

10 Looden — 1 Onze «■ -220466 •- 1 Hectogramme 

10 Onzen » 1 Pond » 2'20466 - 1 Eilogramme 



BELaiUlC. — ^PENMABK. 



173 



The Weights used in weighing Gold and Silver are the same 
as those just given; the Eorrel is however subdivided into 
tenths, hundredths, and thoukandth parts, 

MEDICINAL WEIGHTS. 



Dutch value. SytUmatie nawte, 

1 Grein «= 


EngJUK vaXm. MstHc valus, 
Troy Oniiui. Onunmaa. 

1-00471 - -066104 


20 Greinen «1 Sompel ■» 


20-094204 « 1-S0208 


3 Scrupels «1 Drachma » 


60*28262 - 8*90625 


8 Draohmen ==1 0ns » 


482*2609 - 81-25 



12 Onsen 



1 Pond 



(5787*1308 or) ^-- 
'"I -82674761b.] "875 

The Medical Pond is exactly fths of the Commercial Pond. 



BELGIUM. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASUB S. 

The system of Weights and Measures is the Metric. It is 
exactly tiie same as that of France, snhstitnting the name Livre 
for Kilogramme, Litron for Litre, aod AuTie for Mdtre. 

In some of the Provinces local usages are occasionally met 
with, hut for aU regular legal transactions the Decimal system 
is employed. 



DENMABK. 



DanUh value. 

12 Linier 

12 Tommer 
2Fod 

3 Alen (or 
6Fod 

2 Favn (or 
12 Fod) 

24000 Fod, or] 
2000Boder f 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Systematic name. 

1 Linie = 



j- 



1 Tomme 

IFod 
1 Alen 

1 Favn 

1 Bode 

1 Danish^ 
Mile or 
Mil 



EnglUh valtte. 
Inches. 

•8681 



1-02972 

Feet. 

1-02972 
2*05944 



Metric value. 
Metres. 

« -021795 
- -261644 

« -31386 
« -627707 



6*17833 = 1-883121 



12*36666 

Yards. 

8237-77349 or 

Miles. 

4*68065 



= 3*766242 

Kilometres. 

. = 7-632484 



174 HEASUBES. 



One Danish Sea Mile is equal to 28642 Danish Fod; one 
GeograpMoal Mile (15 to a degree) is eqnal to 2d609'2 Fod. 
In Nautical language 600 Fod, or 100 Favn are called 1 
** Kalbelliengde." Surveyors divide the Fod, according to the 
Dedmal system, into 10 Tommer ; each Tomme into 10 Linier ; 
and 1 Bode into 10 Fod. In Holstein and in Sleswick, Ham- 
burg Measures are mostly used; 23 feet Hamburg Measure 
being equal to 21 feet Danish. 



MEASUBES OF SUBFA€E. 

DanUh value, BfsUmaUe name, EnfflUh value. Metric value. 

Square Voot. Sfpunlfetrw. 

144 Sq. Lime - 1 Sq. Tomme » '08836 » -0006840 
144 Sq. Tommer - 1 Sq. Fod » 1-060323 - -0985018 

Square Yard*. 

144 Sq. Fod » 1 Sq. Bode « 16*965172 ^ 14*18469444 

The **T5nde Land" (used in field measurement) of 56000 
Square Fod, or 14000 Square Alen = 6597'5670656 English 
Square Yards, or 1-36813 English Acre, or 4816'27006 Square 
Metres, or 48*1627006 Ares ; and 11 T&nder land are equal to 
about 15 English Acres. 



CUBIC MEASUBES. 

DamUh viUue. Byitematie name, BnglUhvahu, Metric vaUue, 

Cubic Fool Cubic Metrsu 

1728 Cubic Linier «1 Cubic Tomme- -000631 --00001789 
1728 Cubic Tommer -1 Cubic Fod « 1-091886 » -03091479 

In Firewood measurement the Favn contains 72 Danish Cubic 
Fod, It is 6 Fod x 6 Fod x 2 Fod, and is equal to 78*61219 
English Cubic Feet, or 2*22586538 Cubic Metres. In Forest 
measurement the Favn is 6} Fod by 6} Fod by 2 Fod. It con- 
tains 84^ Danish Cubic Fod, and is equal to 82*2599 English 
Cubic Feet, or 2*6123 Cubic Metres. 



BELGIUIC. — BBITMABK. 



175 



MEA8UBES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Danith value. 


SyetemaHo lume, 
lP8Bgle 


SnglUh value: 
Imperial Pinti. 

» -424785 • 


Metric value, 
Litrea. 

•24125 






IFlaske 






SPeegle 


8S . 


(only for 
. liquids) 


1*274855 • 


-72375 


4 PsBgle 


« 


IPot 


- 1-699146 -* 


•966 


2 Potter 


« 


1 Eande 


» 3-89828 - 


1-98 


4 Eander or 
8 Potter 

4 


• ^a A 


' 1 Vierter 
(only for 
I Spirits) J 


Imperial Gtellona. 

.» 1-699146 «- 


7-72 


38 Potter, or 
4| Viertel 


SB 


r 1 Anker ] 

(only for 
, Liquids) ^ 


« 8-070945 = 


86-67 


186 Potter 


^ 


1 Tonde 
'lOzehoved' 


- 28-88548 - 


181-24 


6 Ankeme 


8S • 


(for Wine 


• » 48-42567 » i 


220*02 






, and Spirits) ^ 






4 Oxehoyeder 
MEASU] 


m^ 


IFad 

OF CAPACr 


-198-70268 « 
FY FOR DRY GC 


880*08 
>ODS. 


Danish value. 


Sy 


stematie name, 
IPot 


Snglieh value, 
Impuial Gallona. 

- -21289 » 


Metric value. 

Litres. 

-965 


18 Potter 


» 


1 Skeppe 


Imperial Bushels. 
« -47788 = 


17*370 


2 Rkepper 


« ; 


L Fjerdingkar 


« -955769 » 


34*740 


4 Fjerdingka] 




L T6nde 


- 8-823079 - 


138-960 


12 Tonder 


e» : 


1 L«B8t 


« 45*876948 » 


1867-52 



The unit of measures of capacity, both for liquids and solids, 
is the Pot, which is equal to 54 Cuhic Tommer (inches), or -^ 
of 1 Cubic Fod. 

The following Measures for Wine and Spirits are sometimeB 
(but not frequently) used : — 

Dcmish vaiue. 



160 Potter 

480 Potter 

1200 Potter 



SyatcTnatic uame, English value. Metric value. 

Imperial Gallons. Litres. 

r lAhme « 33*98288 » 164*4 



» IPibe » 101*94864 » 463*2 

» IStykfad » 2548*716 « 1158 

The ordinary large Measure for Dry and Liquid Goods is a 
Tonde ; but this varies in size according to iiie proods ; it is 
sometimes divided into 8 Skjepper, or 32 Fjerdingkar, &c. Of 



176 



HEASUBE8. 



course the size of the Skjeppe varieB according to the size of 
the T5nde, of which it is a snodiyisu^. 12 Tonder (Com, Salt, 
Goals,) are one LaBst. The Commerce Liest is the Standard 
Measure for Ships, and is equal to 2*52 Tone lE^nglish. 

Beer, and also some Dry Goods, are measnred hy the Oltdnde 
of 136 Potter, and divided into 4 Fjerdingkar ; one Fjerding 
equals 2 Otting Kar, each Otting equals 17 Potter. 

Com, and many other solids, are measured by the Eomtdnde 
of 144 Potter. The Koratonde is divided into 8 Skjepper, or 
82 Fjerdingkar, or 64 Ottingkar. 

Salt, Coal, Charcoal, and Bark are measured by the Salt- 
tonde of 176 Potter. The Salt-tonde is divided as the Eom- 
tonde. The Tar-tonde is equal to 120 Potter. 





WKIGHTS. 




Danlih value. 


Syatematte name. EnglUh vahte. 

Troy Qrain«. 

1 Ort - 7-71631 - 


Metric value. 
Qnmmm. 

•06 


lOOrt 


- 1 Kvint - 77-1631 - 


6 


100 Evinten 


IDS. av. 

» 1 Pund » 1*10233 • 


600 


100 Pnnd 


« 1 Centner — 110-233 o • 


50000 or 

[ 50 


40 Centner 


- 1 LflDst -4409-32 - 


2000 


52 Centner 


- 1 Skiplfi)st B 5732-116 - 


2600 



This division of the pound, according to the Decimal system, 
has been in force since Ist July, 1861. Until then the Pund 
was divided into 32 Lod, each of 4 Kvintin, each of 4 Ort, and 
these weights are still in temporary use. 

A "Lispund" is 16 Pund; a **Skippund" is 320 Pund. 
Besides these Commercial Weights, there is a different weight 
for Silver and Gold, and a third used only for drags. 

WEIGHTS FOR SILVER AND GOLD. 



DoMeh value. SystetnaUe name. 
4 Ort - 1 Evint 


„ 


EngUnh value. 
Troy OralrtN. 

58-28125 




Metric value. 
Grmtnmeit. 

3-676 


4Evintin - 1 Lod 


S3 


221-125 


a 


14-704 


16 Lod, or I t HT 1 
24Earat ) - ^ ^^'^ 


» 


IbH. Ar. 

•65116 


» 


286-264 


2 Marks « 1 Pund 


B 


110233 


o 


470-688 


3 Green » 1 Gran 


= 


40-1876 


» 


2-4609 


4 Gran «> 1 Earat 


SS. 


160-76 


» 


9-8039 



SLESWICK-HOLSTXIN. — 8WEDSK. 177 

The Danish Sily^r Pimd, or Soitypund, is -j^^ less than the 
ordinary Pond, and is equal to 977t>^V ^^ich *'As." The 
Solvpund may, acording to the ahove table, he diyided in two 
ways, yiz. : — either into 32 Lod = 128 Eyinten = 612 Ort ; or 
into 48 Karat (eaoh eqnal to 1^ Lod) == 192 Graii = 576 
G-reen. 

APOTHECABIES' WEIGHT. 

Danish value, Syttematie name, English value. Metric vchke, 

Troy Grains. Qnunmfla. 

20 Gran = 1 Skrupel = 2-797265 = 1 241808 

8 Skrupel = 1 Draehme = 65-»45312 = 8-725626 
6 Drachmer = 1 Unze = 335-671875 = 22-36376 

f 5370I or \ 

16 Unzer = 1 Pund = | i^^ »J \ = 367'66 

The Medical Pund is equal to 357*66 French Grammes, and 
therefore nearly | of an ordinary Danish Pund. Iti Holstein, 
and in Lauenhurg, and partly in Sleswick, different German 
Weights are still in use, though the legal unit of Weight is the 
ordinary Danish Pund. 

SLESWICK-nOLSTEIN.* 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Den- 
mark. No change haying heen made since Sleswick-Holstein 
was seyered from the Damsh CSrown, in Octoher, 1864. 

8WEDEK. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Btoedish vaXue, Systematic name. English value. Metric value. 

Inchei. Metre*. 

ILinie = '116893 = -002969 

lOLinier =1 Turn — M6893 = -029690 

10 Tumer =1 Fot = 11-68923 = -296901 

feet. 

10 Fot =lStang»= 9741083 = 2*96901 

Tarda. 

10 SiaDger=l Ref = 32*470276 » 29*6901 

fUe89-299360or) (10688*436 or 

360fief =:lMeile =] milm. l = \ KfUmutrm. 

I e-64164 ) I 10*688436 

* The legal denominstioiifl of money of account, while the l>aehiei of 
Sleswiek and Holstein formed a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, wen 
ihe aame as those of Denmark (see p. 81) ; bat the coins in eirenJatieii 
were chiefly those of Hambnrg and I>abee. No change has as yet been 
ma d^ in the cnrrency, or money of accoont. since uie cessioii of 4ie 
Duchies to Pmssia and Anstrla, «nder the Treaty of Yienna, of 80th 
October, 1864. 



9488*87045 or ) ( 881*50203 or 

Area. 

8*815023 



178 MEJLSTTBEl. 

The Aln of 2 Fot = -6494 of an English Yard, or -5938 
Mdtre, and the Faden of 6 Fot = 6*8446 English Feet, or 
1-484505 M^tre. The Standard Swedish Fot may be found 
from the following rnle : — a pendulum in yacuo beating seconds 
of mean solar time at Stockholm at the sea level when the 
thermometer is at 15^ Celsius, measures 3*35064 Swedish Fot. 

MEASUEES OF SUBFACE. 

SwedUh vaZue. Sygtematie name, English value. Metric value. 

100 Sar. ) Square Inches. Square Metres. 

Liniep } =1 Sq. Tum = 1-36639 =- -000881 

^^^g;}«lSq.Fot - 136*63973 = -088150 

Square F«et. 

^^^^'- }=lSq.Stang« 94*888704 = 8*81502 

StangerJ ^ ( .21762 j | 

The Square Aln of 4 Square Fot = 3*79554 English Square 
Feet, or -352600815 Square M^tre. The Tunnland of 56000 
Square Foot, or 14000 Square Aln, or 6 '6 Square Bef => 
6904*186057 English Square Yards, or 1-21987 English Acre, 
or 49*364114 Ares. 

CUBIC MEASUEES. 

Swedish vahie. fiystemntie name. Enqlieh value. Metric vaUte. 

Cubic Feet. Cubic Metres. 

1000 Cubic Tumer - 1 Cubic Fot «» -9243108 « -02617188 
8 Cubic Fot = 1 Cubic Aln « 7*3944864 - -20937504 

MEABUEES OF CAPACITY FOE DBY GOODS AND 

LIQUIDS. 

Swedish value. Systematic name, English value. Metric value. 

Imperial Pints. Litres. 

1000 Cubic Linier =^1 Cubic Tum = -0460*=. -02617 

100 Cubic Tumer -=1 Kanna = 4*6083= 2*617188 

1000 Cubic Tumer ) , ^ , • -r, x ^vi^„^^ «« ,^^oo 
orlOKanna |-1 Cubic Fot - 4*7604 « 26-17188 

8 Cubic Fot «1 Cubic Ahi =.46-0832 -209*3750 



* These English values hare been calculated at the rate of 277-274 
English Cubic Inches to the British Imperial Gallon, the equivalent of 
the Swedish Cubic Fot being taken as 1597-2228488789 English Cnbic 
Inches. 



SLESWICE-HOLSTBOr. — STTSBEir. 179 

WEIGHTS. 

SwedUh value, Sifstemaiie name, EnglUh value, Metrie v<Uue, 

Qraias Troy. Onunmct. 

1 Korn = -6559 =» 042683 

100 Korn -=1 Ort — 65-59 =- 4-253395 

Ibd. ar. 

100 Ort =«lBkapund=» -9877 = 425-3395 

100 Skalpund =1 Centner = 93-77289 = 4a^396 



100 Centner --INy-last «■ 



9377*289 OT] 



« 4253*895 



Cwt. 

83-72321; 

Medical men and Apothecaries use indifferently both the 
Legal system of Weights, jnst given, apd the old Pharmaoen- 
ticsd Weights of the Grain, the Scruple, and.the Ounce. In the 
country the new Weights are most generally used in writing 
Prescriptions and compounding Drugs. 

The Weights and Measures given above are the present Legal 
ones, but the old, or common system superseded by them is 
still occasionally used, and is as follows : — Length. — Fot of 12 
Tumer, of 12 Linier = 11-68923 English Inches, or -296901 
Mdtre ; tiie Aln of 2 Fot, and the Faden of 6 Fot. Surface, — 
The Tunnland of 32 Kappland, or 14000 Square Aln = 1-21987 
English Acre, or 49*364114 Ares. Cubic Measures. — The 
Cubic Faden, Aln, Fot, and Linie. Capacity (a) Diy Goods. — 
The Eanna was the fundamental unit both for Dry Goods and 
Liquids. It was equal to -57603 British Imperial Gallon or 
2 '617189 Litres. The Tunna was a measure whose cubic con- 
tents varied with different sorts of goods. In Fruit it was 56, 
in Salt or Lime, it was 59i, in Grain (heaped measure) it was 
63, in Malt it was 66^, and in Fresh Herrings it was 80 Eumas. 
There was also a Tunna of 48 Kaunas. The Tunna was 
divided into 2 Spann, each of 2 Half-Spann, each of 2 Yiertel, 
each of 4 Kappas. The Kanna in Dry Measure was divided 
into 2 Stoop, each of 4 Quartiers, each of 4 Ort. The Tunna 
of 56 Kannas = 4-03221 British Imperial Bushels, or 146-563 
Litres. The Tunna of 63 Kannas = 4-63624 British Imperial 
Bushels, or 164-8829 Litres. A Last of Coal was 12 Tonnas, 
each of 63 Kannas. (b) Liquids. — The Kanna, each of 2 
Stoops, each of 2 Quartiers, each of 4 Jungfrau « -57608 
British Imperial Gallon, or 2*617189 Litres. The Beer 
Tunna contains 48 Kannas. Weights. — Before the adop- 
tion of the new system there were 5 different sorts of 
Weights in use in Sweden, namely : — 1. Commercial Weight. 
2. Iron or Freight Weight. 3. Mark Weight used by Miners. 
4. Mark Weight used in country towns. 5. Apothecaries* 
Weight. The Pund of 32 Lood, each of 4 Quentchen. The 
Lispund of 20 Pund, and the Skeppund of 20 Lispund. The 
Skeppund, Commercial Weight «* 400 Pund Commercial Weight, 



180 



ICSASITBXS. 



bat the Skeppnnd, Freight Weighty ot 20 Lispiind, eftch of 20 
Fund, is equal to odIj 820 Pnnd Commercial Weight. A Cent- 
ner is 120 Pnnd Commercial Weight. 

A Pnnd, Commercial Weight - '9877 lb. ay. English, or 
426'8696 Ghrammes. 

A Pnnd, Freight Weight » '76016 lb. ar. English, or 
840 '272 Grammes. 

A Pond, Miners* Mark Weight • '8285 lb. av. Eng^h, or 
875*826 Grammes. 

A Pnnd, Country Towns* Mark Weight • '7891 lb. »▼. 
Engli ^:i, or 867'966. 

A Pund, Apothecaries' Weight » '7858 lb. ay. English, or 
866'4H7 Grammes. 

The Old Apothecaries* Weights were as follows :— 

SwedUh value, SyttematUs name, SnglUh value, 

trof Qnitu. 

20 Grains « 1 Scrapie «> 19'1 ■> 

8 Scrnples — 1 Drachma — 57*8 ■■ 
8 Drachmas » 1 Untz - 468*4 « 



Metric value, 
Orammcs. 

1-28429 

8-71288 

29*70808 



12 Untzer 



• 1 Skalpond - 5601 - 856*487 



irOBWAY. 

* 

The Weights and Measares are the same as those of Demnsrk, 
bnt the introduction of a Decimal system is contemplated. 



SWITZEBLAlfD. 

In Weights and Measares a mixed system, partly Decimal 
and partly Duodecimal, prevails in Switzerland. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Bwite vahu. 


ByetemaHe name. 




SnglUh value. Metric value. 








Incbe*. 


M«(rM. 




1 Striche 


■■ 


'01181 


- -0008 


10 Striohe 


» 1 Linie 


■B 


•11811 


» '008 


10 Tiinien 


*- IZoU 


am 


1*181128 


- '08 


lOZoll 


- 1 Fuss 


- 


ll'8112t7 
Tsrdi. 


- '8 


SFuss 


« lElle 


■■ 


•6661789 


- '6 


6 Fuss 


» IKlafter 


a 


1*9685895 


-1-8 


10 Fuss 


« IRuthe 


« 


8*280899 


-8 






1 Schweizer- 




r 5249*48866 


KllomctrM. 


1600 Ruthen 


m m 


stunde or 
Lien 


* SS ' 


Mile*. 

^ or 2*98268 


-4*8 



irOBWAT.— IWITZSBLAXD. 181 

TBe Geomphioftl Mile in eqiiftl to 94600 Fasi. An English 
Yard — 8*0i8 Fasi ; an BngUih Foot •• 1*016 Fnss ; and an 
BngllBh Inoh •* 8*46 Linien. The Sdhweiaerttande — 4800 
MMree. 

The denomination! Ruthtnt Fu9t^ ZoU, Linien^ and Strichet 
are denoted by the marks, thus :-^o, 8', 8", 4'", 0"'' -- 6 
Rnthen, 8 Fnsi, 8 ZoU, 4 Linien, 7 Striohe. The EUe is also 
oalled Braohe, or Half-Staab, and is nsod in moasnring Bib- 
bone, fto. A Staab is 2 Ellen or 4 Fnss, and is nsed in mea- 
snriiig Broad Cloth, and linen, ^c. 

MEASURES OP SURFACE. 

£fw4«i valtt#. SytUmatie name, SnglUhvaUt^, MeMovakM, 

Sa. V#«t. Sq. MttoVH. 

lOOSq. ;?oU »lSq. Fnss • *9687BC9« '09 

86 Sq. Fobs -ISq.Elafter- 84*870828 - 8*24 

Baxukn YiirdN. 

lOOBq. FasB -1 Sq. Rathe - 10*7642U82- 8 

400 Sq. Rnthen or) -• v^ At^^m mtt^tto o^"* 

40000 Bq. Fuss |-lJn«l»rt -4805*71928 - 86 

6400 Jneharten -l Bq. Stixnde- 6688*52 « 280400 

, In Meadow Land a Jnohart ia 850, and in Woodland it is 
450 Bqnare Rnthen. 

CUBIC MEASURES. 

Bieitt voliM. SytUmatie iwhim. BnglUh mhtf, Mrtrie valu^* 

Ottbio F^t. OubloMolmi. 

1000 Cnbio ZoU « ICubioFnss « '9585 • '027 
tlOCnbioFnss - 1 Cubic Elafter -206*6662 - 6-682 
1000 Cnbio Fust - 1 Cubio Ruthe - 868-5476 - 27 

The KlafUf used in the measurement of Firewood is always 
in area a Bquare Elafter, or 86 Square Fuss, but its depth 
yaries in different countries. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

5«fiM«alMtf. 9y%i«maH6 %am6, JSnqlUh fiaUt^, MttHofKiUf, 

1 Iml « -041208 - 1-5 

10MjM.^(Viertel|. j^^^ = 4-ia(|8 -180 



182 UEAJBWEM. 

The MSaas (Viartel Sdrtai) is the unit of MdMnres of Oftpfl- 
city for Dry GoodB. It contains oxaotlj 80 0)0. distilled water 
at 89io F. (8^0 B6amnnr) or ^ of a CnUo Foss. 

In trade the Donble-Maass or Donhle-Viertel is used, and 
the Maass (Viertel Serter) is diiided fraotionallj into the Vier- 
ling or 4 Maass (Viertel Serter) and the Maassleing, -fg Maasa 
nriertel Serter). The Maaes (Viertel Serter) and the Ifalter 
naye the form of hollow cylinders ; when need as testing mea- 
sures, their depth is eqnal to half the diameter. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

SwU$ Value. SyitematU name. SngUehwOue, Uetrie wUme, 

2 Halbschoppen *> , - , «^« ^^r 

(AchtelmSss) > " ^ Schoppen - 2-6412 - -875 

2Sohoppen(Vier-') ^„« ^V^JJcq- ^.t 

telmaasB) j " ^ Halbmaaes - 1-82068 - -75 

2 Halbmass - 1 Maass ■• 2*64116 - 1*5 

100 Maass m 1 Sanm - d3'015 -ISO 

The Maass contains exactly 8 lbs. of distilled water at 891 ^ F. 
(8(0 B.) or y^ of a Cubic Fuss. The Sanm is subdiTided info 
4 parts, each of which is called an Eimer. The Maass and ita 
diyisions and multiples are measures in the form of hollow 
cylinders, the depth of which is double the diameter. 

WEIGHTS. 

SwUi vahie* SyitemaHe name, SngUeh vaU/ne, MeMevaXue, 

IlM. ▲▼. anmmM. 

4 QuntU » 1 Loth - -084447- 15*625 

2 Loth 1 lUnze » '068896- 81*25 

16 Unzen - 1 Pfund - 1*10288 - 500 

100 Pfund - 1 Centner - 110*283 - 60000 or 50 

A Cwt. English is nearly equal to 102 Swiss Pfund. The 
Pfund is diyi&d fractionally into Halvei, Quartertf aadEighthgt 
named, Half-pfiind, Viertel^fimd, and Achtelrpfmd. 

The Pfund is also divided according to the Metric system^ 
into 500 Grammes, or 5000 Deci^ammes, or 60,000 Centi- 
grammes, or 5,000,000 Milligrammes, as follows :^ 

BicUe value* Syttemaiie name, BngUeh wOme. 

1 Milligramme « '0164i 

10 Milligrammes — 1 Centigramme ■■ '15488 

10 Centigrammes ■■ 1 Decigramme » 1*5488 

10 Decigrammee - 1 Gramme - 15*48262 

BfcAT. 

600 Onunmei « 1 Ffond - ri02a 



rri.LT. 



183 



APOTHECABIEB' WEIGHTS. 



AviMVOilM. 

8 SoorapleB 
4I>raohnia 
2 Loth 
12 Unzen 



SjfiUmoHe name, 

> 1 Scrapie — 

> 1 Draohm ■ 

> ILoth 

■ 1 Unze ■ 
- IPfund - 



BnglUh value, 
noy OnOns. 
20*09456 

60*28867 
241*18468 

482-26987 
5787*28260 



Metrie wUme, 
Ghrtmmw. 

1*80208 
a'90625 
16*626 
31*26 
375 



The Apothecaries* Pftmd is | of the common Pfond. 



ITALY. 

The Weights and Measnres of the Kingdom of Italy are the 
same as those of France, and are as follows : — 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



IlaUa»«aliM« 

lOMillimetri 
10 Gentimetri 
lODeoimetri 

lOMetri 
10 Decametri 
lOEttometri 

10 Chilometri 



Syetematic name, 

1 Millimetro * 
■■1 Oentimetro ■ 
■■IDedmetro « 
al Metro • 

■•1 Decametre - 
■■lEttometro ■ 
nlOhilometro • 

—IMiriametro' 



EnglUh value, 
Inoh. 

•08987079 
*8987079 
3*937079 
38*87079 

Tardi. 

10*98688 
108*3688 
1093*688 

Miles. 

6*2138 



Metrie value, 

"■1 Millimetre 
■■ 1 Centimetre 

->1 Decimetre 
-IMdtre 

■■ 1 Decametre 
■i 1 Hectometre 
->1 Kilometre 

-■IMyriametre 



LAND MEASURES. 



IMkM vakte, 

lOOCentiaras 
lOOAras 



Syetematic 
1 Centiara"- 

>lAra 

'lEllara - 



EngUeh value, 
Sovure Yards. 

1*1960882- 

119*6088 - 
f U960-882 or ] 

▲ores. Sq. Yds. r * 

2 2280*88] 



Uetrie value, 
1 Centiare 

or Sqnare 

M^tre 

lAre 
1 Hectare 



184 



X1A817BB8. 



Italian vokM. 

•Ar of a Stero 
10 Dedsieii 
10 Bteri 



CUBIC MEASUBES. 

8iiti$maHe name, SnglUh value. 

Cubic Fe«t. 

IDedBiero - 8*581628 
1 Biero - 86*81628 

1 Deoaatero - 868*1628 



MetrU 9altt$, 

1 Deoistera 

1 Store 
1 Deoastere 



MEASUBES OP CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS AND 

SOLIDS. 

Sifttematie name, 
»1 MilliUtro < 
» 1 Centilitro > 



ItalUm vaJue. 
1000th oi a Cable 

Decimetro 
lOMillilitri 
10 Centmtri 
10 Dedlitri 
lOLitri 
10 DecaUtri 

laEttolitri 



) 



SnglUh value, Hetrie vaUte, 
Imperial Plnti. 

•00176 -IMllliliire 



» 1 Dedlitro ■■ 

-ILitro 

■■ 1 Decalltro ■■ 

- 1 EttoUtro « 

-IChiloUtro « 



•017607' 

•17607 ' 

1*7607 ' 

2*20096 ' 

22*0096 < 

Qtuurton. 

8*48901 



1 Centilitre 
1 Decilitre 
1 Litre 
1 Decalitre 
1 HeooUtre 

lEiloUtre 



* WEIGHTS. 
ItaUan value, 

lOOOthofaGrammaal MiUigramoia 
10 Milligramme » 1 Centigramma 
10 Centigramme ■• 1 Declgramma 
10 Dedgranmie "-l Gramma 

■■ 1 Decagramma 
el Ettogramma 
->1 ChJlogramma 
wl Miriagramma 



10 Gramme 
10 Decagramme 
10 Ettogramme 
10 Chilogramme 



SyeiemaUc name, Englith value, MePrie value. 

ChninjTroy. HlUlgnuiune. 

•01548 - 1 

Oenilgntame. 

-i •1548262- 1 

Dsoisnunme. 

- 1*548262 » 1 

Omnme. 

- 16*48262 - 1 

Deoaflrzaaune. 

« 164*8262 - 1 

Um. «▼. Heetoffnynma. 



10 



Miriagramme -^^fe^ 1 - 



I 



10 Quintal Metrid 



220466 « 

KUogmnme. 

2*20466 -> 1 

Kyrigraoiaic. 

220466 » 1 

Cwt. Qalntel Metrfqnt. 

1*97 - 1 

Tonneaa Matoiqu*. 



19*7 



Metrico 
1 Tonndata j 
de mare / " 

PreTiouB to the year 1859, when most of the Italian Stales 
were united to fonn the " Kingdom of Italy,'* each State had 
its own Weights and MeasureB. The legal Weights and Mea- 
sures of the Kingdom of Italy, as above given, are thoee of 
Sardinia (Piedmont and Savoy). As sufficient time has not yet 
elapsed for the general adoption of one system, the Weights 
and Measures of '* The Two Sidlies/' " Tuscany," and " horn- 
hardy," may still be found useful for reference. 



STATES 07 T«B CHITBCK— (BOMS). 185 

« 

STATES OF THE CHUBCH-CBOME). 

MEASX7BES OF LENGTH— (iTiMssiLBT). 

SowumwOm. ByitemaUe name, SfiglUh value, Meiriemlue, 

InchM. Hetra. 

1 Pie " 11-72004 -> -2976826 

6 Pie des - 1 Passo - 58-60620 - 1*488418 

Yards. KUometrei. 

1000 PaBSOB - 1 BCgUo - 1627*788S« - 1-488418 

^ The Caxma d'ara dinded into 9 Palmi = 44*29218 English 
Inches, or 1*125 Metres. 

The Bracoio d*an = 29*62809 English Indhes, or '75 Mdtre. 

The Pahno d'ara — 4*921847 English Inches, or '125 Mdtre. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH— (^bbc^^^- 

Boma»f9dku, SyetewuMe name, SnglUhvdhte. Metric wdue, 

Inofa««. Metrei. 

1 Parto - 3-268816 - •088026 
8 Partis - 1 Palmo - 9*806445 - -249078 

8 Pahni - 1 Canna - 2*17921 - 1*99263 

The Mercantile Bracoio — 26*8784298 English Inches, or 
•670 Mdtre. 

The Braocio for Cloth and Linen » 26*00045 English Inches, 
or -686 Mdtre. 

MSABUBEB OF LENGTH*— (Abobitxctb*). 
BoMOM vdUte* Sjfitematie name. 

1 Dedmo 

2 Decimi * 1 Minato 

5 Minati » 1 Onde 

12 Onde » 1 Palmo 

16 Onde or 1| Palmi» 1 Piede 

SPahni -> IPasso 

Ysrdf. 

5f Pahni - 1 Stajnalo - 1*40491 « 1*284631 

10 Pahni or 7i Piedes » 1 Canna - 2-44338-2*28414 
10 Stajoali - 1 Catena - 14*04914 -12*84631 



Englishvalme, 
InofaM. 

- •0738 - 


Metrie vahie, 
MetrM. 

•00186 


- -146599- 


•008728 


- -732998- 


•0186178 


- 8*795985- 


•228414 


- 11-72798 - 


•297886 


- 26*887965- 


•670242 



* About 7 ftndtwO'flfths Furlongs, or *92B Kile English. 



186 



HBASimBS. 



MEA8UBES OF 8TJBFAGE. 



Sq 



value, ^etematie name, 

1 Sqr. Catena 
1 Sooxzo 

1 Qnarta 
1 Babbio 



BngUeh value, MetHe wUiuei 
Sanara Tdi. Bqioan Xatm. 

.197-37833 -» 1650276 
-1381*648 -IL65'1087 

Aero. Aw* 

» 1«141856» 46-207750 
a 4-567424 » 184*881 |C 



7 Bqr. Catenas ' 

4 Soorzi 
4 Qnartas 

The Pezza is also used in Square Measnres. It is the -fth 
part of a Rubbio, and therefore 7 Pezzas are equal to 1 
Babbio. 

MEASUBES OP CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. 



Effman vaUte, Syttematie name. 

4 Detiimos « 1 Starello 

2 Starelli » 1 Qnaterello 

2 Qoaterelli ■- 1 Quarto 

2 Quartl » 1 Bubjatelle 

2 BubjateUi - 1 Babbio 



Engliih vahie. 
Imperial Bushels. 

•6068 =- 

10126 « 

2-0252 - 

4-0504 - 

8*1008 or) 

Quarten. 

^ 10126 



Metrie value, 
Utxm. 

18-40875 

36*8075 

78-615 

147-23 

294-46 or 

HaetoUtNs. 

i. 2-9446 



The Quarto is also divided into 5^ Scorzi, each of 4 Qnartaod, 
or into 4 Starelli, each of Ig Soorzi, each of 4 Quartuooi. 

The Scorzo is equal to '3682 British Imperial Boshel or 
18-3845 Litres. 

The Quartooeo is equal to -09206 British Imperial Bushel <» 
8*3461863 Litres. 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

Soman value, SyttemaiUe name, 

4 Quartued ^ 1 Foglietta » 
4 Fogliette ■- 1 Bocoale ■- 

32 Booaali « 1 Barile » 



Sngliah value, 
Impeifal Plnta. 

•6025495 a 



Hetrie value, 
Litrat. 

8*64686 



8-210198 - 

Imperial Gallons. 

12*8407921- 



16 Barm 



- IBotte 



206-4526786- 



14-585^ 

68*3416 
988-4656 or 

Hactolttn. 

8-S84656 



The Barile of Oil contains 28 Boooali, and is equal to 
12*651289 British Imperial Gallons, or 67-4806 litrofl. . 



PAPAL BSAXfi— (BOLOaVA). 



187 



The Soma of Oil of 80 Boooali, or 2f BuOe, is equal to 
3814654 British Imperial GaUona, or 164*23 Litrea. 

The Soma is also dirided in 2 PeUi (or Maatelli), eaoh of 10 
CngnatelH. 



WEIGHTS. 



BMianiKiliMf 

24Giani 
24Dexiari 

12 0noie 

10 Libhri 

100 Libbri 



BjftUmatiefume* 

1 Grano 
1 Denaro 
1 Oncia 

1 libbra 



BnglUh value, 
TroyGnOns. 
•758 = 



Xetrie vahu^ 

QrammM. 

•049067 

- 18-2 - 1177626 
»4d62 - 28-268 

Um.At. 

- •74771=389166 

EllognmmM. 

- 7-4771 - 3-89166 



33*9156 
389-156 



a 1 Deoino ■■ 

r 1 Centinajo or » „. „_- 
"lOantaroHoooloi" 74-771 

10 Centinaii-(JS&lo}- 747-71 

The Ancient Libbra is eqnal to *7094 lb. The Apothecaries' 
Libbra is of the same weight as the Go mmercial Libbra. The 
Apothecaries* Libbra is divided into 12 Ondei the Onoia into 8 
Scmpleg, and the Scrapie into 24 Grani. 

The Weights used for Gold and Silver are the Metric Gramma 
weights, the same as those of France, namdj : — Milligramme, 
Centigramme, Decigramme, Gramme, Decagramme, Heeto- 
^amme, KUogramme. (See France). 



PAPAL STATES-(BbLOaNA). 

MEASUBSS OF LENGTH. 



Solcgnete volu4 


. SyitemaHe name* 
1 Linie b 


SnglUh value. UeMe vahte. 
Inches. Xete«. 

•1039 « -002688 


12 Linien 


- 1 ZoU 


1.2468 » -032 


12 ZoU 


- 1 H6 


14-9609 « -384 


6 FiedoB 
10 Pi6 


■- 1 Passo ■> 
- 1 Pertioa » 


74-8045 ^ 1-92 

Yards. 

4-155805 « 3-86 



The Bracdo for Cloth is equal to 25* 198 English Inches, or 
•64 Mdtre. 

The Braccio for SUk measurement is equal to 28*47 Englisb 
Inches, or *594 M^tre. 



188 



WUMWaB. 



HEASUBES OF BUBFACE. 

lBq.Pie 

17-2707152 



SngUthvaiue, 
So. Yards. 

•1727072 



^•UlSq.Pertioa 



MeiHe fMlue, 
Ba. VetiM. 

•148225 
14-8225 



140 Bq. 
Pertics 



• b1 Tomatoza 



-i 



2417*900128 or I p075-15 or 

Aofe. 1^1 ArtB, 

•49956 j [ 20-7515 



EnglUh vdLiu, 
Imperial Boshela. 

•067615 = 



The Biolca ib eqnftl to '6997 of an English Acre. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBT GOODS. 
BoUtgntu vdlMt, B^tUmoHe name, 

1 Qnartidno 

4 Qnartacini - 1 Qnartarolo - '27046 « 

4 QnartaroU - 1 Btajo - 1-08184 = 

2 Staji « 1 Corba » 2*16368 « 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

Bolognete vqXm», SifttemaUe name, EnoUth value, UetriewOme. 

Imperial Gallocis. Lttra. 

1 FogUette « -0720824 « -3274625 



IfeCrfe «al«e. 
Litres. 

2-45766 
9-830625 

89-3225 

78-645 



4 Foglietti - 

15 BoocaU < 

4 QoartaroU • 


- 1 Boccalo - -2883295 

- 1 Qnartarolo » 4*3249425 
o 1 Corba = 17-29977 

WEIGHTS. 


-a . 1-30985 
= 19-64776 
- 78-591 


Bolognue mIm. 

4GTani « 
lOCftrato - 
16 FArllni « 


BfttUm^Me mme, SnglUh vahn. 

Trov Grains. 

1 Grano - -727106 « 
1 Carato -> 2*908427 - 
IFf^rlino » 29*08427 « 
1 Unze « 465-3484 - 


MeiriewUue. 
Qrammes. 

•047115 
-1884635 
1-884635 
80-15416 


12Unzen - 
25 libbri -> 


1M« a?* 

ILlbbra - -79774 - 
IPeso - 19*9435 » 


861*85 
904625 



THE TWO SICILIES -a* NAPLES). 

The Neapolitan system of Weights and Measnres (introdnoed 
22nd April, 1840), like the Metric system, was founded npon a 
basis ftuniflhed by Nature. 



THX TWO 8XCZLIK8— (l. ITAPLSS). 



188 



The Qnadnnt of the Earth's Meridian was divided inte 9 
equal parts called Degrea^ and eaoh Degree into 60 equal parts 
called MinnteB. One of these Minutes was the Neapolitan 
Miglio or Mile. The ThouMandth part of the Miglio was the 
Fasio^ and the Bwenth part of the Passo was the PaAno. The 
Palme was the nnit of Measures of Length. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



IfMpoUkm value. SyUmatU 

ICentesimo-* 

10 Gentesimos » 1 Deoimo ■■ 

, 10 Decimos »1 Palmo ■■ 

7 Palmo — 1 Passo ■■ 

lOPalmo elCanna ■■ 

1000 Passo - 1 MigHo » 



Li ' ordinary Gommeroial transactions 'the Pahno was subdi- 
vided into 12 Oncie, the Onoia into 5 Minnti, and the Minnto 
into 2 Panti. The Onda is eqnal to *86796 English Lich, or 
-0220458 Mdtre ; the Minnto is equal to -173592 English Inch, 
or -004409166 Metre ; and the Punto is equal to -086796 English 
Inch, or -00220458S Mdtre. 



Engliah vaXme, 
InohM. 

*1041552« 


•0026455 


1-041552 - 

VMt. 

•86796 - 


•026455 
•26445 


6-07572 -> 


1-85185 


8-6796 

Yardt. 

2026*24 or 


■■ 


2-6455 
ri85-85 or 


Mile. 

1-15070^ 


■ ^ . 


KilomatMt. 

1-85185 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



IttmpoUtanvaXvs, SytUmaUo name, 

100 Sq. Palmi - 1 Sq. Canna 
10 Sq. Canne» 1 Sq. Dedme 
MK) Sq. Cannes 1 Moggio 



EnglUh oaItt«. Jlifetrie vahUt 
Square Tsrde. Square H etiw. 

8'37060624a 699867 
83-7060624 - 69*9867 
837*060624 » 68 8 -867 



CUBIC MEASURES. 



The unit of Cubic Measures was the Cubio Canna of 1000 
Cubic Palmi. It was equal to 863'88162 Cubio Feet English. 
The Cubio Pahno is equal to 1128*917448 Cubio Inches English. 
The Culnc Canna used in the measurement of Firewood con- 
tained only 256 Cubic Palmi, and was equal to 167*89868 
English Cubic Feet, or 4*789885 Cubio Metres. 



190 



lOBASUBES. 



MEASUBEB OF GAPACIT7 FOB DBT GOODS. 



Neapolitan value: 

2 Qnarti 
2 Mezzetti 

36 Tomoli 



Bytiematie name, 

1 Quarto 
1 Mezzetto 
1 Tomolo 

1 Cairo 



BnglUh vaiue. 
Impurlal BaaheL 

•38204 = 

•76408 = 

1-52816 » 

Imperial Qaarten. 

6-87672 = 



Metfievalue^ 

ZilNB. 

13-88625 

27-7726 

65-5451 

HectolitTM. 

19-9962 



The Tomolo is also Bnbdhrided into 8 Stapelli, and each 
Stapello into 8 Misore. The Stapello is equal to 1*52816 
Imperial (Gallons, or 6'9431 Litres ; and the Misare is equal to 
2-087546 Imperial Quarts, or 2*3143 Litres. 

MEASURES OF CAFAOITY FOB LIQUIDS, 

(a) Wine Asn> Spibits, &c, 

Neapolitan vaUu, Syetematie name. 

60 Garaffe » 1 Barile 

12 BariU -> 1 Botte « 115*22136 » 523*500 

2 Botte » 1 Cano « 230*44272 « 1047000 



English value. 
Imperial Gallans. 

9*60178 « 



Metric value- 
Litres. 

43*625 



6 Misorette 
4 Quarti 
16 Stajos 



(&) Oil. 

1 Misnretta « 

1 Quarto » 

1 Stajo -> 

1 Salma ■> 



Impotel GWllonf. 

•09261 -> 



Litres. 

•42076 



•55566 » 2*5246 
2*222625 « 10*0984 
36-562 « 161-574 



WEIGHTS. 



(a) Gold, Silteb, Ain> Mbdicine Weights. 

Uah value. 



NeapoUtcm wUue^ By etemaiie name, 

1 Grano ■■ 
lOGrani - 1 Obolo i- 

20Granior) ^ (1 Scropolo \ 
2 Oholi j ■■ lorTrappesoj " 

8 Soropolo ■■ 1 Dramme ■> 

10 Dramme ■■ 1 Onoia ■- 

ISOnde - 1 Lihbra 
lOOLihbre -{^^^ j- 



SngUs 
iToy Oralns. 

•68752 
6-87521 

13-75042 

41.251264 
412*51264 



MetrUi value. 
Orammee. 

•044549 
•44549 

•89099 

2-67299 
26-7299 



Iba. ar. 

•70716453 « 320*759 



70*7164536 - 32*0759 



n. SIOILT. 



191 



(5) COMMEBCIAL WEIGHTS. 

1 Trappeso « 



100 Trapped 
10 DecimeB 



TroyOnina, 

13-7504i 

Ibe. ar. 

-19648 



1 Dedme ■- 

1 Bottolo » 1*9643 

1 Oantaro 



•891 

881 
881 

Eilognuam«s. 

89*100 



100 Rottoli = { Q^^ } - 19e-430 

(c) ASSATEBS* WSIOHTS. 

Assayers nsed to express the fineness of Gold and Silver 
aometimes in thousandth parts, as in France, also sometimefl 
1^ dividing the onnoe of Gold into 24 Oarats, and the Carat 
into 100 parts, and the onnoe of Silyer into 12 Denaii, eaoh of 
100 parts. 





H- 


SICILY. 






MEASURES OF LENGTH. 




Sicilian vaJAU, 
12 Tiinien « 


Syitematie name, Engliih viOae. 

Indies 

lOnde - -846767 - 


Msirie value. 
•0215 


12 Onde « 


Palmo » 10*161207 « 


•25809 


2 Palmo = 
4Pasetti « 


1 Pasetto » 20-822414 - 

Taids, 

ICaima « 2-25864 » 


•51618 
2*06472 


4Ganna — 


1 Catena - 8*08218 - 


8*25888 


4 Catena » 


ICorda « 86*128736 -> 


88-03552;; 


45 Corde « 


1 Miglio » • 


1625*79812or] ( 

Mile. ' ■■ • 

•92374 J 


1486*5984or 

Kilometres. 

1-48659 




MEASUKES OF SURFACE. 




SieUian value, 
1 Sqr. Canna 


Syatematie name. Engli$h vaUte, 

Square Yaids. 

= 1 Qnartiglo - 5098746 = 


Metrie vahte. 
Square Metres. 

4*268069 


4 Qoartigli 


» 1 Quarto » 20-394978 - 


17*052274 


4Qnarti 


B 1 Cariozzo » 81*579914 » 


68-209098 


4 Carrozzi 


» 1 Mondello » 826*319657 - 


272-886395 


4 MondeUi 
4 Tnmoli 


» 1 Tunolo - 1806*278628 - 
» IBisacco(a)- 102709 « 


1091-845581 

Ares. B N 

48-653823 


4Bi8acGos 


B 1 Sahna il>) - 4*10885 » 


174-615293 



(a) ifl equal to 52ai'114512 Engli sh Sqiiare Tarde; (b) is eqaal^io 
aoeMtfSOGlEngUahSqiuaelnas. . 



192 ^ 



XEAJBinues. 



HEASUBES OF CAPACITT FOB DBY GOODS. 
BieiUtm valus. 



4 Ouozzi 
4 M andeUi 
4 Tnmoli 
4 Bisaod 



ByiUwuMe name* 

1 Carozzo 
1 MondeUo 
1 Tvmolo 
1 Bisaooo 
1 Salma 



XnglUh value, 
Xapeiial Bnshal*. 

-029314 . 

•117256 - 

•469026 « 

1-876105 . 

7*504422 . 



Metric valued 

107456 
4-29825 
17-198 
68-772 
276-088 



The Salma given in the table is the ordinary Salma ;'th6 
Babna Qtossa ia equal to 9*47 Britiah Imperial Boe^ielB. 



HEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 



BMtUmvalus, 

SOQnartoodii 
4CaroffiH 


BgitewtaUe name, 
1 Qnartaoco«» 
"}-ilQiuirtar6 = 


EngUeh value, 
JmoadalQeBooB. 

-1892 - 

8-783461 - 


HeiHe value. 

LltK*. 

•85965 
17^193 


SQnartari 
4BariU 


.iBarUe « 
alTonna » 


7-566922 - 
80-267688 » 


84-38a 

187-544 


8Barm 




60-585376 - 


276-088 


4Sa]ma8 


-IBotte 


242-141504 - 


UOO-352 




WEIGHTS. 




BieiUan value. 


BifitemaUe name, 
1 Onoie 


EngUeh value, 
- -0583 - 


Metric value, 
Kilognnimei. 

•026447 


12 Oncie 


a 1 Libbro 


•6996 » 


-817368 


30 Oncie 


- 1 Bottolo 


- 1-7492 - 


•79342 


lOOBottoH 


■■ 1 Cantaro 


= 174-92 « 


79*342 



The Last is 25 Cantaros. The Bottolo and Cantaro of thi» 
table are tibie Bottolo and Cantaro Sottile. 

The Bottolo Grosso has 33 Onde, and is eqaal to 1-923^ 
lbs. ay. English, or -87276 Kilogrammes. 

The Cantaro Grosso is equal to 192-3 0)8. ay. Engiishi or 
S7'376 Kilogrammes. 

In Messina Oil is sold by the Oai&so, eqnal to 2*602042 
British Imperial Gallons, or 11*82 Litres, and is reckoned hj- 
ir^t at 12i BottoU Grossi, or 24*037 lbs. ay. English. 

la Palermo, Oil is sold by the Cantaro Grosso, 



TUBOANT. 



193 



TUSCANY. 



Tu9can value, SytUmatic nams, 

1 Panto - 
12 PnntoB «■ 1 Deuaro ,, 

12 Denari „ 1 Soldo 



10 Soldi 



»» 



Palmo 



»» 



»i 



20 Soldi or ^ r 1 Braooio ) 
2Palmi ) " ldoPannoJ"»» 

2 Braooias „ 1 Pasotto „ 
\ /I Oanua 
(Com 



Sngliik value. 
Lino. 

•124076 - 

1*48B92 

InohcH, 

1*148BU2 

11-48892 

Feet. 

1*91482 



4 Braooias 
de Panuo 



6 Braooias 
de Pauno 

28381 Brao-) 
oias de 
Panuo 



tt 



n 



^ meroial) ^ 

1 Canna 
(Survey- 
ors*) 



n IMigHo 



II 



If 



8*82964 
7-66928 

9*5741 



11 

It 
ti 

>« 
II 

11 

»i 



Metric value. 

Metre*. 

•000202 
•002431 

' -029181 
-291815 

•58865 
1-16730 

2*33460 



2*918*25 



4 Miglia 



\ 



It 



1 Post 
Miglio 



ti 



ti 



Tarda, 






1808-448 or 


f 


MllOM. 


•t.^ 


1663*675 


1-0275 , 




k 




6614-700 or 


4*11 


KUomotrcii. 






6*0147 



The Braooio de Panno is also snbdiyided into 12 Crazie, and 
the Soldo into B Quatriui of 4 Denari. The Orazio Ib 5 Quat. 
rini or 20 Denari, and is equal to 2'48153 English InohoB. The 
Braooio, used by Architeots and Surveyors, is a little shorter 
than the Braooio de Panno. It is equal to 1-8 English Foot. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



Tutnem value, Byttefnatic nams. 



100 Sqr. 
Braooias 

100 Ta- 

VOlOB 



1 Sqr. Braooio -- 



EnglUh value. 
Square Yards. 

•4073928 » 



Metrte value, 

Sqimru Mutros. 

-34064li 



1 Tavolo „ 40*7892848 „ 84*0646 
(4078*92848 or) ^8406*46 or 



It 



1 Qudrato „ 



Acre. 

•84178 



i» 



Arcn, 

84-0046 



100 Quadrates are equal to 84*178 English Aores. 

s 



194 



MEABIJBE8. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DRY GOODS. 



Tu$ean value. 


Systematie name 
1 Bassolo 


• 


Bnglieh value. 
Imperial Pints. 
•3352 « 


Metric wOue, 
Utres. 
•190344 


2 Bassoli 


»1 Qnartncoo 


tf 


•6704 


-380689 


2 Qnartacci 


„ 1 Mazetta 


It 


1-3408 


•761379 


2 Mezette 


,, 1 Mettadellii 


^1 


2-6816 


1-522679 


4 Metadelle or ) ^ n ^ 
8 Mezette > »» ^ Q'**^ 

2 Quarti „ 1 Mina 


»» 


10-7264 

Imperial Biuhela. 

•33620 


6090715 
12181431 


2 Mine 


„ 1 Stajo 


f» 


•67040 


24-362862 


3 Staja 


„1 Sacco 


»» 


2-01120 


73-088586 


8Sacci 


„ 1 Moggio 


»i " 


16-08960 or 

Imp. Quarters. 

^ 201120 


' f» 


584-708688 


MEASURES 


OF CAPACITY F( 


m LIQUIDS— (WiwE, Ac). 


Tiuean value. 


SyttematUs name. 
1 Qnartacco 




BnglUh value. 
Imperial Pints. 

•50164 » 


Metric vahte. 
Litm. 

•2849 


2 Qnartncci 


SB 1 Mezzetta 


fi 


100328 „ 


•5698 


2 Mezzette 
2 Boccali 


„ 1 Boccale 
,, 1 Fiasco 


»» 
»t 


2-00656 „ 

Imperial Gallons. 
•50164 „ 


1-1396 
2-2792 


20Fia8ci 


„ 1 Baiile 


>» 


10-03289 „ 


46-584 


9}Barile 


„ 1 Pipa 


f» 


86-9846 „ 


440-389 




WEIGH 


TS. 




Tuscan value. 


Syaiematiename. 
1 Grano 




EnglUh value. 
Troy Grains. 

•75804- 


Metric value, 
Grammesw 

•0491235 


24arani 


» 1 Denaro 


»t 


18*193 „ 


1-178965 


3 Denari 


„ 1 Dranuna 


» 


64-681 „ 


3*536896 


8 Dramme 


„ 1 Oncia 


» 


436*54 ,, 


28*295166 


12 Once 
100 Tnbbre 


„ 1 libbra 
„ 1 Cantaro 




IM. AT. 

•74855 „ 339-542 

Kiloflrrammfls. 

74-855 „ 33-954 


10 CantaroB 


», 1 Migliajo 


»» 


748-55 „ 339-54 



In ronnd nnmbers the Tuscan Libbra is nearly 12 oz. ay. It 
is nearly 11 oz. Troy. 



LOMBABDY. — AABBIKIA (ISLAND OP). 195 

The Medicinal Wtighta are, the Libbra of 12 Onoe ; the 
Onoia of 8 Dramme ; the Dramma of 8 Sornpoli ; the Scrupolo 
of 24 Grani ; and the Grano. Thus, the Medicinal Libbra 
oontains 6912 Tusoan Grani. The Libbra of Lnooa is only a 
few grains heayier than the Tusean Libbra. 



LOMBABDY. 

Length, — The Metro or Bracdo of 10 Palmi, each of 10 Diti, 
eaoh of 10 Atomi « d8'87079 English Inohes or 1 M#tre. 
The MigUo of 1000 Metri - 1093*68 EngHeh Yards or 1 
Kilometre. Surface, — The Tomatura of 100 Square Palmi *■ 
119*6033 English Square Yards. It is the Italian Ara or the 
French Are.- Capacity.— The Pinta of 10 Coppi » 17608 
British Imperial IHnt. It is the Italian Litro or the French 
Litre. The Mina of 10 Pint! is the Italian Deoalitro or French 
Decalitre, and the Soma of 10 Mine is the Italian Hectolitro 
or French Hectolitre. The Mina -> 2*2096, and the Soma 
22*096 British Imperial Gallons. r«t(//ite.— Libbra Metrioa 
of 10 Oncie. each of 10 Grossi, each of 10 Denari, each of 10 
Grani, is the Italian Ghilogramma or the French Kilogramme, 
and B 2*20466 lbs. ay. English. The Bubbo of 10, and the 
Qnintale of 100 LibbrL 



SABDINIA- (ISLAND OF). 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

8ardini€n value, SyttemaUe name, Et%fflUh %falue. Metric value^. 

Inches. Motres. 

1 Palmo - 10*38483 i« -26*25 

Tarda. 

8 Pahni « 1 Canna „ 2*296029 „ 2*1 

12 Palmi „ 1 Trabncco „ 3*444944 „ 3*15 

The Surface Measures are the Squares of the Measures of 
Length. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Sardinimn value, Systematie name^ SnylUh value, Mctrie value. 

Imperial OallonB. LitiVH. 

1 Quarte - 6*411626 » 24'.>876 
2 Quarte - 1 StareUo „ 10*823253 „ 49175 



196 



HEA8UBB0. 



MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 
(Wins, Bbakdt, &c.) 

Sardinian value, Syttematic name, 

1 Metzze 

2Metzze - 1 Pinte „ 1-77014 „ 1-00532 

6 Pinte „ 1 Quartiere ,, 8*8507 ,, 5'0266 



Englith value. Metric value. 
Imperial Pinte. Litre*. 

-88507 - -60266 



The Qnartana of 12 Qnartncd - 7'S95248 Imperial Pinta 
En^sh, or 4*2 Litres. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS— (On.) . 



Sardinian value, 

2 Mistiri 
12 Quartncci 
4 Quartane 
2 Giaxri 






Byttematie name, 

1 Mienro 
1 Qnartncco 
1 Qnartana 
1 Giarro 
IBarile 



Englieh value. Metric value. 
Imperial ^Jallana. Litres, 

- -08861 - -176 



f* 
tf 



•07708 
*924405 
3-69762 
7-39524 






•350 
4*2 
16-8 
3d'6 



WEIGHTS. 



Sardinian value. Syttematic name. 



2 Bediceni 
2 Ottavi 

4 Quarti 
12 Once 

100 Libbro 



English vaiue, 

Troy Grainii. 

1 Sediceno » 32*61456 



Metric value, 
Oram me*. 

2*1184 



n 
»f 

it 



1 Ottavo 
1 Quarto 

1 Oncia 
1 Libbra 

1 Cantaro 



H 66*2291 
„ 130*4582 









4*2268 
8'4686 

IbH. ar. 

^0746475 „ 38-8141 
-89467 „ 405-77 

Kllotrrainmeii. 

89*457 „ 40-577 



MALTA. 



Maltese value, 

12 Once 
8Palmi 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
Syttematic nam£, 

IPiede 
1 Oncia 
a 1 Palmo 

1 Canna 



f» 



English value, 
Inchei. 

'856314 
10*275776 

Tardii. 

2*2885 



If 



Metric value. 
Metres. 

- -28368 

•02175 
•261 



f> 



i» 
i» 

ft 



2-088 



MALTA. 197 

The following approximate eqniyaleiits are generally assivned 
in Oommerda] dealings. 

1 Palmo -i lOi English Inches - -33865 French Mdtre. 
1 Tratto - 24 English Inches « '609576 French Metre. 
1 Measnre -i 42 English Inches » 1-066758 French MMre. 
1 Canna » 84 English Inches » 2'133516 French M^tre. 
7 Canne - 48 English Feet -i 14*630112 French Mdtre. 
120 Palmi - 103 English Feet a 81*393782 French Mdtre. 

In round nnmhers 3i Palmi are reckoned equal to 1 EngUsh 
Yard ; or 2^ English Yards are equal to 1 Canna. 

MEASUBES OF SURFACE. 

Malteie value, Syatematie nam«» English valn§* Mttrie valur, 

SquAre Feet. Square Metroft. 

1 Sq.Poltice « • 00609218 - -000473 

144 Sq. Poltice - 1 Sq. Palmo „ -73827488 „ *068121 

64 Sq. Pahni „ 1 Sq. Canna „ 46*929589 „ 4*859744 

Square Yards. 

^ Sq. Canne „ 1 Misura „ 26*0291142 „ 20*926771 
10 Misuras „ 1 Mondello „ 260*291142 ,, 209*26771 

Ares. 

6Mondelli nlTumulo „ 1601*746852 ,, 12*5560626 

Acres. Heotares. 

16TumuU ,,lSalma „ 4*964 ,, 2*008970016 

548 Square Palmi are usually reckoned equal to 400 English 
Square Feet, and 16 Salmi or 256 Tumuli to 71 English 
Acres. 

CUBIC MEASUBES. 

The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed 
in Commercial dealings : — 

1 Cuhic Tratto = 8 English Cuhic Feet. 
144 Cuhic Palmi « 96 English Cuhic Feet. 
1 Cuhic Canna = 843 English Cuhic Feet. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. 

IfaltMe value, SyeUmatUi nam«, EnglUh value. Metric vahi«. 

Imperial BuNhels. l.itrw. 

1 Mondello » *082679 « 80002 

Mondelli « 1 Tummolo „ -496077 „ 18*031'25 

16TmnmoU „ 1 Salma (*< Struck") „ 7 937237 „ 288*5 



198 



HEASUBES. 



The "heaped" Sabna, which is used in meaBixring Beans, 
Herhs, Lentils, Indian Com, Linseed, Hempseed, Canary Seed, 
Bait, and Charcoal, is about 16 percent, greater than the Salma 
of '* stmck" measure. It is, therefore, eqnal to ahont 384*66 
Litres, or 0-20719492 English Imperial Bnshels. 

The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed 
in all Conmieroal dealings : — 



100 Tnmmoli 



(heT^d) }'" 57 British Impl. Bushels 

J »» 197 y, ff 

Quarters 



400 Tummoli 
(struck) 

36 Salmi } 
(heaped) J " 

203 Salmi ) 
(struck) J " 



40 
200 



»y 



11 



>» 



>» 



It 



If 



French Litre*. 

254*435272 

Hectolitreii. 

7160*525512 
116*313267 
58r56633» 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS.* 



Maltese value, 

4 Gills 

2 Pints 
4 Quarts 



11 



ft 



8y$tematie name, 

1 Pint 

1 Quart 
1 Gallon 



11 



» 



BnglUh vetlue. 
Imperial Pint. 

•833111 . 

ImpeiHal Oallon. 

•208277 
•833111 



1$ 



11 



Metric value. 
Litres. 
•473125 

•94625 
8*785 



The Maltese Wine Barrel is equal to 9*35 British Imperial 
Gallons, or 42*027 Litres. 

In Oil measure the unit is the CaficOi equal to 4| English 
Imperial Gallons, or 10*87773 Litres. 

A Barrile of Oil of 2 Cafici is equal to 8| English Imperial 
Gallons, or 39*755461 Litres. 

6 Wine Gallons are equal to 5 English Imperial Gallons = 
22*717435 French Litres. 

1 Cafico of Oil is equal to 4| English Imperial Gallons ■» 
20*445691 French Litres. 

130 Barrile of Wine are equal to 1216 English Imperial 
Gallons = 6624*880192 French Litres. 



* These are the Old British Wine Measures that were superseded by 
the British TmpenAH Measures. The Oallon contained 231 Cubic Inches. 
Of Buch Oallons. 10 made an Anker; 18a Bundlet; 42 a Tierce; 68 a 
Hogshead; 84 a Puncheon; 126 aFIpe or Butt; and 252 a Tan« 



XTJjfcA m»^» 



199 



WEIGHTS. 



Malte$« value, 

ISGrani 
2 Grapesi 
16 Parti 
12 Onoe 

2^ Libbra 

100 RotoU 
114 BotoU 



n 
n 



Syttematie name. 

1 Grano* 
1 Orapeso* 
IParto* 
1 Oxicia* 
1 Libbra* 

t Botolof 

1 Cantarof 
1 Quintal 



Engiish tulud. 
Troy Qralng. 

•7069 
12-7239 
26-4479 
407-16 
n 4886 

Iba. Av. 

1-746 






174i 
100 



Metric value, 

Orommei. 

'045805 
•82449 
1-64898 
268888 
316606 

701-515 

Ktlotrrammes, 

79-1515 
03-2326 



The following approximate equivalents are generally assumed 
in Commercial dealings : — 

French GrammeB. 



14 English 


ounces 


av. 


« 


15 Maltese Onoie 


BS 


306-89887 


28 


II 




n 


IRotolo 




701-515 

JkiloiCTainnMS. 


7 


lbs. 


II 


II 


4BotoH 




3-175147 


112 


ti 


»i 


II 


64 BotoU - 




60-802416 


175 


II 


II 


II 


1 Cantaro 




79-37868 


199 


ti 


>} 


II 


1 Quintal 




00-264907 


5 


Tons 




ti 


64Cantari 




6080-241602 



The Botolo and half-Botolo are the Weights used in aU small 
dealings. 



TUEKEY. 



MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 



TurJHeh value, Syetematie name, 

1 Ker&t 
24 Kerdts = 1 Pike or Drfi 

1 Berri 



Snglieh value. 
Inches. 

- u 

,.27 



II 



Metric vahte 

Metrcfi. 

- -0285744 
„ -6857876 

Miles. Kilometrm. 

1-038636,, 1-671492 



8 Berri „ 1 Agatsoh or Forsang „ 3-11591 ,,6*01447 



* Weights for Gold, Silver, and Preoioiu Stones. 
•f Oommeroial Weights. 



200 MXABITBX8. 

There are in common nee three kinds of Pike, viz, the Drft, 
given in the table, and equal to | of an English Yard ; the 
greater Pike called the Haiebi or Jrchim (used by Surveyors) 
-» 27*9 English Inches, or -7086472 Mdtre ; and the little Pike 
or Enda»»S = 26'68816 English Inches, or -6528 Mdtre. 

The Beed used by Land Surveyors is 6} Halebis. The Haiebi 
is used for Silk and Woollen goods, and the Endass^ for Cotton 
goods and Carpets. There are also the Shibher or Span, and 
the Fitneh or span of the thumb and ^f orefinger, and the Eud- 
dun or pace. 

In several parfe of the Ottoman Empire, Itinerary distances 
are estimated by the time taken to walk them. Thus there is the 
*' hour " which varies from 2f to 4 miles. But this mode of reck- 
oning distances is not peculiar to Turkey or the East. It is 
very usual to speak of a place as being so many minutes or hours 
distant. 

MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. 

Turklih value* Systematie name* EnglUh value. Metric value. 

Square Fe«t. Square Metre*. 

256 Sqr. Eer&ts - 1 Sqr. Pike - 6'405625 - -50218085 

Square Yard*. 

BOk Sqr. Pikes „ 1 Sqr. Beed,, 18*168905 „ 15*19072088 

The general Measure for Land is the Feddcm^ an indefinite 
measure signifying as much as a yoke of oxen can plough in 
one day. On the large plains a Feddan is used to express as 
much land as 4 yoke of oxen can plough in one day. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. 



Twkiih value. 




SyttcmaHe name. 


EnglUh value. Metric value. 


900 Dirhems ( 
12 Okiejehs 


") 


- 1 Bottol 


Imperial Gallon. Litres. 

- -8528145 - 1-60318 


6i Bottols 




„ ISa 


Imperial Bnahelf . 

„ -24256 „ 8*8176 


2Sa 




„ 1 Jubbeh 


„ -48512 „ 17*685 


2 Jubbehs 




„ 1 Killow 


„ -97024 „ 85*27 


4 Killows 




„ IFortin 


„ 8*88096 „ 141*08 



100 Killows are equal to 12*128 British Imperial Quarters, 
or 85*266 Hectolitres. The Eillow is the chief measure for 
Grain, the lower measures being definite weights rather than 
measures. By the law of 17th November, 1841, the Killow of 
Constantinople was made the only legal Killow of the whole 
Empire, and the Killow of Smyrna and that of Salonica were 
aboUshed. 2 Killows of Smyrna, or 1 of Salonica were equal to 
8 of Constantinople nearly. 



TUBKET. 201 

MEASURES OF 0APA0XT7 FOR LIQUIDS. 



2VrM«h wUue* 


8f/MUmaUe naiM. 
1 Okiejeli 


BnglUh value, Metrie rdlM. 
Imp«riRl }MnU. Litre*. 

- -20045 - -1190 


5| OkiejeliB 
12 Oldejehs 

8 0ke 


- lOka 
,, 1 Rottol 

1, 1 Almad 


„ 1-151976 „ 
„ 2-5134 

Iinp«*riid (Millions. 

„ 1-161976 „ 


•6645 
1-4280 

5*284 


100 Rottols 


„ 1 Gautar 


„ 31-417 


142-80 



The Liqaid MeasuroB, like the Measuros of Dry Capacity, 
take their names from Weights ; they are iu fact vesHolH which 
contain definite weights of water at a f^vcn temperature. ThuSt 
for instance, the Oka is a measnro holding an Oka- weight of 
pure water at a fixed temperature. It is used as a Measure of 
Capacity for all kinds of liquids throughout the empire. For 
Oil the Tarr^ is in some places 16, and others 28 Oko. 

WEIGHTS. 

TufkUh value* Syttematio name, SngUih value, Mftric value. 

lb. Av. Oratninw. 

1 Dirhcm - •0070854 - 3'21»86 

lOODirhems - 1 Okiejoh „ -708643 „ 321-386 

Kllofframmet. 

4 Okiejehs „ 1 Oke „ 2*83418 „ 128664 

lOO^Rottls j - 1 ^'«^*« - 124-70392 „ 66-66878 

The Rottolo is equal to 1-247039 tb. av. English, or 666-6878 
Grammes. 

WEIGHTS FOR GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS 

STONES. 

The unit of these Weights is tlie Chequee or Chekoy, which 
is the fourth-part of an Oka, and is equal to about 4060 Troy 
Grains, or 11-816 oz. ay. The Chequee or Chekey is divided 
into 100 Dirhems, each of 16 Karas, and each Kara of 4 Grains, 
as follows : — 

Twrkiih value, Bysti^matie name, Englinh value. Metrie value, 

TroyOraln*. OrRmmM. 

1 Grain = '7707- •04904 

4 Grains -1 Kara „ 8'0828 „ •19976 

le.Karas „lDirhem „ 49*825 „ 8-1962 

100 Dirhems „ 1 Chequee or Chekey „ 4982-6 „ 819-62 



202 HEASUSS8. 



CANDIA. 

In the Island of Candia, which f oimB a Pashalic of Turkey, 
the denominations of Weights and Measures are nearly the 
same as in Turkey, with some slight local difference in value. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Pike or Drfi is equal to 25^ English Inches, or '70833 
Mdtres. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Dennum is equal to ahout 40 Square Yards, or 33*448^ 
Square Metres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Mistach for Oil is equal to ahout 8 British Imperial Gallons, 
or about 13*681 Litres. 

The Mistach for Wine yaries from 8 to 5 Gallons, or from 
13*681 to 22*717 Litres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Carza is equal to about 4*19 British Imperial Bushels, 
or 162*297684 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Oka is equal to about 2} lbs. ay., or 801*69 Grammes. 
The Cantar of 44 Okes is equal to about 126 lbs. ay. English, 
or 36*27486 Kilogrammes. 



GBEECE. 

ROYAL* MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Qreek valtu. Syitematie name. BnglUh valite. Metric vahu, 

-.-J^.^th of the "i Inches. 

PecheuT 3 ^ ^ Gramme - -03937079=1 Millimetre 

10 Gramma „ 1 Daktjlas „ -8987079 „ 1 Centimetre 

10 Daktjlor „ 1 Palame „ 3*937079 „ 1 D6cimdtre 

lOPalamai „ 1 Pecheus ,,30*37079 „ 1 Mdtre. 

* These Weights and Measures are called " Royal" to distingiilsh them 

from those of Constantinople, which were formerly nsed in G^reece. The 

" Royal Weights and Measnres " were introduced in accordance with an 

ordinance dated *26th October, 1886. Tablets showing the difference be- 

ween the new and old systems were pat np at all workshops and paUio 

irkets during the year following the introduction of the new system. 



GBSSCX. 208 



ROYAL MEASURES OF DISTANCE. 

QrMli value, Sifitematie nain», English valtte, Metrte vahu, 

Tardi. 

lOOOPeoheis = 1 Stadion = 1098*633 = 1 Eilomdtro 

Mll«t. 

10 stadia „ 1 SkoiniB „ 6*2138 „ 1 Myriam6tre 



R07AL MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Qre$k value, SyetmaoHe name. SnglUh value. Metric vahte, 

S^vuure Yard*. 

1 Sq. Pe6h6n8= 1196033321-1 Sq. Mdtre 
100 Sq. Peoheis =1 Stremma „ 119*603321 ,, 1 Are 

ROYAL MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS 

AND LIQUIDS. 

Oreek value, SyetemaHe name, Sngliah value. Metric value, 

■ A_ th of a Cnbio ) imperial Plnti. 

^^e* 8 J =1 ^^8 = -00176077 =1 MiUilitre 

10 Kyboi „ 1 Mystron „ -01760773 „ 1 Centilitre ' 

10 Mystra „ 1 Eotyle „ -176077339 „ 1 D6oilitie 

lOEotylai ,, 1 Litra „ 1760773395 ,, 1 Litre 

Imperial Oallona. 

lOOLitrai ,, 1 Eoilon ,,22-00966744 „lHectoUtre 

The Koilon is a measure whose capacity is that of a hollew 
cube described on the Palame, or ^th of the Peoheos. 

WEIGHTS. 

I.— Gold, Silybb, and Precious Stonbs. 

Oreek value, Byetematie name, . Snglieh value, Mrtric value, 

tit>y UraiuB. 

1 EokkoB -i -154823488=1 Contigzamme 
10 Eokkoi = 1 OboloB „ 1*54323488 „ 1 Decignunme 
10 Oboloi „ 1 Draohmtf „ 16*4323488 „ 1 Gramme 

II. — COMMEBCIAL. 

Gfra«fe value, Syttematic name, ^^^^ v<ilue. Metric voHm. 

1500 Draohmai = 1 MnA — 8*80699 = 1} Kilogramme 



204 SOASTTBBS. 

III. — ^Weights for Great Bulks. 

Greek value* 8y$tematic name, EnglUh value. Metrie vahte. 

IbB. av. 

100 Mn&i ^ 1 Tolanton = 380*699 = U Quintal 

Cwt 

10 Tolanta „ 1 Tonos „ 29'52669 „ U Tonneanx 

The nnit of weight is the Drachm6. It is equiil to the Bpedfio 
weight of the Kyhos, that is to the weight of a Eyhos (-nAn;^^ 
part of a Litra) of pore water. 

APOTHECABIES' WEIGHTS. 

Ajiotheearles value, Systerndtic name. Royal Weight, EnglUh value. 

Royal I>racbmal. Troy Orains. 

1 Kokkos = '0626 — -9645218 

20 Kokkoi = 1 Sitarion „ 1-26 „ 19*290436 

8 Sitaria „ 1 Drachm6 „ 3*76 „ 67*871308 

8 Drachmai „ 1 Ouggia „ 30 t, 462*970464 

12 0uggiai ,, 1 Litra „ 360 ,,6666*646668 

The difference between the Weights and Heasnres given ia 
the above tables, and those of Constantinople; which were in 
use in Greece until October, 1836, is as follows : — 

I.— LENGTH. 

The Royal Pecheus Ib equal to 1*6432 of the little Pechens of; 
Constantinople. 

The little Pecheus of Constantinople is equal to *64d of the 
Royal Pecheus, and the great Pecheus of Constantinople is 
equal to *669 of the Royal Pecheus. 

Tiie old Pecheus used by Surveyors, Builders, and Carpen- 
ters, is equal to '76 of the Royal Pecheus. 

One Standard Measure exists throughout the whole of the 
kingdom ; this consists of a rod of steel or brass, upon which 
is shown the length of the Royal Pecheus. 

n.— SURFACE. 

The Royal Square Pechens is equal to 2*381 Square Pdcheis 
(Pikes) of Constantinople. 

The Royal Stremma is equal to 238*1 Square Pecheifl ol 
Constantinople, or to '787 of the old Peloponnesian Stremma, 
or to 1778 of the old Square Pecheis used by Surveyors and 
Builders, each of such old Square Pecheis (Surveyors) being 
equal to *6626 of the Royal Square Pechens. 

The old Peloponnesian Stremma of 8026 Square Peclieis Is 
equal to 1*27 of the Royal Stremma. 



TUB lOXIAN IfiLAKB). 205 

III.— CAPACITY. 

The Royal* Litnt is eqaal to OSOl > o! the old KoiUn. Tlie 
old Eoilon id equal to 33*10 Litra. 

IV.— WEIGHTS. 

The Royal Maa is eqnal to i'1719 of an Oka, (whioh is eqnal 
to 4682 old Dramia). The Oka is eqaal to -8533 of the Mnu. 



THE IONIAN ISLANDS. 

(CORFU. SANTA MAURA, CEPHALONIA, ZANTE. 
CERIGO. ITHACA, AND PAXO.) 

As the louian Islands now (1867) form a part of the Kingdom 
of Greece, it is probable that the Greek system of Weights and 
Measures (see Greece) will soon become the only legal one. 
While the islands were imder the protection of Great Britain 
(1815 to 1864) the British Weights and Measures (see pp. 106 
—117), with Italian names, were those in use. 

The Pied6 was the Foot ; the Jarda was the Imperial Yard ; 
the Caniaco was the Pole ; the Stadio was the Furlong ; the 
Galloue was the Imperial Gallon ; the Chilo was the Bushel ; 
the Dicotilo was the Imperial Pint ; the Libra Qroisa was the 
tt>. Avoirdupois ; the Libra Sottile was the lb. Troy ; and the 
Tolonto was lOt) lbs. av.f 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Ionian vaV.t^. Siistfmatic name* EngUihvaUt\ Mc trie value, 

Metros. 

IPiede -IFoot = -304794 

a Piede - 1 Jarda „ 1 Yard „ -914383 

SlJarda „ 1 C»miaco „(^^f^f^®')„ 602911 
40 Carnaco „ 1 Stadio „ 1 Cham. „ 201*16436 

Kilontotrcs. 

8 Stodla „ 1 Miglio „ 1 MUe „ 1-610931492 



* Litra is equal to J of an Oka, and 1| Litrai is eqnal to 1 Oka. 

f Previous to the period of British protection the If easures wore thd 
y^anto Cloth Braccio of :il7'18 Inches, and Silk Braccio equal to 25-87 
Inches : the Zanto Barile eaoal 14 68 British Imperial Gallons ; the Corfa 
Biurile equal to 15 British Imperial Gallons ; the Corfu Mog^io, (Grain 
measurement) of 8 Misuro eanal to 4-68 British Imperial Bushels; the 
Moflgio, (Land Measure) of 8 Misure or 24 Zappade equal to 2 Acres 1 Rood 
JM Perches English ; the Qtiintal of 44 Okes equal to 12515 lbs. Avoirdu- 
pois ; and 10 Okes equal to 28 lbs. av. 

T 



206 M£i.8UB£S. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Ionian vakM* By»tematie name, EnglUh value. MeMe value* 

Lltrw. 

IDicotilo = 1 Imperial Pint = -66793 

8 Dicotili = 1 Gallone „ 1 „ GaUon „ 4*543487 

8 Galloni „ 1 Chilo „ 1 „ Bushel „ 36*347896 

2 CMOS », IBarile „ 2 „ Bushels „ 72*695792 

WEIGHTS. 

Ionian value* Stjatematle name. Englieh value. Metric value. 

lb«. av. Grammes. 

1 Libbra Grossa = 1 = 453*6925 

lOO.Iibbre ={'^;tnr'' }" 100 » 41^925 
10 Centinajo „ 1 MigUo „ 1000 ,, 463-6925 

CHINA. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Chinese value. Systematic name, English value. Metric value.> 

Inches. Metres. 

IFun* = *141 « 'OOSSSl 

10 Fun ^ 1 Tsun „ 1*41 „ -035813 

10 Tsun „ 1 Chih ,, 141 „ -35818a 

Feet. 

10 Chih „ 1 ChAng „ llj „ » 3*58133 

10 Ch^g „ 1 Yin „ 117i ' „ 36*8133 

In the tariff settled by treaty between Great Britain and 
China, the Chih equal to 14^^^ English Inches (the Canton 
Customs' Chih) has been adopted as the legal standard. It ia 
the legal measure at all the Ports of trade ; its use is becomir.g 
more general, and it may be ultimately adopted as the universal 
standard of length. At present, howerer, the length of the 
Chih varies at different places and in different trades at the 
same place. 

Tradespeople use two Chih sticks, varying in length from 
^th to -Ird of an inch, the longer for wholesale, and the shorter 
for retail transactions. 

Decimals are used to denote subdivisions of the Chih, and 
the Chang is the longest measure for articles. 

The length of the Chang, or any other multiple of the Chih* 
varies with the length of the Chih chosen as the unit. Thus^ 
the Chang of the treaty (above mentioned) is equal to 141 
English Inches, or 3*58183 Metres. At Shanghai the Chang 
vanes from 125 to 129 Inches, or from -317495 to *827654 M^tre. 

In the North of China (Pekin, Tientsin, Sec), the Chihs in 
most general use are the Carpenters' and the Mercers' Chihs, 

* The length of a Millet Seed with the ends dressed off. 



CHIKiL* 



207 



equal respectiyely to 12*85 and 13*7 Eogliih InoheB, or to 
*818684, and 847978 Mdtre. 

The following table shows the length of the Chih in differ- 
ent dynasties : 



Dynuty. 
Hwangti* 


Date. 


Otalh. 


EnaliBh 

valne. 

laches. 

1O0692 

• 


Uetrlo 
▼alae. 
Metre. 

•255499 
•328065 


B.C. 2697—1766 


Chih 


Shang .. 


B.C. 1766—1122 


Chih 


12-8541 


Chan 


B.C. 1122— 249 


Chih 


804739 


•204400 


• 

Han 


B.c.202-A.i>.221 


Chih 


1117717 


•283894 


Tang .. 


A.D. 618— 907 


Long 
Chih 


12-58415 


•819681 


Tang .. 


A.D. 618— 907 


Short 
Chih 


10-05924 


-255500 


Snng . . 


A.n. 960—1280 


Chih 


10-05924 


•255600 


Ming .. 


A.D. 1368—1644 


Chain 
Chih 


13-422 

12-8754 


-840912 


Ming .. 


A.D. 1368—1644 


Tong. 
Chih 


•827029 


Ming .. 


A.D. 1368—1644 


Kish. 
Chih 


12-58415 


•319631 


TRing .. 


1644 


Present 

Official 

Chihf 


12-58415 


-319681 



4«t3l5^i'l?®A*l^*" ft* grandson of Noah, and ascribe to him the 
invention of the Mariners Compass. 

+ But the staadardB themselves are not uniform, for a standard Ch(h 
received at Shanghai in 1844, was only equal to 125288 inches. 



208 



KEA8UBE8. 



The Tariaiions in the length of the Chih at different places 
and in different trades will be seen from the following tabiM : — 



PEEIN. 

SnglUh value, 
Indies. 

Tailors' Chih in the Sonlh 
pact of the City . . 18 08 

Chih Tised by Traders in 
Silk .. .. 13*46 

Chih nsed by Tailors in the 
North part of the City, 18-42 

Tailors' Chih, according 
to Da Halde . . 18'216 

Chih of the TribunaJ of 
Mathematics . . 18*118 

Land Snrveyors' Chih, 

liang-ti'Chih . . 12*875 

Common Chih . . 12*68 

Registrar of Lands Chih, 12*598 

Architects', Traders', &c. 
Chih .. .. 12*585 

Chih of the Palace, 12*468 

Chih of Imperial Statis- 
tics .. .. 12*40 

Chih of the Board of 
Public Works . . 12'34 

Chih nsed in the Works 
of the Palace . . 12 17 



Metric value, 

i» -344925 

„ -341877 

„ -340861 

,,.•235680 

„ -333191 

„ -327019 
„ -322066 
„ -319983 

„ -319653 
„ -316681 

„ -314954 

„ -313430 

„ -309112 



AMOY. 

Tailors', Painters', and 
Mercers' Chih .. 1208 to 12*24 =-306816 to -310890 

Common Chih (or foot 

mle) .. .. 121 ,,-307334 

Cnstom House Chih, for 

Junks .. .. 11-832 „ -300627 

Carpenters' Chih in 1680, 11-832 „ -300627 

Goldsmiths' Chih in 1680, 1126 „ -285998 

Carvers' Chih . . 11-674 „ -296511 



CHUTA. 



209 



CANTON. 



Metric value, 
Mctrft. 



Bngllth vlu9, 

Inchei. 

Tailors' Ghih, called jpai- 
Uien-chih .. 14685 - •372002 

Meroen' Ohih, for whole- 
Bale piirohaBeB .. 14*66 to 14*724 „ '372850 to '378082 

Meroere' Ghih, for re- 
tail sales.. .. 14*37 to 14*56 H '364001 to -860817 

Merchants' Chihin 1751, 
hy Toreen . . 14*212 ^ „ -860978 

Merchants' Ohih in 1751, 
byOsbeok 14*64 „ -871840 

Architects' Ohih .. 12*7 n '322574 

OHANG OHAXJ (near Amoy). 

Land Measure Chih, 14*085 - -856482 

Velvet Weavers' Chih, or 

Ta Chih . . , . 13-75 „ •849243 

Mercers' & GothDealers' 
Chih, or Chanff-tsai- 
Chih .. ia'24 ,,'310800 

Tailors'Chih, otBia-Uai- 

Chih .. 12*10 ,,-807384 

Stone Cutters' & Masons' 
Chih, or M-pdn-Chih, 11*793 „ '209686 

Dyers' Chih .. 11-674 „ •296514 

Jnnk Builders' Chih, 11*888 „ -289249 

Retailer of Cloth & Silks' 

Chih .. ., 11 to 11-1 „ -279894 to -281934 

CHIHMA (between Ohang Ghau and Amoy). 

Custom House Chih, 12*71 -'322828 

OHINHAI (near Ningho). 

Tailors' & Traders' Chih, 18*7 - '847978 

Artisans' Chih, or Fuh' 
Kieri'i'Chih .. 12'44 ,,-815970 

fitone Cutters', or Ln- 
pan-Chih .. 10*9 „ •276864 



210 MEASUBEB. 



PUH CHATJ. 

Enffltah value. Metric value. 

iBchea. Metrw. 

The Mo7ig King Chili, 16*85 -: '^79jB2 

Tailoro* Chib, or Tsai- 
fung Chih . . 15 „ '380993 

The King Chih 18-4 to IS? „ -340353 to -347973 

The Eian Chih .. 1^*75 ,,-323844 

Shoemakers* Chih, or 

Ewa-tien-Chih . . 1224 to 12*3 „ -310890 to -312420 

Si]k Dealers' Chih . . 12 „ '304794 

Cloth Dealers* Chih, or 
Kang-Kien-Chih 11-83 to 1193 „ -300476 to -303016 

Stone Cutters' Chih, or 
Lu'pdn-Chih .. 11-79 to 11*83 „ -299460 to -300476 

The Tien Chih .. 11-18 ,,-283966 

The Tang-tien-Chih 10748 to 11-65 „ -272994 to -293364 

^ MACAO. 

Taaors'Chih .. 14-64 to 14-686 = -371849 to -372992 

^ Silk Mercers' Chih . . 14*66 „ -372369 

Interior Customs' transit 
duty Chih .. 14*586 ,,-370477 

Traders' Chih for Retail 14-212 to 14-4 „ -360978 to -365753 

Small Dealers' Chih, or 
Kin-wu-Chih .. 13*94 ,,-354069 

Artisans' and Masons' 
Chih .. 13*46 to 13*94 „ -341877 to -364069 

Braziers', Jpiners*, and 
Coopers' Chih . . 12*4 „ -314954 

MATMATCHiy. 

Chih for pui-chases 13*976 --354984 

Chih used in sales to 
Mongols .. 13*779 ,,-349980 

Bussian Merchants' Chih 
(in 1824) .. 13*203 ,,-336360 

MANILLA. 

Chinese Carpenters' Chih 13*818 - -350970 



chuta. 



211 



NANCHA^G» (in Kiang-8U.) 

Engllth mU«m. Metric value, 

lachM. MetrvH, 

Traders' Rulo 14*45 m*867028 



Traders' Rule 



- •858098 



KANON. 
18-987 

NINGHO. 

Chih, called l^a-yih-tsun- 
Chih (II Unn) .. 16*079 

€bih, called Ta-tcu-fun- 
Chih (10^ tsun) . . 14'37 

Tailors' Chih, or Tsai- 

Fur, Cloth, and Felt 

Dealers' Chih . . 137 to 18*92 „ *84797d to -SSSSGl 
Silk-dealers' Chih, or Shi- 



--•882999 

n '864991 

„ -868082 
H -849248 



n -849248 

„ -847978 

„ -822574 
„ -808016 



chanfj-mai mai Chih^ 
the Market Chih 13*75 

Common Chih, the Kwati' 
Ui-Chih .. 18*7 

Statute Rule in CustomH, 
or Pu-p(Ui'Chih .. 12-7 

«hip Bailders' Chih 11-98 

Stone Cutters' Chih, or 
Ld-pdn-Chih . . 1095 to 10*99 „ -278124 to -270140 

Carpenters' Chih .. 9-92 „-25f963 

SHANGHAI^ 

Junk Builders' Rule, 
Tsungming-i-Chlh 15-69 to 15.769 -•898518 to -400625 

Custom House Chih, or 
Jlaikwan Chih . . 14*098 „ -868082 

Tailors' Chih, or Shan- 
ghai' i-Uai- Chih,. 13*85 to 14*05 „ -851788 to -366863 

Land Measure Chih of 
Board of Revenue 18*181 n -884791 

Ai'tisans' Chih, or Fuh- 
Kien-i-Chih (8 tsun) 12-669 „ *819246 

Carpenters' Chih .. 11-14 ,,-282960 

Masons' Chih, or Lu-pdn- 

Chih ., .. 10*9 to 11-08 „ -276864 to '281426 



212 



HEASTTBES. 



TaUors* Chih 



SHANSI. 

EnglUh value, 
IocLm. 

14-55 
TIENTSIN. 



Carpenters' common Chihl2'35 

Mercers' Silk and Clo£h 
Chih .. 18-7 



TINGHAI. 



Traders' or Tailors' Chih ld'7 
Joiners' Chih . . 10*9 
Masons' Chih . . 10*63 



Metric value. 
Metres. 

•369563 



e -313684 
„ -347973 



-•347973 
„ -276854 
„ ^269997 



1 Yard English - at Canton, 2 Chih 4 Tsan ; at Shanghai. 
2 Chih 5 Tsnn ; by the Treaty, 2 Chih 5 Tson 6 '5 Fan. 

The Fih is a Cloth measure of about 3 Chang, and is equal 
to 35i Feet English, or 11*75 Yards nearly. 

MEASUBES OF DISTANCE. 



Chinete value, Byttematic name. 

5 Fan -ILi 

lOLi, or5T8un„i Chih 

lOHalf-Chihl , -^ 

or 5 Chih J »' ^ ^ 

86(yPfi „ 1 LI 

250 Li 



fi 



»» 



Snglith value. Metric value, 
Inch. Metres. 

•486 a •01234 

Feet. 

•405 „ 12346 



405 



»» 



1-23451 



Yards. 

,,486176 „ 444-423 

Miles. Kilometres. 

„ 1 Tfi (or Degree) „ 69 „ 111-1069 



The length of the Lf has varied at different periods from 386 
to about 631i Yards, and its average length may be taken as a 
little less than i of an English Mile. 

Formerly the L( was divided into 144 Chang of 2 P(i each ; 
the pa bemg subdivided into 6 Chih ; and 192^ Lf went to a 
Degree. On the reduction of the Pii to 5 Chih, the L( was 
divided into 180 Chang or 1800 Chih. 

In the survey of the Empire made in 1700, the Chih taken 
as the unit was equal to 12*1 English Inches, or -308680 Metre ; 
and the multiples of the Chih were the Pd of 5 Chih, equal to 
6-064 EngUsh Feet, or 1-5084 Metrd ; the Chaog of 10 Chih 



cHuri.. 



213 



equal to 10*128 Feet EngUsh, or 8*10688 Metrds ; and the Lf 
of 180 Chang and equal to 607*68 English Tarda. A Desree 
contained 200 of these Lf. The Degree is also snbdiyidea as 
follows :— 1 Degree -• 60 Fun » 8600 Mia(!i. 

At Canton, guard honses are supposed to be placed at 
interTals of 1 Tang-Song (or League). 



Chinese value» 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 
SifittmaUe nanu. 



25 Sq. Chih -• 1 Pfi or Knng-* 
60 Knng „ 1 Eish 
4Kish .. IMan 



*» 



100 Mau 



M 



M 



II 



SnglUh vlue, 
Bq.Yiurdt. 

*a*8246i« 
199*4726 

797*8906 



lliing 



„ 79789*06 



Metric value* 
Arr«. 

'0277964 
1-607785 
6 671141 
» 667*1141 



II 



M 



The chief land measure is the Man, and to indicate quantities 
lesB than the Man decimals are used. A Fun of Laud contains 
24 Knug. 

An English Acre is equal to about 6*1 Maua. 

At Canton small pieces of land are generally measured by 
the Tsing of 100 Square Chih, equal to 16*689 English Square 
Yards ;160 Tsing or 600 Square Chih make a Mau, and at this 
rate a British Statute Acre is equal to 4*847 Mau. 

At Macao the Mau -i 1016*6266 English Square Yards, and 
4*766 such Mau » 1 English Acre. 

At Shanghai a Mau i- ^ English Acre, and 6 such Maus i- 
1 English Acre. 

The following are some of the English Acre yalnos, estimated 
in MauB, at different places in China : — 

4*766 Maus 

681 

608 

6*61 

6-586 

7*206 

At Tientsin and Shanghai an annual tax of 1500 Cash per 
Mau is levied by the Chinese Government upon lands sold to 
foreigners. 



A British Statute Acre » 



* ThcBo valnes are reckosed at the rate of 18'IM inohea for a Chih, 
or 1*196836 Rqnare foot for a aqtiare Ohih. 



314 lC£jL8US£il. 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. 

Cktnue value, 8§*UmatU ntuu, Bngli$k value. MetrUvtOue, 

Imperial Oalloiu. Litnt. 

IKoh* « -0118 - •0518414 

6 Eoh » i Shing „ '0565 „ -25670701 

10 Koh „ 1 Shing „ 118 ,, 518414 

lOShing ,, ITaa „ 113 „ 618414031 

The Tan, Shing, Half-Shing, and Koh are the only Measores 
of Capacity now nsed in Chini^ They are MeasnreB for Dry 
Goods. 

The size of the Tan differs considerably in different places ; 
ihns, there is the Granarr Tan (Tsang Tan), a measure in very 
general nse, which holds 6i Catties, or about 1*18 British 
Imperial Gallon. The Market Tan (Shi-Tau, or Shi-Kin-Tau) 
is not much nsed, it is eqnal to abtmt 1*63 British Imperial 
Gallon, or 7*40588881 Litres. The Swang Tan containing 13 
Catties, and eqnal to abont 2*26 British imperial Gallons, or 
10*26828 Litres. The Shing of Rice is nsnally considered 
eqnal to 1 Catty, but its actual weight varies from 12 to 22 
Taels. 

At Macao the Shing is a little less than 1 British Imperial 
Pint. 

At Canton, of 2 Shings examined (in 1840), 1 contained 1*72 
British Imperial Pint, or -97685 litre, and the other, -919 
British Imperial Pint, or -521988 Litre. 

At Shanghai 3 specimens of the Shing were found to contain 
retpectively, 1*85 ; 1*87 ; and 1*83 British Imperial Pint, or 
1-05068 ; 1-06204 ; and -7558547 Litre. 

For measuring Liquids, such as Spirits and Oil, measures 
containing definite weights are used ; the most usual sizes are 
those containing 1, 2, 4, and 8 Taels. There are also large 
earthen vessels containing 60, 80, and 15 Catties, these are in- 
variably of tiie same size and contain the same weights of 
Uquids of equal specific gravity. 



* There are the followlnf subdlTlsions of the Koh, which are however 
merely nomlsid. and are not la ectoal use :->The Koh of 3 Yoh, the Toh 
of 6 Choh, the Choh of 10 Chuu. the Ghun of 10 Ttoh, the Ttoh of 10 Kwel, 
the Kwei of 6 Snh, and the Ban ia a srain of millet leed. There are alio 
the followiag moltiplee of the Koh, which, like the sabdiTislons, are purely 
nominal, and are not in aotnal nee :— The Yu of 10 Tau, the Shih of 10 
Tau, the Plna of 80 Tau, and the Fu of 6 Tan 4 Shing. The term Bhth la 
the weight of a varying number of Cattiea. 



CUINA. 215 



WEIGHTS.* 

ChiMBf value. Syatematie namt* Snoli$h value, Metrie valve, 

Os> At. Qrammai, 

1 L(^ang or Tael « li « 87*7994 

Ib». AV. 

16 Le«Dg - 1 Kin or Catty „ U », 604*787 

Kll(MrrMnin6t« 

100 Kin „ 1 Ton or Pecul „ 1831 „ 60*4787 

The Tael is nominallv subdivided into 10 Lai, of 10 Shu eaob, 
the Shu being the weight of a shefUd millet seed. There are 
also Bome nominal multiples of the A'in, namely, the Yin of 2 
Kin, and equal to 2$ lbs. av., or 1*290574 Kilofframmes ; the 
Kiun of 80 Kin, equal to 40 lbs. av., or 18*14861 Kilogrammea ; 
and the Shi of 120 Kin, equal to 160 lbs. av., or 72*57444 
Kilogrammes. The Shi is often used to denote the same weight 
as the Tan or Pecul, viz., 100 Kin. It is also used in a vague 
sense to denote a*^' considerable weight." The subdivisions of 
the Tael used in welshing Gold, SUver, Pearls, Birds' Nests, 
Medicines, and such like, are as follows : — 

GOLD AND SILVER WIIGHTS. 

Chinese value. Syetematie name. EnglUh value. Metrie value, 

Truj Qnlnt. QrammeB. 

1 Le or Cash <- '5798 - -03779 

10 Le or Cash - 1 Fau or Candorun „ 6*7984 „ -87799 

10 Fau „ 1 Tsien or Mace „ 67*984 „ 8*77992 

10 Tsien „ 1 L6ang or Tael „ 679*84 „ 87*7992 

ENGLISH AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS EXPRESSED IN 
CHINESE COMMERCIAL WEIGHTS. 



EnglUh. 




Chineee. 


1 Ounce 


•> 


i of a Tael, or 7i Mace 


4 Ounces 


II 


8 Taels 


lib. 


>i 


12 Taels, or i of a Catty 


1 Quarter 


n 


21 Catties 


ICwt. 


n 


84 „ 


I'Ton 


11 


16 Peculs 80 Catties 



* Thore ore 8 InBtrumeuts used by the Chinese In weighing, tIb., the 
Balance: the Detohin or Steelyard ^(oh*e /if n(7); and the Money 8oalei(Ie- 
tang). The Btvlanoe (tien-pinp) is made of brass of different sizes, to 
weigh from 200 Taels down to tenth* of a Grain. It is nsed for weighing 
Gold, Silver, Jewellery, Pearls, Medicines, Bird's Nests, and such lik« 

8reoions things. The largest Hteelyards will weigh 8 or 9 Peculs. The 
[oney Scales are put up in portable casos for oonYenienoe, in testing the 
weight of Oopper er Silver received in payment. 



216 



KEASUBES. 



In China Weights, and MeaBnres of Length, and Surface, anci 
Drj Capacity, vary in different parts of the Country. Gonerall/ 
they are greatest in the Southern provinces. 





MEASURES OE TIME. 








IMiau 


«. 


1 Second 


eOMiaus 


<- 


IFun 


ti 


1 Minute 


16 Fun 


If 


IKeh 


11 


15 Minutes 


8Eeh 


ff 


1 Shi-Shin 


n 


IHour 


12 Shi-Shin 


11 


1 Jih or Chau-y6 


11 


12 Hours 


10 Days 


1) 


1 Sun 


11 


1 Decade 


« 




1 Moon 


ti 


29 or 30 Days 


12 or 13 Moons 


f» 


INien 


11 


1 Year 



HOira-KOKa. 

The British Weights and Measures, and also the Weights 
and Measures of China are used. 



INDIA.* 

There are no universal standards in the native Indian system 
of Weights and Measures, and the British Government have not 
yet defined one, hut the whole subject of Weights and Measures 
has been for some time under consideration, and a revision of 
existing systems is being proceeded with. 

The native or linear Measures have no constant or nnifonn 
standard. They are founded upon the native idea of the breadth 
of a finger or length of a fore-arm. The distance from the 
elbow to the tip of the middle finger is called a HaVh or Mooly,m, 
The term Hat'h is generally translated Cubit. The averap^e. 
length of the Hat'h is 19^ English Inches, or''495291 Mdtre. 
In Benares, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Madras, Mangalore,. 
Seringapatam, and Tellitscherry, its length is 18 English Inches, 
or -4571915 M&tre. In Hydrabad its length is 86*334 English 
Inches, or *9815 M5tre. In other places its length is 20 EngUsh 
Inches, or '50799 M6tre. 



* For farther informatioB in referenee to the Carrency, and Weighta 
and Measarea of India, the reader is referred to the Appendix, which is a 
paper drawn up for the author, bv W. U. Baylet, £sa., of the Madras. 
Olvil Service and founded on careial research and practical experience.. 



ISDIJL — (bengal) . 



217 



w 06 regoiatea by weight, bat the proposition about new grain 
measnreB was not approved, and the Imperial GkUlon and its 
mnltiples are the only measures made up by the authority of 
the Government, and in Bengal, no* Measures of Capacity for 
dry goods have yet been defined. 

MEASURE S OF LENGTH. 

BengeU value. SytUmaiie name, Englith value. Metric value. 

Inohet. Metrefl. 







1 Jow or Jaub* «■ 


i- '00684985 


8 Jow 




■•1 Ungulee „ 


|„ -01904966 


4 Ungulees 




„ 1 Moot f, 


3 „ -076198 


12 Ungulees or 
8 Moots 


„ 1 Big'hath or Span,, 


9 ,, -228595 


2 Big'haths 
2 B&Vh 




,. 1 H&t»ht 

„ 1 Guz „ 


18 M -457191 

Tuda. 

1 „ '914383 


2Gaz 




„ 1 Danda or Fathom,, 


2 „ 1-828766 


lOOODandas 




KUometret. 

mICosb m2000 » 1*828766 


4 Gobs 




„1 Yojanor Jojun „ 


Miles. 

4VV» 7-816064 



* A Jaub ii 8 graini in length. 

+ The H&t'h is also diyided into 16 Tqbioos, each Tqbboo being equal 
to 1| inch. 

V 



210 USABCBXS. 

In China Weights, and Measures of Length, and Snrtac«, ud 



INDIA— p. 218. 
B; " The ludi&n WaigbU and Heasnies of Capacity Act, 
1671," which extendi to the whole of British India, tbe " Ber," 
eqnal to tbe French Eitogramme, was conBlitnted the primary 
standard of weight ; and a measnre containing one sach Ber ot 
water at its maiimnm density, weighed in a vacnom, «m 
coDBtitatod tbe Htandord nnit ol Meagnrei ol Capacit;. 



) 



INDIA.* 

There are no nniversal standards in the native Indian systom . 
of Weights and Measnres, and the British Oaremment have not 
yet defijied one, bat the whole enbjeot of Weights and Ueasnres 
bos been for some time nnder consideratioa, and a revisioD of 
existing systems is being proceeded with. 

The native or linev Heasnres have no constant or nnifona 
standard. They are founded apon tbe native idea of the breadth 
of a Qnger or length of a fore-arm. The distance from the 
elbow to the tip of the middle finger is called a Hat' h or iloolfm. 
The term Hat'h is generally translated Cubit. Tbe averas» 
length of the Hat'h is 191 English Inebea. or''1952gi Metre. 
In Benares, Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, Madras, Mangalore,. 
Seringapatam, and TelUtscherry, its length is 18 English Iiicbea, 
or -4571915 Mitre. In Hydrabad its length is 86-334 English 
icbes. or '9815 M£tre. In other places ite length is 20 Eoglisfa 

-bos, or -50799 Metre. 

For Inrtbet lofanniiUn In refsmcs to the Carnncr, and Walgbts 



, bt W, U. BiTLET, Eiii., ot 
iTelD) reneuch and prscltcal < 



^grrice and lonodcd on earelit) reneuch and pracuc^ eiperlgDCa.. 



iSDiJL — (bengal) . '217 

The chief nnit of linear meastireB is the Gaz. Its length 
differs very mnoh in different plaoes, varying from 26 to 89^ 
English Inohes; bat now, however, since English Measures 
have become more known, the Hat'h is generally an English 
Oubit of 18 Inohes, and the Qoz an English Yard of 86 Indies. 
In the North- West Provinces the Illahi Goz, used in the Govern- 
ment Surveys, is 88 Inohes, and 8 Guz make 1 Bans or Ganteh. 
20 Ganteh make 1 Jarib. 



INDIA-(BSNGAL). 

Generally speaking, the so-called Measures of Capacity take 
their names from Weights, and are in fact vessels which are 
supposed to contain, when slightly heaped, definite weichts of 
different substances, such as grain, salt, milk, ghee, (darified 
butter), spirits, oil, ^c, but this is not universally the case ; for 
instance, in the neighbourhood of Madras, and in some of the 
Southern districts, the ordinary grain measure, the " Puddee '' 
which varies greatly in different places does not represent a 
definite weight. In 1886, the Calcutta Chamber of Commerce 
proposed to the Government the introduction of the British 
imperial Gallon for liquids, and of a new measure for grain 
to be regulated by weight, but the proposition about new grain 
measures was not approved, and the Imperial Gallon and its 
multiples are the only measures made up by the authority of 
the Government, and in Bengal, no' Measures of Capacity for 
dry goods have yet been defined. 

MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 

Bin§al value. SyiUmaiie navM. EngHth value. Metrie value* 

InohM. Metres. 

IJoworJaub* - i- *00684»85 

8Jow -•lUngulee „ |„ '01904966 

4 Ungulees „ 1 Moot „ 3 „ -076198 

^8 M^o^fs^*' ""'l " 1 Bi«'^»*^ 0' Span.. ., -228696 

2Big'haths „ 1 H&t'hf „ 18 „ -467191 

YmiU. 

2 Hfit'h „ 1 Guz „ 1 „ -914883 

2 Guz „ 1 Danda or Fathom,, 2 ,> 1*828766 

^ Kilometres. 

1000 Dandas „ 1 Coss »»2000 „ 1*828766 

4 Coss „1 YojanorJojun ,. 4VV»» 7*816064 

* A Jaab 1b 8 grains in length. 

<f The H&tli is also 4ividea into 16 Tostoos, each Tossoo being equal 
to 1| inch. 

V 



218 



MEASUBES. 



The following denominations of higher mnltiples of the 
Bengal Coss are occasionally met with in computation : — 



Bengal value. 



Bytematic name. 



English value. 
Miles. 



Metric value. 
Kilometres. 

lOOYojan =lMundiil « 464t\» 731-6064 

lOOMundul „lCoondnh„ 45454T''r ^ 73150-64 

100 Coonduh „ 1 Gandah ,, 4545454^ ,,7315064 
lOOGundah „lMadiny* „454545454A„ 731606400 



CLOTH MEASURES. 



Bengal value. 


Systematic name. 


English value. 


Metric value. 






Inches. 


Metres. 


3 Jew or Jauh 


« 1 Ungnlee 


1 « 


•01904956 


3 Ungulee 


„ 1 Gerah 


2i „ 


•05714875 


8 Gerah 


„ 1 Hat'h 


It 18 ), 


•457191 


2 H&t'h 


,, 1 Guz 


>i 86 n 


•914388 



MEASURES OP SURFACE.f 

The Beegah is the highest unit of Measures of Surface. 
Buhdiyisions are as follows : — 



Its 



Bengal value. Systematic nam^, 

1 Sq. Hit'h 
4 Sq. HAt'hs « 1 Cowrie 



»i 



4 Cowries 
20 Gundas 
20 Cottahs 



1 Gnnda 
1 Cottah 
,, 1 Beegah 



91 



H 



f> 



»» 



»» 



English value, 
bquarc Feet. 

2i • 
9 „ 

Square Yards. 

4 



80 
1600 



,» 



»» 



»» 



Metric value. 
Square Metres. 

•2090425 
•836097 

3*344888 
66-88776 
133-77552 



The Cottah is also subdivided into 16 Chitt&k 20 Gandeh. 
The Chitt&k is equal to 5 English Square Yards, or 4*180485 
Square Metres. In Benares the Beegah is equal to 8186 Square 
Yards, or * 64793 Acre. A Beegah measures on each side 120 
Feet. Its area is, therefore, 14,400 Square Feet, or 1600 Square 
Yards. 3-^j, Beegah » 1 Acre, and 4 Beegah are equal to about 
1 Madras Cawney. 



* The circamference of the earth. 

f In the native " Indian system, an area is often named after the 
quantity of seed required to sow it, or the quantity it will produce, and, 
of course, the actual area differs according to the opinion of the person 
who*make8 the estimate." — Suggestions for a Uniform System of Weight$ 
and Measures throughout India. By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the Madras 
Civil Service. 



IXDIA — (bengal). 219 

For Land Measure in the Korth-West Provinoes, the follow- 
ing measureB are used in the Goyemment Sarveys : — 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Bengal value. BytUvMktie nam«. EnglUh value. Metric vahie. 

Inches. 8q. Metrui. 

1 Guz »33 

Feet. 

3 Gnz » 1 Bans or Rod „ 8i 

6q. Feet. 

9 Square Guz „ 1 Square Rod „ eS^V "• 6-7199592 

8q. Ynrds. Aies. 

400 Square Rods „ 1 Beegah „ 3026 „ 26'B479837 

WEIGHTS. 

In accordance with Act VII., of 1833, the Tola (or Rupee 
Weight) of 180 Troy grains, is the unit of weight in all Govern- 
ment, and most mercantile transactions in Bengal. As regards 
the native Hindoo population, each District has its own weights 
often founded on no reliable data; but the efforts of the 
Government to equalize the Weights are steadily introducing 
uniformity. The legal multiplies of the Tola, or, as they may 
be called, the '* Imperial Weights of India," are as follows : — 

BengoX value. Systematic name, EnglUh value. Metric value. 

Grains Troy. Qrammes. 

1 Tola =180 =» 11-0G382 

5 Tolas » 1 ChittHk nQOOn 68*3191 

16 Chitt&ks „ 1 Seer „ 2Vt ' „ 933*1056 

r a /I Passeeree or \ ,_. ^^i^'^fS'??!??: 

6 Seers „ | punsarie | " ^^f „ 4-«65o28 

8 Passeerees or 1 (1 Imperial or In-] _ _„ *>- ^ftj^^^ 
40 Seers |-| dian Maund | »82f „ 87*324224 

Hence, 350 Tolas » 91bs. Av. ; 35 Seers are exactly equal to 
721bB. Av. ; 7 Maunds to 5761bs. Av. ; and 49 Maunds to 36cwt. 
or 1*8 Ton. One cwt. English » 54f Seers, or 1*361 Maunds, 
and a Ton — 27*22 Maunds. A Chinese Pecul « 1*62 
Maunds. 

The old ** Factory Maund,** adopted by the Bengal Govern- 
ment in A.D. 1787, was exactly |owt. or 74|lbs. Av. The old 
** Bazaar Maund," (subdivided into 40 Seers,) weighed 
72ilbs. Av. 

In the interior the Seer varies very considerably. Thus, at 
Allahabad and Lucknow it is 96 Tolas; at Mirzapoor and 
Benares it is 84 Tolas ; and at Hooghly it is 82 Tolas. 



220 



HSASTJBEB. 



In tlie Calcutta xnarket there are two Maonds in use, namely, 
the " Imperial," or Indian Maund » 62f tbs. ay., or 37*324224 
Kilogrammes, and the Factory Maund =74|^tbB. av. or }rds cwt. 
or 83*87 EHogrammes. 100 Imperial Mannds are nearly eqnal 
to 110 Factory Mannds, and 1^ Factory Mannds are equal to 1 
cwt. English. 



Bengal value, 

4 Punks 
4Dhan 
8 Buttee 

12 Mashas 



JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. 

8y$tematie name, 

IDhan 



EnalUh value, 
QninaTTOj. 



»f 



»» 



If 



1 Bnttee 
1 Masha 

ITola 



f» 



»» 



»i 



H 

li 
16 



180 



»» 



»f 



it 



Metric value. 

Centlffnmmm. 

3*037453 

12*149812 

97*1985 

-Orsmmes. 

11-66382 



The BubdiviBions of the Masha are used in stating the fine- 
ness as well as the weight of Gold and Silver. Pure Gold and 
Silver is said to be 12 Mashas fine. An Anna weighs 6^, a 
Rupee 100, and Gold Mohur 106^ Ruttees. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Bengal value. 

4 Chittdks 

4 Powahs 

5 Seer 



Syttematie name. 

IChittik 
■■ 1 Powah 
„ 1 Seer 

., IPaUi 



It 



ti 



It 



English value. 
ImperUl Pinto. 

*122625 
•49049 
1*96196 

Imperial Oalloiu. 

1-226225 
0-8098 



It 



II 



II 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

•069641 

•278564 

1114259 

6*571296 
44*570360 



40 Seer or 8 Palli „ 1 Maund „ 

The Chittak is supposed to hold 5 Rupees weight of Oil. 

The Grain Measures are supposed to contain, when slightly 
heaped, a definite weight of grain ; but as the Weights differ in 
every locality so do tiie Measures. Even Measures bearing 
the same name by no means indicate the same quantity in every 
district. 

MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Bengal vaXue, 




Syttematie name 
1 Chitt&k 


• 


English value. 
Imperial Pinto. 

•122625 « 


Metric vahie. 
Litres. 

•069641 


6 Chitt&ks 


. 


1 Koonki 


II 


•613125 „ 


•348206 


16 ChittSkB 


II 


1 Seer 


II 


1-96196 „ 


1114259 


4 Eoonkis 


II 


IRaik 


II 


2*4525 „ 


1892820 


4 Raiks or 

5 Seers 


" II 


1 Palli 


II 


Imperial Baitaels. 
-163278 „ 


5*571296 


20 Pallia 


II 


ISooU 


II 


3*06566 „ 


111-4259 


16SooliB 


II 


1 Ehahoon 


•1 


4904896 „ 


1782*8144 



INDIA — (b astoal) . 221 

The English and Metric Valaes giyen in the tables, are oal- 
onlated at the rate of 68 Oubio inohes, or 1*96196 British 
Imperial Pint, or 1*114259 Litres to the straok Seer; but 
if the supposed or nominal value of the struck Seer, viz., 
57 Gubio inches be assumed as the basis, then the struck 
Seer is equal to 1*644688 British Imperial Pint, or *9d4011 
Litres; and the Chitt&k -> -102786 British Imperial Pint, 
or '0583757 Litre; and the other subdivisions and multi- 
ples, in proportion. It* must be remembered, however, that 
only heaped measure is recognised by immemorial custom 
among the Hindoos; and, therefore, the values given in the 
table of measures of dry capacity, are less than the actual 
quantities. 

** The most common grain meagre, and one which is'to some 
extent known in almost every part of India, is the * Seer 
Measure.' This is always understood to be a measure which, 
when heaped, will contain a * Seer ' weight of rice ; or, in some 
places, instead of rice, a mixture of nine of the most common 
grains, known as the Ndn-danium measurement.'"* The nine 
sorts of grain used in the Madras Presidency, are — Rice, 
Ohenna, Gooltee, Pessoloo, Minamaloo, DhoU, Anamaloo, 
Gingeley-oil-seed, and Wheat. 

As only heaped measure is recognised by native usage, it is 
evident that there is no rule as to the Cubic Content of the 
measures used, for vessels of very different Cubic Content may 
contain the same when heaped, in consequence of having 
different diameters. It is on this account that the values given 
to Indian measures in such Tables as those of Major Jervis, or 
Dr. Kelly (in his Cambist), being founded on the guagod Cubic 
Content, do not represent the true quantities. 

Eight slightly-heaped Pallis swere supposed to contain a 
quantity of nee equal in weight to 1 old ''Bazaar Maund " of 
72^ lbs. av. So that 1 PaUi » 9^ lbs. av. The PaUi has a 
capacity of about 2800 Cubic Inches when struck. The '* Seer " 
of grain, supposed to be 16 Chittdks, and to have a struck 
capacity of about 57 Cubic Inches is in practice, a measure 
which, when slightly heaped, contains 80 Rupees Weight (a 
Seer Weight) of Rice, and has a struck capacity of about 68 
Cubic Inches. 

NUMERATION TABLE. 

4 Articles ■• 1 Grenda. 

5 Grendas „ 1 Coori, or Score. 



* See *< Suggestions for a Uniform System of Weights and Measures 
throaghout India." By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the Madras Civil Servloe. 



222 







MEi.8tTB£S« 








MEASURE OF TIME. 




60 PoU 


«• 


1 Ghurree 


. 


24 Minntes. 


7i Ghurree 


♦» 


1 Pahor 


»» 


8 HoarB. 


SPnhur 


ft 


1 Day 


II 


24 Hours. 


7 Days 


»» 


1 Hngta 


II 


1 Week. 


15 Days 


it 


1 Pukka 






2 Pnkka 


M 


1 Maas 


II 


1 Month. 


2 Maas 


»♦ 


1 Bhitoo 


II 


1 Season. 


6 Bhitoo 


»f 


1 Batsar 


II 


1 Year. 


12 Batear 


tl 


1 Joog. 







IKDIA-CMADBAS). 



MEASURES OF LENGTH AND SURFACE. 



The English Foot and Yard are now used by almost all natiTe 
workmen. 

The native Kole or Artificers* Rod, as also the Guz, intro- 
duced by the Mahomedans, is about S3 English Inches. 

The Moolum (translated corid or cubit), used for measuring 
Cloth, varies in different districts from 18 to 21 Inches. Ito 
average length is about 19^ or 19| Inches. It is subdivided 
into 24 UnguLvrntt or finger breadths. 

The Bavm (translated Fathom) is about 6^ Feet. 

For long distances the term NdUi ValU is used. It is de- 
rived from NaUi, a space of time, and FaUi, a road, and signifies 
the distance walked in 24 minutes ; that is, a little under 1| 
English Miles. 7 NdUi VaUi - 1 EAdam, or about 10 Miles. 

The following are some native Measures of Length : — 



Madroi value, 

8 Torah 
24 Vurruh 
4 Mulakoli 



II 



II 



ByitemaUe name. 

1 Vurruh 
1 Mulakoli 
1 Dnmna 



Sngllth value. 
lacbet. 



Metrievaiue, 
Mttne. 

^ - -010588 



II 



I* 



10 
40 



II 



fi 



•25899 
1*01596 



MEASX7RES OF SURFACE. 



For Land Measure, the native method is to estinuite the 
space which a certain quantity of seed will sow, and this makes 



INDIA— (mADBAB). 



228 



the native tenns quite nnoertain. SometimeB an area is de- 
noted by BO many '* Rods " or ** Ropes " Square ; but these 
Rods and Ropes differ in every distriot. 

In Madras itnelf and in some other districts the Catpnle is 
eqnal to 67600 Square Feet, or 1*8228 Acres, and is subdivided 
into 24 ** Grounds," or else into 100 *' Coolies/' as follows : — 



JfdXfdM valtM. 



4^ Coolies 



Xn0li$h valM, 
SquAN Y«rd»« 

64 



MtMe valiM. 

AtM 

- •58610208 



24 ♦•Grounds" or 
100 Coolies 



5yit«ma«0 name, 

1 Coolie 

-1 "Ground" ,, 2661 „ 2*229692 

(6400 or ^ 



„ 1 Cawnie 



ti 



Aer«. 

1-8228 



H 68'510208 



The Cawnie is also subdivided into Annas or sixteenths, 
each equal to 400 English Square Yards, or 234*4888 Square 
Mdtres. 

During the last few years, in consequence of the Revenue 
Field Survey, the English Acre has come to be generally known. 
In this Survey the Gunter's Chain is used, and in the accounts 
the Acre is subdivided into thoutandthtf as in the English 
Ordnance Survey. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 



Madnu 9alu$» 



Syitematic name, 

1 OUuck - 

--,„ , flPuddeeorl 

8 011uck8 -| Measure/ 

8Puddees ,i IMeroAl 

miLf ill (IParahor) 
6 Mercdls „ | chunan J " 



EnoUth value. 
Imp«rlAl Ptnti. 

•86066 - 



It 



M 



2*88622 



M 



InptriAl Qftlloiu. 
2*88522 H 



14*42610 



It 



itetrie value* 
Lhrw. 

•204826 
1-688612 

18*108900 
66*644604 



80 Parahs 



tt 



IGarce 



M 



ril64'0880or) 

Qa»tt». \ m6248*66082 
18 -0800 ) 

In 1846 the Madras Government fixed the Puddee, or Regu- 
lation Measure, to be used in all Government transactions at 
100 Cubic Inches, or 1^44261 Imperial Quarts, the Olluok being 
4-th of the Puddee, and the Mercfil being 8 Puddees. The 
Itegulation Puddee is a cylinder, 8 inches by 4 inches. Though 
21 years have elapsed, these measures, as so defined, hare not 
yet been adopted either in Government or any other transao- 
tions. The " customary " Puddee, with Its multiples and 
subdivisions is still in general use, and has been the nal 
standard of measure even in the town of Madras sinoe 1802. 



224 MEABUBBS. 

It has when slightly heaped a Cahic capacity of 104 ^ English 
Gabic Inches, or 1*50392734 BritiBh Imperial Quart, or 
1*708257 Litres, and contains ahont 128 Rupees' Weight, or 
8*3 lbs. av. English of Rice. The MercSI has a capaci^ of 
832 Cubic Inches, but when heaped in the usual way, it is equal 
to 8 heaped Puddee. 

The Garoe for Grain is equal to 820 lbs. av. of Rice, or 3f 
Imperial Maunds. The Parah of 5 Mercal is a square measure 
10 inches deep by 20 inches wide, and 20 broad. 

Two Regulation Puddees are nearly equal to 3 Seers. 

In the Shipping trade Grain is sold in Bags of 2 Bengal 
Maunds >■ 164f lbs. ay. 

The " Madras Puddee " is in use in some of the large towns 
and cantoonments, but every locality has its own measures, 
differing in denomination and in size. 

Perhaps the most common is the " Seer-measure,'* supposed 
to contain, when heaped, a " Pucka-seer " or 80 Rupees* 
Weight, or 2 lbs. av. of Rice. In 1852 the grain measures were 
found to be of different shapes and materials, some were shaped 
like hour-glasses, some were joints of bamboo, and some were 
earthenware pots, " but, as a general rule, they were intended 
to contain when heaped a Seer Weight, or definite number of 
Seers either of Rice or of mixed grain, but usually of Rice, and 
the Seer Weight was generally that of 80 Tolas.*" The best 
** Seer-measures are about 3^ to 3f inches in diameter, and 
6 inches deep, but they are never true cylinders. Their Cubic 
Contents are from 66i to 67 Cubic Inches, holding about 75 
Tolas of Rice when struck, and 80 when moderately heaped.t" 
"A vessel of 66^ Cubic Inches Capacity, will contiun, at a tem- 
perature of 84*', (a good day temperature for India,) 16650 
Grains, or exactly 924 Tolas' Weight of Water, This would 
hold on an average when itruck, 74| Tolas' Weight of Rice, and 
with a diameter of 4 inches, 80 Tolas', when heaped. Thus, if 
the Seer weight be assumed as 80 Tolas', such a measure would 
be exactly what is understood by the natives of the country to 
be a ** Seer-measure." 

" The sub-multipleB of the Seer-measure are generally, (not 
always,) used for liquid measures in India. The only liquids 
sold by measure, are Ghee (clarified butter), Oil, and MUk. No 
defined measure is used for Arrack and Toddy (intoxicating 



* See Table of Weights. 

f Suggettiontfor a Uniform Syttem of WeighU and Meoinrts ihroughoni 
India. By W. H. Bayley, Esq., of the MadnM Civil Serrioe. 



* IKDIA — (maDSAS). 



225 



liquors); and Spirits in Madras are sold by the '*Drajn** of 
5-775 Cubic Inches, or ^ of the old Wine Gallon."* 

The Para is nsed for measuring Lime. It has a capacity of 
from 8800 to 4000 English Cubic Inches, and is equal to from 
18*704855 to 14'426163 British Imperial Gallons, or from 
62*267434 to 66*544667 Litres. 

Salt is measured in Madras in Merc&ls, 424 of which are 
oontained in a " Garce." The Garoe is supposed to weigh 120 
Indian Maunds, or 4*41 Tons English. 

Oil is sold by the Yiss of 16 Chitties. The Vies is about 2 
ordinary Wine bottles." 

Act YII., of 1833, only legalised the Tola as the Unit of 
Weights, and the '* OfScial Table of Weights " given under the 
head of Bengal, has never been adopted in the Madras Presi- 
dency, even in Government transactions. The following 
weights, as sanctioned by the Government, have continued to 
be tiie legal weights of the Madras Presidency since 1846. 



Madras value, 

8 Tolas 

8 PoUums 

5 (Cutcha) 

Seers or 

40 PoUums 

8 Viss or 
40 Seers 

20 Maunds 



ByttemaUe name, English value, 

Troy OnOns. 



ITola 
-i 1 Pollum 
f 1 (Cutcha) 



»» 



180 
640 



n 



}•• 



f» 



Seer 
IViss 

1 Maund 
1 Candy 



}n4d20 



Metrie value. 
Gram roes 

- 11-66881 
„ 84*99143 

,,279*93144 



»> 



If 



tt 



lb. ar. Eilofn^mmei. 

8-08671 „ 1*3996672 



24-68671,, 1M972576 
488-71428 „228-945152 



By Commercial usage the Viss is always considered 3^ tbs. ; 
the Maund 26 lbs. ; and the Candy 600 lbs. ay. 



* " Arrack, an oriental name for Spirituous Liaaora of all kinds, but in 
this country applied generally to those distilled in India and the 
adjoining regions. Azrack was formerly prepared in considerable qnan* 
tities at Ooa, bat it is now chiefly manufactured in the Islands of Java 
and Oeylon. In Java, it is commonly termed Kneip^ and is made from 
a mixture of 62 parts Molasses, 86 parts Rice, and 8 parts of the sweet 
Juice called Palm-wine or Toddy, extracted from the ilowers of different 
species of Palm-trees. In Ceylon, it is entirely distilled from Cocoa-nut 
tree Toddy. Ceylon Arrack is reckoned superior to that of Java ; and, in 
India, to which very large quantities are annually exported, it sells 10 or 
16 per cent, higher. The prime cost of Arrack at Gelumbo is from 8d. to 
10(L per Gallon. In India, Arrack is prepared from the flowers of the 
Uahwah tree, the Bassia long^olia, and the Bassia latifolia. In Turkey, 
it is distilled from the skins of Grapes, and flavoured with Aniseed."— 
MUhumiSt 0, 0, 



226 iCEAStrsES. 

In the Interior the Cntcha Seer of 24 Tolas* (or Rupees') 
weight (9'8742 oz. et.) is used in Commercial dealings. The 
term Pucka weight means the Seer of 80 Tolas' weight, or 
2} lbs. aT. ; bat in some places the Pncka Seer is 72, and in 
others 84 'Tolas' weight. In weighing Brass and Zinc, the Seer 
is reckoned at 9 oz. ; the Mannd at 22^ lbs. ; and the Candy at 
450 lbs. aT. 

On the Western Coast the Mannd is 35 lbs. 

The Bengal Mannd of 87f lbs. ar., known as the " Indian " 
or ** Imperial " Mannd, is in general use in the Custom Houses, 
and in the Shipping trade. 

The " Garce " is used in the Grain trade. It is supposed |o 
be 9256 i lbs. ar. ; but though it may have been so 70 years ago, 
it is now merely a Custom House term applied to 92 " Imperial " 
Maunds of Paddy (unhusked rice), or to 123 Imperial Maunds 
of Bice. Grain, however, ia sold wholesale at the Ports by the 
bag of 2 Imperiid Maunds. 

Oil Seeds and Sugar are generally shipped in bags of 2 Im- 
perial Maunds each, and are reckoned at 13 bags to the Ton 
English. 

Indigo is shipped in Chests of 10 or 11 Cubic Feet. 

In weighing Cotton the Mannd is 24 lbs., and the Candy 
480 lbs. aT. 

At Coimbatoor 6^ Yiss«l Took i- 19*28569 lbs.aT. English, 
or 8*7478575 Kilogrammes. 

JEWELLERS' W1EIGHTS. 

The Weights used by Jewellers are the Munjadi equal to 5 
Troy Grains, or '323995 Grammes, and the Pa^o^a equal to 54 
Troy Grains, or ^^th of a Pollum, or d'499143 Grammes. 

NUMERATION TABLE. 

3 Articles « 1 Pateh. 

10 Pateh „ 1 Gorge. 



INDIA— BOMBAY. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

^<mX>ay value, 8y$tenuUie name. English value. Metrie vaUte, 

Incbei. Metre. 

2 Ungulee = 1 Tussoo = li = -028574 

8 Tussoos „ 1 Vent'h (or | Hat'h) „ 9 „ '228596 

16TUSS008 „ 1 Hat'h(coTid or cubit),, 18 „ -457191 

24 Tussoos „ 1 Guz „ 27 „ -685785 



in DIA — (bomb at) . 



227 



In Bombay the Guz, the Tussoo, and the Ungnlee, are the 
measures used in the porchase and sale of Cloth. A Builders' 
Tussoo is equal to 2*3625 English Inches, or -0600064 Mdtre. 

In Surat the Builder's Tussoo is equal to 1 inch English, or 
•025899 M^tre, and the BuUder's Guz to 2 feet, or •609588 
Mdtre. But the Cloth Measure Tussoo of Surat, is equal to • 
1-161 of an English Inch, or -0294889 Metre, and the Guz to 
27-864 Inches,* or -7077328 M6tre. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 



Bombay value. 
84,*o Sq. Hat'h 


Systematio name. 
=^ 1 Kutty - 


English value. Metric value. 
Square Yards. Square Metree. 

8-8175 ». 8*208383 


20 Kutties 
20Pnnd 


1 Fund (or 
»' ( Vaso) J " 

„ 1 Beegah „ 


196*35 „ 164'167646 

Area. 

8827 M 32-833529 


120 Beegah 


„ 1 Chahur „ 


Acres. 

87*3682 ,,3840-0235028 



The Surface Measures vary both in names and values, in 
almost every District of the Presidency ; but those just given 
are most frequently used. The average value of the Beegah is 
about I of an English Acre. An English Acre is If Delhi 
Beegah, or 1 Orissa Beegah. The Tirhoot Beegah, which ia 
subdivided into 400 Square Lagiy is equal to 4225 Square Yards, 
or -8729 Acre English. In the Revenue Field Survey, the 
English Acre is used ; it is subdivided into 40 Goontahs, and 
each Goontah into Annas or sixteenths. 



In the North- West Provinces, the following are the Surface 
Measures ; — 



Loeal value, Syttematie name. 



English value. 
Sq. Inches. 

™ 1 Saswansi » 24i = 
„ 1 Eachwansi „ 480 n 

Square Yards. 

20 Eachwansi ,, 1 Biswansi „ 7iV n 

20 Biswansi ,, 1 Biswa „ 161^ 



20 Nanwansi 
20 Saswansi 



20 Biswa 



»» 



1 Beegah 



fl 



3026 



«» 



)i 



Metric value. 
Sq. Metres. 

•016807 

-3161492 

6-322983 
126*459671 
2628*193425 



* The Wasea is a Timber Measare eqaal to 1*868 of an English Inch. 
The l^uz for Timber Measurement is equal to 27'17 English Inches. The 
HaVh or Cabit, for measuring Matting, of 18 Tussoos, is equal to 20-9 
English Inches. 



228 



KSABUBZS. 



In Gngerat the following denominations are applied to the 
Babdivisions of the Beegah : — 



Ougerdt vakie. 

20Ehnnd 
-20 Padtal 

20Padat 
20 Viflhwasi 
20 Yaso 



ti 



f» 



»» 



»» 



Spttematie name. 

1 Padtal 
IPadat 

1 Yishwasi 
1 YaBO 
1 Beegah 



»» 



»» 



»» 



19 



BnffUih value, 
Bqnare InchM* 

24i » 

490 „ 

Bqnaie Tarda. 

16U 
8025 



»» 



>» 



Metric value. 
Bqaare If «tns. 

•016807 
•3161492 

6*822988 

126-459671 

2629198425 



WEIGHTS. 



The " Imperial Weights of India," given nnder the head of 
Bengal, are being steadily introduced in Bombay, bat they have 
not yet superseded the following local Weights, which are still 
very generally used in all Commercial dealings : — 



Bombay value, 
4 Dhan or Tar 


8y$UmaHe name. 
» 1 Buktica « 


EnglUh value, 
Troj Grains. 

2-1267 - 


Metrie value. 
Grammea. 

•13781 


8Buktica 




„ 1 Masha 


11 


17,V 


If 


1102482 


4 Masha 




„ 1 Tank 


It 


esiv 


11 


4-409927 


72 Tanks, or 
80 Pice 


' 


„ ISeer* 


11 


Iba. ar. 

7 


11 


317-51475 


40 Seers 




„ 1 Mannd 


11 


28 


11 


Kilogramnea. 

12-70059 


20 Mannds 




„ 1 Candy 


11 


660 


11 


254-0118 



The Candy yaries in different districts from 560 lbs. to 
8055 lbs. The Sattara Candy is 3055 lbs. The Candy for 
Cotton is 28 Mannds, or 7 cwt. About 50 Bombay Maunds are 
equal to 17 Imperial Maunds, and 1 Imperial Maund is equal to 
about 2*939 Bombay Maunds. 

At Poena the Seer is equal to 80 old Bupees* Weight, or to 
76-658 Tolas, and its multiples are as follows : — 



Poona vaJue, 

80 Old Bupees 
Weight 


Syttematie name, 
''} = ISeer 


. 


Englith value, Metrie value, 
Iba. At. Qxammea. 

1-9714 » 894-21225 


5 Seers 


„ 1 Pusseri 


11 


Kllonamiaea. 

9-857 „ 4-47106 


8 Pusseri 


„ 1 Maund 


11 


78-856 „ 86*76849 


8 Maunds 


„ IPalla 


-»» 


286-67 „ 107-80547 



* The Pnoka Seer of 72*6 Tolas equal to 1*867 lbs. ay., is used in eome 
placee. 



INDIA — (bomb it) . 



229 



There are also used at Poona, Mauads Tarying from 12^ to 
14 Seers. 

The Kurra^hi Weights are slightly different from the Im- 
perial Weights of Ind^. They are as follows : — 

Kurraehi value, Syttemotie naww, EnglUh valuf. Metric value. 

Impc vial Tolas. oz. af. QraBaM. 

4Ka8lra « 1 Dokra » TOB - ^- 12*59979 
4iDekras „ 1 Axma „ 4*86 ,, 2 „ 66*6991 

'^Z^^}^> 77-76 •,."-r.,907-186 

40 fPnnlcA^ i Seers. KHofprMnaiM. 

Seers }" 1 Maun<l „ 88'8S „ 80 „ ae-2874 

[118-64 or ^ 

!• "{ Maunds. 

2-915 J 



16 Anmaa „ { 



ii Maonds 



}i 



1 Potea 



n240 ,,108-8622 



At Surat the Mannd weighs 36 Ihs. av., and the Seer 14f oz. 
av. 1 Imperial Seer is equal to 2f Sorat Seers, and the Bom- 
bay Seer is ^ths of the Surat Seer ; so that 9 Bombay Seers or 
Maunds « 7 Surat Seers or Maunds. 



JEWELLERS' WEIGHT. 



Bombay value, SffiUmaiie name. 



20 Vasses 


B 


1 


Ruttee 


- 


3 Ruttees 


»f 


1 


Waal 


ti 


8 Waals 


»» 


1 


Tank 


»» 


4 Tank 


If 


1 


Tola 


»» 



Engliah vatv« Metric value, 
Troy G ral n < . GraaimeR. 

1', - .12149 

61 ' n '36449 

46 M 2-91595 

180 „ 11-66382 



In Gttjerat the Weights used by Jewellers are as follows : — 



Gujerat value, SytUwMHc nmne. Bnffli^ih value, Idetrie value, 

6 Chawals or 1 - •. . . /t_ . , , ' 

Chowa f ■" ^ ^^^^ ®' ^^^^ ■ 1 H 

SGoonj „1 Valor Waal „ 6^ 

16 Waals „ 1 Gnddeanna 1, 02 

2 Gaddeazmas ^ 1 Tola ,» 184 

w 



Troy Oi^iu. Gnunaas. 
•124198 

•372594 

6*961508 

11-923016 



n 



tt 



It 



2d0 



MEA8UBES. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS AND 

UQUIDS. 



Bombay value, 8$iUmatic tume. 



2 Tipprees 
4 Seers 

16 PyleeB 
SParahs 

85PArahB 



>» 



if 



»» 



tf 



ITippree 
1 Seer 
IFjrlee 

IParah 
1 Candy 

IMooda 



It 



»» 



99 



t» 



»» 



EnglUh value, 
ImperUl Piuta. 

•28001 

•66002 

2-24009 

ImiwrUl Gallons. 

4-48018 

86-84151 

112-00173 or) 

Impl. Quarters. 

1-75007 



91 
99 

1» 



Metric v§Xme, 
Lilns. 

•15902 

•81805 

1-27222 

20*35555 
162-84441 



„ 608-88878 



There is also for Inqoida the Seer of 60 Tolas, equal to 
1*234 British Imperial Pint. It weighs 1*54 lbs. av., or '69853245 
Grammes, and 50 such Seers mSk^ a Mamid eqnal to 7*7125 
British Imperial Gallons, and weighing 77 lbs. av., or 34*92662 
l^ogrammes. The Seer, when heaped with Bice, contains 
1*46 lbs. av., or 662*2451 Grammes; the Pylee contains 
6*84 lbs. av., or 2*6489802 Kilogrammes ; the Parah, 93 '44 
lbs. av., or 42*3886882 Kilogrammes ; the Candj, 747-52 lbs. 
ay., or 83 9*0694656 Kilogrammes ; and the Muda » 18688 lbs. 
av., or 8476*78664 Kilogrammes ; the Seer contains of Water 
11^^ oz. av., or 817*51475 Grammes ; the Pylee, 2f lbs. av., or 
1*270059 Kilogrammes; the Parah, 44| lbs. av., or 20*320994 
Kilogrammes ; the Candy, 858| lbs. av., or 162*567552 Kilo- 
grammes ; and the Mnda, 10 cwt., or 4064*1888 Kilogrammes. 

Paddy (Bice in the husk) is sold by the Mooda of 4 Candies, 
each of 6i Parahs, each of 20 Adholees, each of 7i Seers, each 
of 2 Tipprees, as shown in the following table : — 



Bombay value. Byttematle name. 



2 Tipprees 
7i Seers 

20 Adholees 
6i Parahs 
4 Candies 



If 
»» 

»» 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

•31805 
2*38541 



Englieh value. 
Imperial Pints. 

ISeer - -56002 - 

lAdholee „ 4*20017 „ 

Imperial Gallons. 

IParah „ 10*50044 „ 47*70832 
1 Candy „ 66*62777 „ 298*17702 
1 Mooda „ 262*51109 „ 1192*70808 



The Candy of this table is eqnal to 24'236175 Britiah Im- 
perial Bashels, or 8*80925 Hectolitres, and weighs 215|| lbs. 
av., or 97'947 Kilogrammes. 



iiaiiA — (bohbat). 



281 



Salt is sold by the Ftoah of 10} Adholeee, eqaal to 6*798 
BritiBh Imperial Gallons ; 100 Parahs « 1 Anna » 72-47i 
British Imperial Bushels, and 16 Annas «> 1 Bass » 144*96 
British Imperial Quarters. The Bass of Biee welffhs, on the 
ayerage, 1120 Imperial Mannds, or 41| Tons EngliA. 



At Poona, the foUowing measures am used : — 



Poonm value. 

8 Ohipteen 
4 Seers 

12 Pylees 
Si Maonds 
8 Pallas 



tt 



If 



)« 



}f 



SffttemaHe name* 

> 1 Seer 
1 Pylee 

1 Maond 

IPalla 

IKandi 



ft 



ft 



ft 



ft 



SnpUakvaJme. 
Impertol PIslk 

'56002 - 
2*24009 „ 

ImMitel Galloaa. 
d'86014 „ 

8*40085 
67*20288 



If 



»f 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

*81805 
1-27222 

16-26666 

88*16665 

806*83827 



In Timber Measurement in the Bombay dookyards, a Covit or 
Candi i- 12 Cabio Feet 1216 Inches English, and an English 
Ton, or 50 Cubic Feet, is equal to 3 Conts and 18| Vassas. 
Planks are sold by the 100 Guz - 26 Cnluo Feet 206 Indhes 
English. 

MEASUBES OF LENGTH AND BUBFACE. 

The British Measures of Length and Surface are used, (see 
Great Britain). 

At Candy, the Land Measure is the Amomam of 4 Peylas, 
each of 10 Coomies. It is equal to about 2 Acres 2 Boods 87i 
Perches English. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB DBY GOODS. 



Ceylon value. 
4f Seers* 


Si/»tematie name. 
1 Seer 
B 1 Cooreie 


ff 


^nglieh value. 
Imperial Pints. 
1-86524 

Imperial flaUons. 

1*11914 


Metrie value* 
Litres. 

- 1*05993 
„ 6-08479 


24 Cooreies 


„ 1 Mercal 


>f 


2*79786 


,f 12*71199 


2 Mercals 


„ 1 Parah 


ft 


6*59573 


„ 26*42398 


SParahs 


„ 1 Amomam 


ft ■ 


[44*76588 or] 

Qvarlera. 

•69946 . 


HeotoUtres. 

„ 2*03892 


25 Amomams 


„ 1 Garce 


ft 


17-48667 


„ 60-80498 



* Or in Stmck Mtasore, 4 Stmok Ohundoos. 



282 1CEA8UBBS. 

The Para weighs, of CoffSeOf from SO to 85 lbs. ay. ; of Pepper, 
from 27 to 80 lbs. ay. ; of Salt» from 62 to 55 lbs. av. ; ana of 
Rice, from 42 to 46 lbs. ay. 

MEASURES OP CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Ceylon imlue. Byttematlc name. EnglUh value. Metric value. 

1 Qnart - -208277 - •94e 

4 Quarts - 1 GaUon „ -833111 ,, 3*785 

aGaUons „ 1 Welt „ 1-666222 „ 7-67 

76 Welts „ ILegger „ 124-96666 „ 567'78 

The Gallon and Qnart of this Table are the old English Wine 
Ctallon and Qnart. 

In the wholesale purchase of Spirits, (Arraek, &c.,) 80 Welf » 
are reckoned to the Logger ; but in retail sales, 75 Welts ai o 
called a Le^^gor. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland (see p. 110,) are uRed for Foreign Goods. 

The native Candy, or Bahar, « 500 lbs. ay., or 226*79625 
Kilogrammes. 

The Garce is 9266} lbs. ay., or 4*13286 Tons English. 

A Bale of CJn^^amon contains about 92 i lbs. ay. English. 



GO A— (Portuguese India.) 

The old Weights and Measures of Portugal, (See Brazil,) are 
those chiefly used, but the Weights and Measures of British 
India are also used. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 
The old Portuguese Vara and Coyado (See Brazil). 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS 

AND RICE. 

The old Measures of Portugal are those chiefly used. The 
Candy (of Goa) of 20 Maunds, each of 24 Medidaa - 13*572258 
British Imperial Bushels,* or about 498 i Litres. 



* Th« old EngljRh Wiacbetler Basbels. 



GOA. — MALAYA. 



283 



P6arlfi*are sold by the Chego, the value of which in Carats is 
estimated as follows : — 



Canils. Chegos. Trey On. Gr«mm«. 

1 - 6 » 8i - -20786 

2 ., 8 „ 6| „ -41471 

3 „ Hi „ 9f „ -62207 

4 „ 16 „ 12| „ -82942 
6 „ 21 



6 ., 27 



t> 



»» 
>» 



16 



>» 

„ 1-08678 
„ 1*24414 



CUKta. ChegM. Troy On. OnuBmM. 
7-84 - 22t - 1-45149 
n 26f 
n 28t 
.. 32 



8 „ 44 



9 



»» 



10 



»» 



56 
69 



„ 1-65885 
„ 1-86621 



„ 207857 

11 ,, 84 „ 85i „ 2-28092 

12 ..100 „ 88J „ 2-48828 



»»• 



MALAYA. 

(MALACCA, SINGAPORE, PENANG, or PRINCE OF 

WALES' ISLAND). 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

MaUijfan value, 8y»t€matie name, EnglUh value. 

Inches. 

1 Hasta or Cubit » 18 

Feet. 

4 Hastas ^ 1 Depa „ 6 

2 Depas „ 1 Jamba „ 12 

Yards. 

20 Jmnbas „ 1 Orlong „ 80 



»i 



ft 



Metric value. 

Metres. 

•45719 

1-82876 
8-65758 

73'16068 



The English Tard is also occasionally used as a measure of 
length. 

The Hasta is divided into Halves and Quarters. It is nsed 
in Goth Measures. An English Yard is equal to 2 Hastas. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Square Orlong -6400 Square Yards, or 1*82281 English 
Acre, or 6361*0231548 Square Metres. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Malayan value, Bystematic name. Snglish value. 

Imperial Galloiu. 

4 Chapahs ■■ 1 Gantang « 14 *° 

lOGantangs „ 1 Parah or Parra „ 12i >i 

800 Gantangs „ 1 Coyan ,,1000 »> 



Metric value, 
Litoct. 

6-67985 

56-79858 

4548*48712 



284 



MEA8UBX8. 



The Gantang is variable in size. Thus, at Penang, it is 
equal to '9796 Impeiial Gallon English, and its mnltiples in 
proportion. The Gantang is the principal Measure of Capacity 
for Bice« Salt, Oil, and other articles. The Parah is only a 
nominal measure used in reckoning. It nominally contaias 10 
Gantangs, Lut sometimes it contains 5, sometimes 15, and 
sometimes 20 Gantangs. A Coy an U supposed to weigh about 
47 cwt. Er;i:«h. 



f^alayan value. 

16 Taels 

100 Catties 

3 Peculs 

40 Peculs 



WEIGHTS. 

Stjitetnatle nanu\ Englhk value. 

0-. a». 



n 



5J 



»» 



1 Tatl 

1 Catty 

1 Pecul 
1 Bahr 
1 Coyan 



»» 



u 



5> 



»J 



]l-H. av. 

u 

133 J 
400 
3333i 



»» 



ji 



»» 



it 



Metric vaiue. 

GnLBMRCli. 

37-79941 
604-7906G 

KilefrramBBeA. 

60-47906 

181-43720 

2419-16266 



The denominations of Weights are the same as those of 
China. The Pecul and Catty ai'e not always of the same 
uniform weight ; for instance, the Pecul at Penang is equal to 
142|lb6. ay., and is only used in weighing Pepper and Tin, but 
this is owing to variationB in the weight of the Bahr. At 
Penang, it is equal to 421 CattLes. Goods are bought from 
nal^ve vessels by the Penang Pecul of 142| lbs. ay., or 64'71253 
Kilogrammes, and sold by the Chinese Pecul of 133i lbs. av. 

At Malacca the Pecul weighs 135 lbs. av., or 61*23498 
Kilogrammes, and a Bahr weighs 428 lbs. av. 

Grain and Salt are sold by the Coyan of 40 Chinese Peculs. 

The Penang Coyan is a Measure of Capacity which contains 
43 Peculs of Salt, or 45 of Rice. 

A Sack of Salt weighs 100 lbs. av., or 46*35925 Kilogrammes, 
a«d a Sack of Bice or Dholl 164 lbs. av., or 74*38917 

Kilogrammes. 

GOLD DUST WEIGHT. 



Local valur. 


Systematic name. 

1 Saga 


English value, 
IroyGrting. 

4J 


Metric value. 

UraBBie*. 

= -28079 


12 Sagas 


« 1 Miam 


n 52 


„ 3-36955 


16 Miams 
20 Bongkals 


„ 1 Bougkal 
„ 1 Catty 




132-84 

IbsTrej. 

2-9818 or 

lbs. ar. 

2-o795 


„ 53-91294 

Kilcgrasamcf. 

•„ 1-07826 



A Gold Catty is 1|} of the common Catty. 



BUBMJLH. 



235 



BXJBMAH. 



Burme$e oaluc, 

l^j TMts 

dTbiAeor 
5i Pnlgatft 

4Taiia 

4 Tonng 
7 Tonng 

20 Thas 

250TliaB 

4 TaixM or 
1000 Thas 

6| Dain or 
820 Oke-tha- 
pahs 



Inob« 
1 



MEASURES OP LENGTH. 

Stfitematic name, 
« IPulgat « 

} „ 1 Taixn or Maik* „ 
1 Lan 



f 1 Saading or 
*' 1 Toang 



»» 



n 



it 



II 



ITha 

1 Oke-tha-pah 
ITain 



I „ 1 Dain 



„ 1 Uzena 



6iii 

22 „ 

88 1, 
164 M 

Tarda. 
If 85S-it 

1,1060^11 

MU«B. 

„ 2-4305,, 



>* 
If 



Metric value. 
•025399 

•130094 

•558778 

2*235136 
3*911448 

78*22897 
977*86220 

Kiloinetreti. 

3*9114*8 



,,16*5556,, 26*0332723 



The English Yard, Foot, and Inch are being adopted. 



Burmese value, 

2 Lamyets 

2 Lamays 

4 8alay8 

4 Pyees 

2Bahs 

2 Saiks 
2Ewais 

100 Tens 



MEASURES OP CAPACITT. 

SytUmatie 



f» 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



1 Lamyet 
1 Lamay 

1 Salay 

IPyee 

1 Sah 

1 Saik 

1 Kwai 

1 TenorTeng 



BnglUh value. 


Metrie value. 


h^tiial Qills. 


Litres. 


- 1 - 


•14198 


If ^ fi 


•28468 


Imperial Pint. 




1 

If *■ 11 


•56936 


Imperial Quarts. 




ff ^ ft 


2-27744 


Imperial Qallon. 




If !> II 


4*543487 


Imperial Peck. 




If X 11 


8*086974 


Imperial BoshcL 




II a II 


18*173948 


II X 11 


36*347896 


Imperial Qnartera. 




II X2]' „ < 


3634-7896 



„ 1 Coyan 

The Measures of British India are gradually being intre- 
dnoed into Bnnnah. 

A Teng is a basket full, a Teng of Bice is supposed to be 
equal to about 58) lbs. av., or 16 Viss, or 40 Penang Catties. 



* The breadth of the hand with the thumb extended. 



2BG 



HElSUBEfl. 



WEIGHTS. 



Burmeu value, BytienwUc 

2 Small Rnays « 1 Large Biiflj» 

M r T> f IBaiorRnayl 

4 Large Rnayg „ | ^^^ Anna J 

2Bai8 
2 Moos 
4 Mats 

100 Kyats 



IMoo 
IMat 



»» 



»» 



„ IKyatorTical,, 262 

IPiakthah ) ««-A^- 

or Vifls f »» ^ 



EngUihvahie, Metric value. 
Troj Onlns. OnuniMa. 

8-9375 B -25514 

16-)5 

81-5 
68 



It 



»» 



"1 



102058 

2-04117 
n 4-08233 
M 16-32983 



1-632983 



The Small Bnay is the Scarlet Bean (Abrus Precatarhu,) 
and tiie large one ia the black oblox^ bean (Adenanthera 
Pavonina), But the i7ai, MoOf Mat, Kyat, and PtaX;, are real 
weights nsnally of polished brass. 






MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



BUmtie value. 


Syitematlc name. 


EngUth value. 


Jlf«ir(« voZm. 






Inchei. 


Metres. 




INin* 


- » - 


-20637 


12Nin 


» 1 Knp or Kenbf 


»» 9f If 


•24764 


2KTip 


1, ISok: 


>, 19i 


•49528 


2Sok 


„ lEen ' 


»> 39 )) 


-99056 


2 Ken 
20 Wa 
100 Sen 


„ IWaorVSnA 
„ 1 Sen 
,, 1 Boeneng 


»» «8 |t 
,t 48i 

Miles. 
„ 2-462119 „ 


1-98112 

39-62244 

KilomefePM. 
8-962244 


4 Boeneng 


„ lYote 


ft 8*848477 fj 


16-848976 



• The Siamese Tfllae of the Nln i§ atoted to be " Plet Ket Can 
FleUae/' that ia, 8 grains of hoaked xlce. 

•f Meaaured from the end of the thomb to the middle flager. 

t Meaawed from the end of the middle finger to the elbow. 



8IA1C. 



237 



MEASURES OF OAPAOITY. 



Slamete value. 



Syttemntlc naiM. 

1 Tanan 



BnglUh vulue, 

PlBt. 

It 



Metric value, 

LltoM. 

*8519 



20Tanaii8 » ITang 

25 Tanans or 
liTang 

80 SatB or 
100 Tan}? 



1 Sat 



I „ 1 Coyan 



II 



II 



11 



a-76 „ 17'03807f» 
4-6876 H 21-29759l> 



876 



It 



1-7^88076 



Siamete value. 

4Tioal8 

20 Taels 
50 Catties 



WEIGHTS. 

S!f$tematie 

ITical* 
- 1 Tad 



ti 



»» 



ICatly 
IPicnl 



SnfflUh value. 
Troy QriUiu, 

- 2831 
9881 

21 



II 



11 
II 



i» 



M 



133i 



t> 



Metrle value, 
GrMamr*. 

1611975 
60-479 

KlkNFramxnrM, 

1-20968 
60-479 



The Coyan is a weight which is osnaUj reckoned eqnal to 20 
Pionlfi, bit it yaries from 18 to 22 Fionls. The Goyan of Paddy 
(rioe in the hnsk) is reckoned at about 16| Plcols, and is consi- 
dered equai to 21831 lbs. av. 



MEASURES OF TIME. 



Siatnesr value 

60 Winatees 
6 Natees 
10 Bats 
12Mong 
12 Toom n 

29 or 30 Wans „ 
12 or 13 Duans ,, 
10 Pees „ 



»» 



n 



t< 



Syttematie 
1 Natee 
IBat 

1 Mongortoom 
1 Wan (period of day) 



Snglteh value, 
B 1 Minnto 
„ 6 Minutes 
„ 1 Hour 
„12 Hours 



1 Koon (period of night) ,,12 Hours 

1 Duan ,1 1 Lunar Month 

1 Pee ,, 1 Year 

1 Sok or Cycle „10 Years 

Each month is divided into two parts, the first called Keintf 
Koon (increasing moon), and the second called Kang Raam 
(waning moon). The days of the seoond half are also numbered 
from 1 to 14 or 15. The even months consist of 80 days, aad 
the odd ones of 29 days ; and, in eyery 19 years, 8 intercalary 



* The Tieal for wcigbing Oold and Silyer ii equal to 286 Troy OralM, 
or 15*29*267 GrammvR. 



288 



HSASmUBS. 



dajB are added. All the Siameae montha, exoept the first two, 
are denoted 1^ nnmbers. The lat and 2iid months are called 
respectively, Ai and Yeet the others are called Duan-SoM^ 
DuafirSee, Jhum-Ha^ Duan-Hook, DuaiirKet, Jhian-Peet, Jhum- 
Kan, Duan-Sib, Duan-Stb-it, Duam-Sib-Song, i. e. 3rd, 4th, 5tfi, 
6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th months. In referenie 
to the seasons, the 1st and 2nd months are called winter ; the 
8rd, 4th, and 5th, slight summer, and the other seren montha, 
complete summer. 

The Siamese hare two eras, the Sacred and the Civil, the 
former reckoned from the death of Budha B.C. 545, is called 
Futa SakkaraU and ti^e latter called Chula Saktarat was 
established A.D. 638 l^ the Siamese King Phra Ruang, soon 
after the Hejira. 

The year 1867 corresponds to the 2450th year of the Sacred 
era, or to the 1229th year of the CiTil era of Siam. In 
expressing dates, the Siamese gire the day of the week, the day 
of the increasing or waning moon, the month, the year of the 
era, and cyclic name of the year. The dates are usually 
written at the four points of a cross; thus, 3 + 5, Tuesday, 
2nd day of waning moon of the 0th month. 2 



ANAl[-(or, COCHIN CHINA.) 



MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 



Anameie value 


SyitematUi name, 
ILy 


BnglUh value. 
- -0192 


^ 


Metric vahte. 
Metm. 

•00048 


10 Ly 


■- 1 Phau 


ft 


•192 


ft 


•00487 


lOPhan 


» ITac 


ft 


1*92 


tt 


•04876 


lOTac 


„ IThuocorOuUt 


t* 


19-2 


ft 


*48766 


6 Tbuoc 


„ INgu 


»9 


Teet. 

8 


tt 


2*43835 


10 Thuoc 


„ 1 Tmon 


>» 


16 


tt 


4-87670 


3Ngu 


„ 1 Sao 


»f 


8 


»f 


7-81506 


STmons 


„ 1 Ohai Vai or That 


f» 


16 


tt 


14*63012 


10 Sao 


„ IMao 


»» 


80 


tt 


78-15064 


10 cnifl-i Vai 


M 1 Quo 


It 


160 


tt 


146*30128 



The Thuoc, which is the chief unit of measures of length, 
varies considerably in different places; thus there are six 
different values assigned to it, varying from 15 to 25f English 



JlKAM — (OBy COCHIN CHIKA). 



239 



Inches, or from *88098 to *656a09 Mdtre, but the Tbnoc, the 
Ttlae of which is giyen in the TaUe, ii the one in general use. 
The Drapers' Thnoo is a little lonser, being equal to 25) 
Inches ; the Tae to 2) inches ; the Phan to '2o6 ; and the I^y 
to *0256 inch English. 



ITINERARY MEASURES. 



Anawiiit valut* SifftewuUie name. 



9Li 
6 Dam 



It 



lliorMfle 
IDam 

1 League 



MnglUk valm* MetHe voIm. 
Yavda. tftCiw. 

- 486 * 444*890188 
072 n 888-780276 

XllM. KlloinotrtM. 

2*761 ,. 4*4489 



o 



If 



SURFACE OR SQUARE MEASURES. 



Awk'me$t t*ali»«. BytUmiatio 

9 Sqr. Nga a 1 Sqr. Satf 
100 Sqr. Sa{5 „ 1 Sqr. Ma5 



Engliik value, 
Squart YonLi. 

64 - 



%> 



6400 



>> 



Metric volut, 
Hquan Metrvt. 

58*510208 

Ar«i. 

68*610208 



WEIGHTS. 



Awomeit v9lM* ^yitomatto naaif. 



10 Ai 
lOTran 
10 Hay 
10 Gbaii 
10 Hot 
lOHao 
10 Li 
10 Phan 
10 Dong 
10 Lnong 

16 Luong 

10 Can 

6 Yen 
10 Yen 

6Ta 



ITran 

IHny 

IGhaa 

IHot 

IHao 

ILi 

IPhan 

1 Dong 

1 Lnong 

INen 

ICan 

lYen 
IBinah 
ITa 
1 Qoan 



Troy Unlna. 
•000006- 

•000060,, 

.000601 „ 

•006016 „ 

•060166 „ 

•601668 „ 

6*016626 „ 

60*15626 

601*6626 

n 6016*626 

IbM. »Vt 

in 



l> 
ft 
It 
If 
fl 
II 
If 
If 



If 
II 
»l 



II 

If 
ff 
ff 
ft 



18« 

681 

187t 

6871 



It 

It 
It 
If 
It 



Metric value, 

•0000008 

•0000088 

•0000889 

•0008808 

*0088981 

•0889806 

•8898061 

8*8980606 

88*9806066 

889*806066 

688*68969 

XtluflTiunmea. 

6*28689 

81*18484 

62*86896 

811*84484 



2^ 



MEASrSES. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOB GRAIN. 



Anmmeie value* 



2Hao 



8ff$UwtaHc name, EnglUk value. 

Imporiftt OftUon*. 

IHao - 6} - 



1 Sbita or Tao 



♦» 



i2i 



l» 



Metric value. 

Litre*. 

28-270586 

56-541172 



FBB8IA. 

The weights and measnret of Persia arc not nnifonu, being 
dtiferent in different places, and according to the purposes for 
which they are employed : — 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Persian value. 


Syetematle name, 
IGereh 


EngH«h value. . 
Inches. 

- 28 - 


Meirir value. 
Metre*. 
•06032 


4 Gerehs 


- 1 Qnarter-Zer 


♦f 


9i M 


•24129 


8 Gerehs 


„ 1 Half-Zer 


ff 


19 


•482581 


16 Gerehs 


H 1 Zer 


tf 


3B 


•965162 



The Kadam, or Step, is equal to about 2 feet English, or 
•609588 Metre, and 12000 Eadam make 1 Fersakh (Parasang) 
equal to about 4^ Miles, or 7*2491917 Kilometres ; but varying 
from Si to ik Miles, or from 5'6S826022 to 7-2191917 Kilo- 
metres. 

There is also the Schah Goss, each of 2 feet, each of 24 
fingers, each of 7 Barleycorns. It is used in measuring 
Woollen goods, and is equal to 40 English Inches, or 1*0160 
M^^e ; the Monkelser, or Bashoor Goss, used in retail traas- 
aotioQS and equal to 86i English Inches, or '9347 M^tre; 
and the Tabreez Goss equal to about 44 English Inches, or 
1-17579 M6tre. 

The Fersakh (Parasang) is supposed to be ^th of a degree of 
the Equator, and is equal to about 7 Russian versts. 

Distances are commonly reckoned by the Fursoch or Auga^e, 
(beinff the distance a horse can walk in one hour,) about 4| 
EngUiBh Miles. Great distances are reckoned by a eararan's 
journey in a day, about 80 English Miles. 

SURFACE AND CUBIC MEASURES. 

The Surface and Cubio Meaiures are the Squares and Cabes 
of the Measures of Length. 



PERSIA.. 



241 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Pi'nitin polu*, SffiUmatle name* 



4 Sextarios 
2 Chenicas 
81 Capichas 

8 CoUothuQ 



■i 1 Chenioa 
„ 1 Capicha 
„ 1 Collothan 

1 Artata 



II 



Englith vattM, Mttrie raliitf. 

Iaip«ri»l OiiUoas. Litres. 

a *289U - l*3150t>G 

•67888 „ 2*030132 

1*809 n 8*219168 

Imperial Bushel. 

„ 1-809 „ e6*753343 



II 

II 



Liquids are mMtly sold by weiglit. 



WEIGHTS— (C0MMERCIA.L). 



P-ninn rntuc 



SuttemaHc name* 

1 Mifloal 

16Mi9cals-i lSilir(S6er) 

l(K)Mi8oal8„ IRatd 



EmIUH vaiue, 
Troy Oraius. 

- 71 
,.284 



It 



Metrte value* 
Qrammes. 

4*60072'J 
73-611GG4 



II 



lbs. ar. 

10U2 ,,480*0729 

KilO|rramn)(*A. 

40Silir8 „ 1 Batman (Maond) „ 8*49112,, 2*94440 
100 Batman,, 1 Karwar „848*U2 ,,284*440 



The Batman, the chief oommeroial weight raries in almost 
every Provinoe and Town, and that given in the Table is the 
Batman of Tabrees and Mesched. Its ralne is oommonly 
taken at 6j lbs. av. English, or 8>06175d Kilogrammes. 

The Batman-i-Shah is eqnal to 2 Batman of Tabreea «■ 
13i lbs. av. English, or 8*123506 Kilogrammes. 

The Batman Rei equal to 4 Batman of Tabreoz « 27 lbs. av. 
English, or 12*2447012 Kilogrammes. 

A load for a horse is 40 to 50 Tabreez Batman. 

A load for a camel is 60 to 70 Tabreez Batman. 

A load for a donkey is 16 to 25 Tabreez Batman. 

The Tehrann Rih coutainB 1600 Miscals, and the Karwar 
is 25 Rih. 

WEIGHTS FOR GOLD AND SILVER. 



Prr.iixn value. 


S:iatrmatio name* 


JSnQlUh Vitltii}* 


Metrie value. 






Troy QrattiM. 


OrammoM. 


3 Habbi 


- 1 Nahood 


- 2*9583 


- -191697 


4 Nahoods 


„ 1 Dang 


„ U-83 


„ '766788 


Dang 


„ 1 Misoal 


,1 71 


„ 4*600720 


2 Miscals 


„ 1 Dlrhem 


,. 143 


M 8-301458 



212 



1££A8UBS8. 



Pearls are weighed by the Abas » 2i Troy Grains, or '1458 
Grammes. 

Precious Stones are weighed by the Keerat » 5 Troy Grains* 
or '32399 Grammes. 



ARABIA, 



The weights and measures of Egypt are much used in Arabia. 
The following weights and measures are used at Mocha : — 



Moeha value. 

1 CoTido or Corid 
1 Guz 
1 Kassaba 

IMile 

1 Farsakh 

1 Baryd (4 Farsakh) 



English value. 
IncbeN. 

10 
26 

147-6 

Milca. 

1-219 
3 
12 



Metric value. 
Metre*. 

•48258 

'63397 

3-74889 

KilometrM. 

1-96372 

4-83279 

19-33117 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 



Moeha value. 



40Kellas • 
MoeJia value. 

IGVakias 
8 Noosftas 



EngUih weight Metric weight 



in riee. in riee. 



Syttematie name. 

Ibf.BT. KitoirrammM. 

lEeUa(orM6cmeda) - 4-679 « 2-1224 

1 Tomand „ 187-17 „ 84-899 



Syttematie name. 

« 1 Noosfia 
„ lEoddi 



Engllnh value. 
Oallons. 

- '20827 
„ 1-60022 



Metric value. 
LItreii. 

•946 

„ 7-57 



MoeJui value, 

40 Vakeias 
10 Maunds 
15 Feehsill 



WEIGHTS~(COMMERCIAL.) 



It 



Syttematie name. 

• 1 Mannd 
1 FeehsU 
1 Behaar 



»» 



Englinh value. 
lbs. av. 

3 - 
30 
460 



»» 



Metric value. 

KilognunmM, 

1-36077 

13-60777 

204-11662 



Sometimes the value of the Behaar is taken as 439*445 lbs. 
ay. English, or 199*35 Kilogrammes. 



I 



PIBSLi. — JiJPAK. 



248 



JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. 



Moeka valiM. 


8if$t«w»tie iMMM. fnpli^Jb ralit«. Mttrie vtdue, 

Ttbj Qndas. QnunoiM. 


16 Karats 


- IKa&la - 47*864 - 4*6523 


lOKafialas 


., IVakeia ,, 478*642 „ 46*523 


1| Vakeiae 


„ IBikh „ 717*963 „ 69*7846 



JAPAN. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Japanese value. 




SjftUmatie name 


• 


BnglUh vaime* 

Inchei. 


MeMevaUe. 

Metres. 


10 Rin 


« 


1 Boo 


cs 


•12 


a 


•008047 


10 Boo 




1 Son 


n 


1*2 




•030479 


10 San 
8 Shiaku 




1 Shiaku 
i Ken 




12 

Tirds. 

1 




•304794 
•914383 


6 Rhiakn 




1 Ken 


ti 


2 




1^828766 


60 Ken 
36 Chn 




1 Chn 
1 Ri 


11 
11 


120 
4820 




10972596 

Kilomotrf^ 

3*95013 



Rongh Timher is Bold by the Yama-Ken-Zail, a moasore of 
63 jS^in. The Ken used by Carpenters is called Ken-Zail, The 
Co'Shiaku-Zaii is a measnre oi 5 ShiaJm, 

The Shiaka used in Goth Measure is only equal to 15 
English Inches ; it is usually called Kuzhira Shiaku ; and the 
A^un^ £00 y and Rin in Cloth Measure, are respectively equal to 
li. iftj. and i3u inches English. 



Japanese value, 
30 Po 

10 Is*she 
10 It'tau 






SQUARE MEASURES. 

Systewuktie nam/e» English value* Metric voIim. 

Square Yards. Square Metres, 

1 Is^she - 120 - 100*38164 

Ares 

1 IVtau „ 1200 „ 10033164 
1 It*cho« 



»» 



12000 



«> 



100*38164 



The Square Ken is considered the integer of Square Measure, 
it is equiJ to 4 Square Yiu'ds English, and is called 7'su&o. An 
English Acre is equal to 1210 Tmho, 



244 



ICEASITBEB. 



lODzokn 
10 Ke 
10 Sats 
lOSfti 
lOShiakn 

loaod 
10 Shod 
10 To 



If 



t» 



EnglUh value: 
ImpMfal Pints. 
•00008 - 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITT. 

SpttenuMe name, 

1Kb 

ISat 

ISai 

IShlflka 

IQoH 

lSlio5 

ITo 

IKoka 



ft 
ft 
It 

ft 



ft 

tt 
ft 



•00082 H 

•00828 „ 

•08288 ,, 

•32882 ,, 

Imperial OmUoni. 
•4104 

4-104 

41-04 



Metric value. 

•00001 
•00018 
< -00186 
•01864 
•18646 

1-86464 

18-64647 

186*46471 



Japanete value, 

10 Mo 
10 Bin 
10 Fun „ 

4 Noiii]ii6 ,t 
40Ria 



ff 



tt 



WEIGHTS. 

Syitematie name, 

IRin 
IFtm 
1 Nomme 
IBin 
IKin 



SnalUh value, 
Troy Qnlnf. 



tt 



tt 



t» 



tf 



27006 
2-70066 
27-0061 
108-02644 
4321-0576 



Metric value, 

•0175 
•175 
1-76 
tt 7 
tt280 



tt 



tt 



In weights the word Nomme is used after all nnmbera except 
the moltiples of 10, where it is contracted into Me, 



8IKGAF0BE. 

The Weights and Measures of Great Britain are generally 
nsed in the pnrchaBe and sale of European Goods ; but the 
following Weights and Measures are also in use : — 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Syitematie name* Bnglith value, 

InchM. 

CoTid (Cloth measure) ■• 18 * 



Metric value. 
Metre*. 

•467191 



MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. 

Jmpaneee value, 8y$tema4ie name, Bnglieh value. 

Acre. 

20 Dschombas ■* 1 Orlong • 1-322 



Metric value. 
Axes. 

58-49741 



SIKGi:POBB.-^JAPjUr. 



245 



MEASURES OF CAPAOITT. 

Liquids, Oraia, aad Friit, are sometiiEeB sold by the Gantan^ 
of 2 Bamboos. 

The Gantang • about 1*04 British Imperial Gallon, or 
4 725226 Litres. 



Japanese value* 

16 Tools - 

100 Catties 
40 Pccals 



WEIGHTS— (COMMBBOUl). 

Syitcmatlc name. SnglUh value* 

lb. At. 






1 Catty 

IPecnl 
1 Koyan 



»» 



Ik 

133 il 
53331 



It 



»i 



Mttric valus, 

Qraiaines. 

604 71) 

KIloKntmini^it. 

241916 



Rice from Siam and the Malayan Archipelago, and Sago and 
Salt are Rold by the Koyan, but Bengal Rioe and Com are sold 
by the Bag of 2 Imperial Maundfl. The Bag is equal to 
164^ ]be. av., or 74*628^48 Kilogrammes. 



JEWELLERS* WEIGHTS. 

Japanese vaUe» Systematic name, SngUeh valtu, 

Tn)y OraiDt. 

I Meiam * 52 ■* 

16 Meiams ■■ 1 Boncal 882 



20 Boneals 



t» 



1 Catty 



%i 



n 



16640 



»» 



t» 



Metrie value, 
Utammcit. 

8*36954 
53-91277 

KUogrammfR. 

I-07825 



JAVA. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Java value. 


Systematic name. 


SnglUh vdltte, 
Inchci. 


Metric value, 
MotriM. 




1 Dnim 


1-8 


- -02616 


12 Duims 


• IFoot 


,, 1286 


„ -81894 




lEU 


„ 27*08208 


„ -68781 



The Ell and Foot given in the Table are the old Amsterdam 
Rheinland Foot and Ell, but the old Brabant Ell » 27*8884 
English Inches, or *6944 M^tre, and the English Yard are also 
used. 



24G MEAcrrBss. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The DjoDg of 4 Baha • 7'OUO EngliBh Acres, or 2*8387267 
llectareB. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY— (foe Rice and Gbais). 

Jiihivalm* Syitematic name. EnglUh value, Mf trie value, 

llM. av. Kilt gntamet. 

1 Sack - 61*084 - 27*684 

2 SackB • 1 Pecnl „ 122*068 ,, 65*369 

dPeculH „ lTiml)aDg „ 610*8403 „ 276*844 

30 pJSd'"^ ""'}'* ICoy*^ ,,3662*042 ,,1661*066 

The Measures of Capacity are really vessels to contain 
definite Weights. Grain, in lar^e quantitieH, is sold by the 
Coyan, and in small qnantities by the Timbang. The Coy an 
contains in different places in the Island a variable number of 
Pecnls, thus, at Batavia it contains 27, at Somarang 28, and at 
Soerabaya 80 Pecnls. There is also, for small qnantities, a 
meai^nre called Oantang : 5 Gantangs make 1 Measnre, and 46 
Measures make 1 La$t, The Eulack contains 1\ Cattien 
Weight. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Java value, 8y$tematie name. EnglUh valus. Metric raUie. 

Imperial Oallon*. LMrt*. 

1 Kan - -82819 • 1*491142 

888 Kans - 1 Leager „ 127'88772 „ 578*56809 

Liquids are very often sold by Weight. The Leager is a 
measure for Arrack. 

WEIGHTS. 

Java value, BytUmaiic name, Engli$h value. Metric ralur. 

Ibn. av. Orarnmi'K. 

1 Tael - '0848 - 38*450<I 

16 Taels - 1 Catty „ 1*866 „ 615*210 

Kilofframmw. 

100 Catties „ 1 Pecul „ 185*0812 „ 61*5210 

n Peculs „ 1 Small Bahar „ 406*8986 „ 184-5631 
4 1 Peculs „ 1 Large Bahar „ 1881*0212 „ 7474*805 

The Dutch Troy lb of 2 Marks is used in Foreign Trade. 
The Dutch Troy lb is equal to 7626 English Troy Grains. The 
Dutch Commercial lb is equal to 7676 English Troy Grains. 



SriiATIU. — PHILIPPUTE ISLANDS. 



2i7 



'9 Reals 



GOLD AND SILVER WEiaHTS. 



Byttematie naoM. 

1 Real 

I Datch Mark, Troy „ 8788 



BnilUh fMlue. Metric ealue. 
Troy Oralni. Qnramc*. 

» 422 - 97-3451 

246*1066 



»» 



SUMATBA. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



JSumatra value. 

13 Tempos 
2 JonkalB 

2Ettos 
2 Hailohs 
2 Depohs 



»» 



>» 



»» 



n 



8}f»tematie name. 

1 Tempo 
> 1 Jnnkal 
lEUo 

IHailoh 

Depob 

Tung 



BngUth value. 
Inches, 

44 - 
9 

18 

Yards, 
1 

2 

4 



Metric vnluCm 
MctreN. 

•114297 
•228595 
•467191 

•914888 
1*828766 
8-657582 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



VIZ. : — 



XUZON OR LUCONIA, MINDORO, PANAY, NEGROS, 
MASBATE, ZEBU, BOHL, LEYTB, SAMAR, 

MINDANAO. 



Local valite* 

12 Lines 
12 Pulgadas 
8 Pies 



MEASURES OF LENGip. 



Systematic name, 

1 Line 
B 1 Pulgada 
„ 1 Pies 



j» 



1 Vara 



jt 



)i 



}i 



English value, 
•67725 

•927 

Hi 

88 B 



t» 



II 



II 



M*trie value, 
•001962 

•028558 

•282646 

•847988 



The Vara is the chief Measure for Goth, and 100 Varas are 
equal to 927088 English Yards. Cotton, and some other Goods, 
4ire sold by the English Yard. 



248 



HSAJBT7BSB. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOE DRY GOODS. 

Loc^u value. S^^ifmatle tu,iR€, 



Empliah ralue. Metric value. 
Ijoperial Gallons. Utxes. 

lGa»tAh = -879642 « 8-931 



85 Gantahs 



1 Caban 



If 



21-99107 



>» 



98-28 



A Caban of Rice weighs about 123 0>s. et. EiigliBh, or 
56*7918775 Kilogrammes. 

A Caban of Paddy (rice in the hnsk) weighs abont 85 lbs. av. 
Engliph, or 385553625 Kilogrammes. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Liquids are measured by the old English Wine Gallon and 
its snbdiTlsiens, for which, see the Article " Cape of Good 
Hope." Cocoa-nut Oil is measured by the Tinaja of 12 
Ganons. 



WEIGHTS. 



Lsetil rahu. 



SiftUmatic naaie. 

1 DracLma 
ft Drachmas = 1 Oj^zo 



8 Onzas 

2 Marks 

85 Libbras 
4 Arrobas 

H Arrobas 



•> 



»» 



IMark 

1 libbra 

1 Airoba 
1 Quintal 
ri Quintal 



1 



i» 



'( Macho j 



II 



Ergi'.sh r**lHe. 

55-4705 
443 8125 
35505 

1b». ar. 
101442 



25-36050 ,, 
101-442 



152*163 



»» 



t» 



Metric value. 

Grammes. 

3-5947 

28-7583 

230-0666 

460*1333 

Kilofrraxntoec 

11-50333 
46*01333 

69*01939 



The above are the old Spanish Weights (Castilian Standards). 
In the Wholesale Trade most Goods are sold by the following 
Weights : — 



Lotal raZue, 

16 Taels 
too Catties 



Sytemaiic name. 

ITael 

= 1 Catty 
„ 1 Pecul 



»» 



II 



Enffli$h ralue. Mtirie value. 

Troj Graiaa. Oranunes 

610*2371 = 39-5427 

lbs. aT. Kilognaameit. 

1-3948 „ -63268 



139*4827 



»» 
II 



63*2683 



The Pecul of the Philippine Islands is larger than the 
Chinese Pecul, and is equal to 5i Spanish Arrobas. 16 Pecnls 
are commonly reckoned equal to 1 Ton English, idthough they 
are really less than 1 Ton by about 8| lbs. av. ; an English Ton 
being 2240 lbs. et., whUe 16 Peculs are only equal to 
2281*7232 lbs. av. 



EGYPT, 249 



EGYPT. 

(NUBIA, SEKAAR, KOBDOFAN, Aia> DOBFUR.) 
MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

MgypUan wUue, ' Sffstemaiie name. EnglUhtnUut. Metric vaJmt. 

Inches. Metres. 

lEirat . l^ « -02857 

GKirats » 1 Bub „ 6} „ '17144 

4BnbB „ {^^^J^} " 27 „ 18577 

TardB. 

4Dira&s „ 1 Gasab ,, 8 „ 2*74301 

In Egypt the Dirads in nse are of different lengths. 

The Dira& Istambohli, or Pike of Constantinople, nsed for 
measuring Cloth and European Silk » to 26*65404 English 
Inches, but in Practice it is reckoned at 27 Inches. 

Th^ BeFendi Pike used for measuring Syrian Silks and 
Native Fabrics « 22*7369 English Inches, or -5775 of a 
French Mdtre. 

The Endaseh for measuring Cotton and Linen Goods 
» 25*13425 English Inches, or '6384 of a French M^tre. 

The Nilmeasery or PUe Mekias ^ 21*28778 English Inches, 
or *5407 of a French Mdtre. 

In Nubia the Dirai^ - 26*65404 English Inches, or *6775 
Mdtre. 

In Malakha, the distance from one Station to another, is an 
indefinite Measure varying from 2 to 6 Miles. 

MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. 

Egyptian value, Syatematie name. Sngliah vaUie. Metric value. 

▲ere. Ares. 

400 Sq. Gasab » 1 Feddan - 1*1019 • 44*591 

This Feddan is now the legal one both in Egypt and Nubia, 
but there are other Feddans in use varying in value. Thus the 
Feddan al risach is equal to 3208 English Square Yards. 



2S0 HBA8UBE8. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

Mftftim* value, SjfUwuUic noau. Em§li»h voimt. Metric value, 
SRnbbft - IQneleh •» ^ 
SQueleh ,, 1 Wehbih „ 
ftWehbih „ 1 Ardeb 
2 Ardeb „ 1 Daribb* „ 



See below. 



In AlexAndria the Ardeb » 7'4457 British laiperiAl Boshels, 
•r 271 French Litres. 

In Cairo the Ardeb • 4*92461 British Imperial Bushels, or 
179 French Litres, but its value is nsnally taken in ronnd 
nnsbers at 5 Imperial Bnshels, or about 182 Litres. 

In Nnbia the Ardeb » 5*00699 British Imperial Bnshels, or 
182 French Litres, there is also the Morrhi divided into 12 
Hands, or 216 Selgas, and eqnal to 7*70306 British Imperial 
Biuhels, or 280 Litres. 

In Bosetta the Ardeb divided into 12 Bab, or 48 Eaddah, 
« 7*8131 British Imperial Bushels, or 284 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

In Egypt the unit of Weight is the Dirhem (Dram or 
Dracbn,) which -^ 47*6615 £n^h Troy Grains, or 3*0884 
Grammes. The Wei^ts are of two classes, viz. : (1) the 
Jictiolo WcighU and (2) the Oka Weight. 

THE BOTTOLO WEIGHTS. 

J/rptiua value, SyUmatie name, English value. Metric value, 

Troy Qrmins, (traxnmot. 

1 Dirhem « 47*6615 = 3*0884 
12 Dirhem - 1 Uckieh „ 571*9380 „ 37*0608 

lbs. AT. 

12 Uckieh „ 1 Bottolo „ -98046 „ 444*7290 

lOOBottoli „ ICantar „ 98*0465 „ 44*47296 

The Bottolo given in the Table is the Government Bottolo^ 
aod is nsed in Alexandria and Cairo. 

The Eottoh Forforo of 140 Dirhem (^tj of an Oka,) « -95328 
lbs. av. English, or 432*376 Grammes. 70 Government 
Bottoli «^ 72 Forfori Bottoli. 

The common commercial Rottolo of the Markets of Alexandria 
and Cairo, containing 1('5 Djrbems » -71492 lbs. av. English, 
or 324*282 Grammes. 



Barpt. — TEiPOLi. 251 

The great Bottolo of Alexandria, contains 812 Dirhems, aad 
is equal to 2*12434 lbs. ay. English, or 063*5808 Grammes. 

The great Bottolo of Cairo, contains 324 Dirhems, and is 
equal to 2*20604 lbs. av. English, or 1*00064 Kilogrammes. 

The Special Commercial Bottolo of Cairo, contains 150 
Dirhems, and is equal to 1*02132 lbs. av., or 463*26 Grammas, 

The Bottolo Zaidino of 200 Dirhems (» i Oka) - 1*361757 
lbs. av., or 617*68 Grammes. 

The Rottolo Mina of 250 Dii-hems (- \ Oka) -1*7022 lbs, 
av., or 772*10 Grammes. 

The Hottolo Zauro of 310 Dirhems (- |^ Oka) » 2*11079 
lbs. av., or 957*4040 Grammes. 

THE OKA WEIGHTS. 

Egyptian value. Systematic name, English value. Metric oftliir. 

400 Dirhems « The Common Oka « 2*72351 « 1*23536 
420 Dirhems „ j Tlie^Commercial j ^^ 2-85969 „ 1*29712 

412 Dirhems .. { '^c— rd^^^^ 2*80522 „ 1*27242 

JEWELLEBS' WEIGHTS. 

Egyptian value. Systematic name. EnglUh value. 2Ietrie fialtie. 

Troy Grains. Grummea 

IKommhah - -74471 =- *04d2d 

4Kommhah - 1 Kirat „ 2*97884 „ -ISaoa 

lOKirats „ 1 Dirhem „ 47*6615 „ 3*0884 

The Kirat is the unit of Weight for Precious Stones. 

Pearls, Gold-thread, and Raw Silk are sold by the Metieaf, 
(also called Mikal or Mislod,) equal to 1^ Dirhems, or 71*4922 
English Troy Grains, or 4*6326 Gmmmes. 



TBIFOLI. 

MEASUBES OF LENGTH. 

The. Turkish Pike for SUk and Cotton Goods is equal to 
26-4168 English Inches, or -671 M5tre. 

The Arabian Dhraa for Bibbons a 18 '13 Euglish Xnohe^ 
or -483 M^tre. 



252 1£XA8UBE8. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Tripoli value, Syitematie name. Snglieh value* Metric value 

1 Orbali • 1-4760 •> 6*70618 
4 Orbah = 1 Temen „ 5*9040 „ 26*82474 

J m « «* , Imperial Bu»bel«. 

4 Temen „ 1 Hueba „ 2'9520 „ 107*29899 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR {ilQUIDS. 

TripoU value, 8y$Umatie name. EnglUh value. Metric value, 

4 Qoartacd «- 1 Bozze » 2*36186 ' • 2*68274 

4Bozze „ ISecchie „ °J?36185''"'\, 10-73098 

6Secchie „ 1 Barile „ 14-1711 „ 64*3859 

These Liquid Measures are used for Wises and Spirits. 
The Oil Barile is divided into 6 Arbaias, or 36 Carafliis,-each 

?^£l5^^ ^^^ ^ '^'^^^ ^^^^ Imperial Quarts, or 
1*78849 Litres. 

WEIGHTS. 
Tripoli value, BysUmatie name. XnglUh palut. Metrte value, 
»7J Dirhem - 1 Ueld«h - vm - 8O'6M095 
16Uckiah „ 1 Rottolo „ 1.076 „ 488*06553 
24 Rottolo „ 1 Oka „ 2*6916 „ "l 



40 Oka or i 
100 Rottolo ; »» 1 Centner „ 107j „ 48*80665 

The Rottolo given in the Table is the common Rottolo. 

, ^ F*** Rottolo contains 720 Dirhems, and is eooal to 
1-2912 lbs. av., or 686*67863 Grammes. ^ 

5 great Rottoli are equal to 6 common Rottoli. 
JEWELLERS' WEIGHTS. 

Tripoli value. Systematic name. Englieh value. Metrie value. 

U Kharub - 1 Metical Mumini ^''^065' - "^^^ 
The Metical Mumini and Kharub are used in wehrhinir Gold 

??.^n^** *"^ ^^^^ ^'^^o w «q«al to 62-80 Troy GramsTd^ 
4*069 Grammes. 9 Meticals Akdesi - 8 MeticalsMumSi. 



TBIPOLI. — TUBTIS. 263 

The Uokiali, with the following sahdiTisions, is used ia 
weighing Qold Laoe, Gold Thread, and SUver :« 

Tripoli value, SyttematiP name, EnplUh valu*, MetrU} v^lue, 

Troy Qralni. Qramaiea. 

IGKharub • 1 Dirhem » 47*2 • 3*052 

lODirhems ,, 1 Uokiah „ 472 n 80 '52 



TUNIS. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The DhraA, or Pike, ia the unit of Measnres of Length. 
There are three kinds of Dhrad in common use, viz. : — 

Systematie namp, EnglUh valu9, Uetrie valu9, 

(1) The Arabian Dhrad. for Cotton ) .-> ««J^ . ! 

Goods }■■ 10*2240 ■■ '4883 

(2) The Turkish Dhrad, for Lace, ) oK.n77A .aqt 

and Gold and SUver Laoe i •» ao-0776 „ -637 

(3) The Dhrad Endaseh, for Wool- > « A.ifloo . R70fl 

leu Goods ; »♦ 26-4888 „ 0728 

The Measure of Distance is the Mil SaU'eli^ or Mil Sah'ari^ 
equal to 1610-8746 Yards, or *9149 MUe EngUsh, or 1*4725 
Kilometres. 

MEASURES OT CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Tun!$ value, Syttematie name, Snglith value. Metric value, 

Iii»ert«l Pint. Lttrra, 

ISdd - r27426 - 2*583 

Imperial Oalloni. 

12 Sad - 1 Hueba „ 6*8228 „ 80*996 

Imperial Quarters, 

10 Huoba M 1 Kafls ,, 1*7057 ., 496*936 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

Tunii value. Syttematle name. Englith value. Metric value, 

Imperial Pint. LiircH. 

1 Piohoune • *4654 • -2643 

4 Piohounes » 1 Pot „ 1*86163 „ 1-06718 

^ . Imperial Qallone. 

15 Pots n 1 Escandeau „ 8*49057 „ 16359 

4 Esoaadeaux,, 1 Mill6role „ 18*9623 „ 68*487 



Tunii value. 




8tf9temaHe name. 
ISa/i 


8 Bad 


a 


1 EoUeh 


2 Eolleh 


»l 


1 Mettar 


6i Mettar 


It 


1 Mimrole 



»» 



254 M£iLSUB£S. 

The MiU^role and its Babdiviaions, are used in wholesale 
hosmeea, but for domestic purposes the Liquid Measure in 
general nse is the Mettar, witii its divisions as follows : — 

Sngliih value. Metric vaUte, 
Imperial Pints. Litres. 

1*0740 » '60998 

Imperial GaUoaa. 

1-0740 „ 4-8797 
2*1480 ,, 9-75941 
13*9623 ,, ed-437 

For Oil Measnre the Mettar » 4*4372 British Imperial 
GallonB, or 20*16 Litres. The EoUeh » 2*2186 British 
Imperial Gallons, or 10*08 Litres, and the Safi » 2*2186 
British Imperial Pints, or 1*26 Litres. The Mettar of Snsa 
« 6*546 British Imperial Gallons, or 26*2 litres. 

WEIGHTS. 

Tunit vahu, Byitematie name. Englieh value. Metric value. 

Troy Grains. Grammes. 

lEhanib - 30556 « -198 

16Khamb » 1 Derhem „ 48*890625 „ 3-168 

lODerhems;,, 1 Uckiah „ 488*90625 „ 31*68 

lbs. av. 

16Uckieh „ IBottelAttari „ 11175 „ 606*88 

^^^Mtori^ } •♦ 1 ^^^ ^**ari »' 111^ '» ^fo^ 

The Cantar Attari given in the Table is the common Cantar 
Attari, and is used for Iron, Lead, Copper, Tin, Silver, and 
Gold. 

The Cantar Attari for Baw Cotton * 110, and for Cotton 
Tarn 150 BotteU Attari. 

The Battel Saki contains 18 Uckieh, and is used for Oil, 
Soap, Ghee, Olives, Honey, Wood, Coals, and Fmit. It is 
equal to 1*2532 lbs. av. English, or 668*445 French Grammes. 

The Rottel Ghaddari nsed for Herbs and Vegetables, contains 
20 Uckieh, and is eqoal to 1*4098 lbs. av. English, or 639*453 
Grammes. 

The Uckiah, Derhem, and Ehamb, are used for Gold, SUver, 
and Jewels. 



ALGERIA. 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of France, 
the Mdtric System having come into use in 1843. (See France.) 



MOBOCOO. — ABTS8INIA. 255 

MOBOCCO. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Moneeo vdlite» Systematic ftame. EnglUh vaiue. JHetrie value. 

Inches. Metres. 

ITomin « 2*81025 » *07806 

STomin « 1 Dhra'a „ 22*482 „ -6245 

MEASURES OF GAPACITT. 

Moroeeo value. Syatematie nante, BngUth vaiue* Metrie value. 

Imperial Gallons, Litres, 

1 Miihd » 8*08135 » 3 1 

4 Miihds - 1 Saa ,, 12*32541 „ 14 

Oil is sold by the Kola, which weighs 22 Botal, (of Morocco,) 
and is equal to about 8*335565 British Imperial Gallons, or 
15*155 litres.' 

. Other Liquids are sold by Weight. 

WEIGHTS. 

Morocco value. Systematic nawke, English value. Metrie value, 

Troy Grains. Grammes. 

1 Uckiah -^ 892 « 25*40121 

ItKav. 

20Uckieh « 1 Botal or Artal „ 1*12 ,, 508*02416 

Kilogrammes. 

lOOBotales ,, 1 Kintar „ 112 „ 5O-B02416 

The Kintar given in the Table is the common Kintar, 

The Great Kintar (for Meat, Bntter, Oil, and Soap,l con- 
taining 125 Rotales, is eqnal to 140 lbs. av. EngUsn, or 
68*50302 Kilogrammes. 

The Salle Rabat Kintar^ containing 150 Botales, is eqnal to 
168 lbs. ay. English, or 76*203624 Kilogrammes. 

The Zoll Kintar being the weight of 1680 old Spanish Silver 
Dollars, is eqnal to 98'8954bs. av. English, or 45*3116227 
Kilogrammes. 



ABYSSINIA. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The chief Measure of Length is the Turkish Pike « 27 
Inches English, or *686 Mdtre. (See Turkey.) 



256 MXA6USE8. 

MSA8UBES OF CAPACTTT FOB DBT OOODS. 

Ahf$»imi4M valmt. S^tiemaiU mmw. J giiyll»> wyly. Metric valmc. 

121>b]kem8 - 1 Uckuh -^^^^OftS^ - 0366 
12Ucldeh8 „ 1 Madega „ -7747 ,, '440 
lOlfadegM ,, lArdeb „ 7-7473 „ 4*40 

The above is the Ardeb of Gondar. The Ardeb of Maaeowah 
cootaine 24 Madegaa, and ia equal to abont 2*3242 British 
Imperial Oallona, or 10'56 Litres. 

The Eiiba » l'7d68 British Imperial Pints, or 10159 Litre. 

WEIGHTS. 

Ahysritkian talu€, Sytttwtatie mam*. EngUth value. ^ttrie fAlme. 

Oiaias Troj. rtr»ran*«. 

1 Dirhem ^ 40 « 25919 
10 Dirhems • 1 Waldh „ 400 it 26'9191 

12 Waldhs ., 1 Butolo „ 4800 ., 8U'033 

The Mocha h a wei^t containing 12 Dirhems, and equal to 
4i0 Grains, or 1 oz. Ttoj En^ish, or 81*1083 Grammes. 



WEST COAST OF AFBICA. 

In the Britiah settlements of BatlmrtU Fori Jamet^ Sierra 
Lfont , aail Cap€ Coast Cattle, the British Wei^ts and Measures 

are uf ed. 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. 

The Ardeb is the chief Measure of Capacity for Dry Goods. 
The Oondar Jrdeh contains 10 Madegas, or 120 Uckieb, or 144() 
Dirhems, and is equal to about 7'7473 British Imperial Pints, 
or 4'40 French Litres. The*Mauuah Ardeb contains 24 
Madegas, and is equal to about 2*3242 British Imperial 
Gallons. The Kuba is the chief Liquid Measure. It is equal 
to abont 17887 British Imperial Pints. 

WEIGHTS. 

G tinea value. SjtUmatic nawte, Enplith value. Mttrie talut. 

drtUMTmy. Gnmincm. 

lAki » 7*7304 » '5o00 

16A]ds « lUsaao(orPeso) „ 128*6875 „ 8*0143 
fiUsanos „ 1 Benda „ 989*5 „ 84*114 



XABT COAST OF AFEICA. 257 

The Kantar for Qnm, which is di^ded into 5 Gamell, is 
equal to about 19*27109 owt. English, or 979 Kilogrammes. 

Gold is bought and sold by U$anoit each of 16 Akis, A 
Usano of Gold is reckoned equal in value to 16000 *' Cowries." 
It contains 814*76 English Troy Grains, or 20*896 Grammes. 



EAST COAST OF AFBICA. 
(I).~Mozambiqiie and SofUa. 

The Weights and Measures are the old Weights and Measures 
of Portugal. (See the Article, Brazil.) 

There is also the common Bahar, divided into 80 Frehsils, 
and equal to about 240 lbs. av. English, or 108*8622 Kilo- 
Pliammes. The Frehsil » 8 lbs. av. English, or 3*62874 
Kilogrammes. 

(II) .—Madagascar. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Refe - from 1 to 2 Metres - 88*87079 to 78*74158 
Inches English. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Motuicha » 6'613081bs. av., and the Satu » 6401417 
lbs. av. of Husked Rice. 

Gold is sold by the Sompi, with the following subdivisions : — 

Local value, SyttemaUc name* EnglUh value* Metrie value, 

TroyOraina. Ui-anmiiit, 

INanqui - 4-917725 - -3186 

a Nanquis - 1 Sacare „ 9*83545 „ -6873 

a Baoares „ 1 Wari „ 19 0709 ,. 1*2740 

aWari „ 1 Sompi „ 69 0127 „ 8*824 

(III) .—Bourbon. 

The legal Weights and Measures are those of the French 
Metric system, (see France) ; but the Weights and Measures of 
the '' Ancient System " of France are also occasionally used. 
(See •• Ancient System " of France, as given under •• Mauritius." 



258 H£A6UB£S. 



(IV},— Mauritius. 



The prese&t legal Weights and Meaenres are those of Great 
Britain, (see Great Britain) ; bnt in commercial transactions in 
the interior, ihe Weights and Measures of the *' Ancient 
System " of France are used. These are as follows : — 



Ancient System of France. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Old French value. 

12 Pointes « 
12 Lignes ,, 

12 Ponces „ 

Si Pieds or ) 
44 Ponce J " 

6 Pieds 

3 Toises „ 

2000 Toises „ 

The Woollen Drapers' Aune was eqiiBl to 1*182 M^tre, or 
46-58627 English Inches. 

The Mercers' Aune was equal to 1-18845 MStre, or 46'79021 
English Inches. 

The Perche given in the Table was the Paris Field Measure 
Perche. It contained 18 Pieds. 

The Crown Lands' Perche contained 22 Pieds, and equalled 
7-14647 Metre, or 7-8155 English Yards. 

The Provincial Land Measure Perche contained 20 Pieds, 
and equalled 6 49679 Mitre, or 7*105 English Yards. 

The Marine Lieu of 20 to the clegree was equal to 5 "555 
Kilometres, or 8-4522 Miles English. 

The Litu of 25 to the degree was equal to 4 444 Kiloaidtrcs, 
or 2 -7613 English Miles. 



Systematic name. 


English value. 


Metric value. 






Lines. 


Millimetre)*. 


1 Ligne 


ar 


1-06575 


» 2-25583 






Inched. 


Centimetres. 


1 Pouce 


u 


1-06575 


„ 2-70699 

DecimetreK. 


l"PieddeRoi" 


>J 


12-789 


„ 3-248394 

Metre*. 


1 Aune 


»> 


46i 


„ 118845 


1 Toise 


»» 


2-1315 


„ 1-94903 


1 Perche 


11 


6-3945 


„ 5-84711 






Miles. 


Kilometre*. 


1 "LieudePoste" „ 


2-4221 


„ 3-898 



EAST COAST OF AFBICA. 



259 



MEASURES OP SURFACE. 



OIJ French value. 



Pied 



lU Sqr. \ 
Ponces j 

324 Sqr. \ f 1 Sqr. ) 
PiedsJ n I - ' ^ 



f 1 Sqr. 



SffMtematie naaa, English value. 

Square Tards. 

•1262084 < 



I 



100 Sqr. 
Perches 



PercheJ 
lArpent 



40*891541 
4089*154095 

Acres. 

or *84484 



n 



Metric value. 
Square Metres. 

•1055206 

34-188685 
8418*868599 

Ares. 
or 34*188685 



The Sqnare Perche was of 3 kinds, Tiz. :— 

(1) The Paris Field Measure Square Perche (that given in 
the Table) *- 324 (*- 18 x 18) Sqnare Pieds. 

(2) The Crown Lands* Square Perche of 484 (22 x 22) 
Sqnare Pieds, and equal to 61*0848656 English Square Yards, 
or 61*07198 Square Metres. 

(3) The Provincial Land Measure Square Perche of 400 
(20 X 20) Square Pieds, and equal to 50*48336 English 
Square Yards, or 42*20825 Square Metres. 

In like manner, the Arpent, which always consisted of 100 
Sqnare Perches, was of three different kinds, according to the 
value of the Square Perche, viz. : — 

(1) The Arpent de Paris of 100 Square Perches, each of 824 
Sqnare Pieds, which is that given in the Table. 

(2) The Arpent " Des eaux et des Forets," otherwise called 
Arpent •' D'ordonnance," of 100 Sqnare Perches, each of 484 
Sqnare Pieds, and equal to 6108*48656 English Sqnare Yards, 
or 1*262 British Imperial Acres, or 51*07198 Ares. 

(3) The Arpent " Commun " of 100 Square Perches, each of 
400 Square Pieds, and equal to 5048*336 English Square 
Yards, or 1*043 British Imperial Acre, or 42*20825 Ares. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Old French value. 



16 Litrons 
3 Boisseanx 
2 Minots 
2 Mines 

12 Sellers 



>> 
»» 



Syatematie name. 
1 Litron » 

1 Boisseau 
1 Minot 
1 Mine 
1 Setier 
1 Mnid 






English value. 
Imperial Pints. 

1-431526 » 
Imperial Bushels. 

•357881 „ 
1*073644 „ 
2*147289 „ 
4*294578 „ 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

•81301 

18*0083 

89*0249 

78-0498 

156-0996 



»> 



61*534949 „ 1873*1952 



200 



MEA8UBES. 



The Betier was of fonr different Jdnds, yiz. : — 

(1) The Setier was of 12 Boisseanx uw given in the Tahle,) 
for Wheat, Rye, Barley, Flour, Pnlse, Seedis, and Lime. 

(2) The Setier of 24 Boisseanx, for Oats, eqnal to 8*58714 
British Imperial Bnshels, or 812*1992 Litres. 

(3) The Setier of 16 Boisseanx, for Salt, eqnal to 5*72609 
British Imperial Bnshels, or 208*1328 Litres. 

(4) The Setier of 32 Boisseanx, for Wood-eharcoal, eqnal to 
11*45218 British Imperial Bnshels, or 416*2655 Litres. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 



Old French value. 


Systematle name, EnglUh value. 


Metric value. 




Imperial Pints. 


Litros. 


2 Chanpines 


« IKnte - 1-6398395 « 


•9313178 


2Pintes 


„ 1 Quart „ 8-2796791 „ 

Imperial Oalloiu. 


1-862356 


4 Quarts 


„ 1 Setier „ 1-6398395 „ 


7*449424 


36 Setiers 


„ 1 Mnid „ 59*0342255 „ 268*179264 




WEIGHTS. 




Old French value. 


Systematic name. EnglUh value. 


Metric value. 




Ttoj Grains. 


Centigramme:;. 




1 Grain = -8197 = 


5*3114 

Gramuies. 


24 Grains — 


1 Denier „ 19-674 „ 


1-2747 


3 Deniers „ 


1 Gros „ 58*0234 „ 


3-8242 


8 Gros „ 


lOnce „ 472*1875 „ 


30*59411 


18 Onces „ 


1 Marc „ 8777*5 


24A'U2Q2 


2 Marc „ 


il^^e(Paido) 15-; A- 
de Marc J" xv/» »» 


489*50585 

Eilosrammefi. 


100 Livres „ 


1 Quintal „ 107*928 „ 


48*95 



In Gold Assay Weight, the Marc was dirided into 24 Carats, 
and each Carat into 32 Parts. 

In Silver Assay Weights, the Marc was divided into 12 
Deniers, and each Denier into 24 Grains. 

Jewels and Pearls were weighed by Carats, each divided into 
4 Grains. 

The Jewel and Pearl Carat was eqnal to 3*876 old Paris 
Grains, or to 20*6869 Centigrammes, or to 8*1771 English 
Troy Grains. 



CAPS OF GOOD HOPS, 



201 



GAPE OF QOOD HOPE. 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

Tho Measures of Length are partly those of Great Britain , 
(see Great Britain) ; and partly the old Dutch Measures. 

The Amsterdam old Rheinland Fuss » 1*080 English Foot, 
or •818987 M^tre, and the EUe -» 2*2566 English Feet, are 
also in use ; 4 EUes being reckoned equal to 8 Yards Englisli. 
A Huthe is 13, and a Fathom 6 Feet. 

MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The old Amsterdam Morgen and the English Acre, are the 
chief denominations of Surface Measure. 1 Morgen is reckoned 
equal to 2 English Acres, but the exact value of the Morgen is 
2 -0087 Acres English, or *687798 Mdtre. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Imperial Measures of Great Britain are used to some 
extent, but the old Winchester Bushel and Quarter, with their 
subdivisions, and some old Dutch Measures, are those in moBt 
general use. They are as follows : — 



Cape value. 


S\fii€maUe nnmt. 


EnglUh value. 
Pint. 




Metric value. 
Litres. 


4 Gills 


WB 


IPint 


V 


-969447 


v 


•55067 


2 Pints 
4 Quarts 


»» 


1 Quart 
1 Gallon 


If 


1-9888 

OftUOM, 

•969447 


n 


1*10115 
4-40462 


2 Gallons 
4 Pecks 




IPeck 
1 Bushel 


ft 
It 


1-9888 

BwlMli. 

•969447 


ft 
If 


8-80925 
85-287 


4 Bushels 
2 Coombs 


n 


1 Coomb 
1 Quarter 


ti 
II 


8-8777 

Quarten. 

•969447 


If 

It 


140-948 

Hectolitre i». 

2-81896 


5 Quarters 


»» 


1 Wey or Load 


tf 


4-8472 


tf 


14-09480 


2 Weys 


It 


ILast 


t» 


8-6944 


It 


28-18960 



Approximately, 88 Winchester Bushels or Quarters are equal 
to 82 Imperial Bushels or Quarters. 



262 



HEA.SUBE8. 



Cape value. 



Syttematie name, 
1 Amsterdam 



EngUth value, 
IiDMrUl GaUons. 



8 Amsterdam ) <, n 'l. 
Schepel ; -1 Zak 

4 Amsterdam ) , ., , 
Sohepel I ** ^ '^^^ 

10 Madden „ 1 Last 



msterdam i "°i*v!«'2? 
Schepel ;• ^'^21^ 



Imperial BnalMlt. 

„ 2-2956 „ 

„ 8-0608 „ 
„ 80-608 „ 



Metric value. 
Litres. 

27-81341 
38-44023 

111-25364 
1112-5364 



MEASUBES OF CAPACITY FOB LIQUIDS. 

The old British Wine and Ale MeasnreSi and the old Datch 
Liquid Measures, are those in nse. They are as follows : — 



Old British Wine and Spirit Measures. 



Old English value, Syetematie name, 

-> IPint 



4 Gills 

9 Pints 

4Qtiarts 

10 Gallons 
18 Gallons 
42 Gallons 

1\ Tierce or 
63 Gallons 

li Hogsheads or 
84 Gallons 

2 Hogsheads 

2 Pipes 



} 



t> 



»i 



n 



n 



»» 



»» 



1. 



„ 1-66622 „ 

laaperlal GalloM. 
•83111 



«) 



»» 



1 Quart 

1 Gallon 
1 Anker 
1 Bundlet 
1 Tierce 

1 Hogshead 

1 Puncheon 

|lKpe,Butt,) 
»' I or Puncheon/ '♦**^* ^^ 

„ 1 Tun ,,208*948 



Englith value. Metric value. 
Imperial Pint*. LitiM. 

833111- -47312 
'94625 



8-33111 
„ 14-9959 
„ 84-9906 

„ 62*485 

„ 69-981 



„ 3',785 
„ 87-85 
„ 6813 
„ 168-97 

Hectelitrai. 

2-38455 



»» 



»» 



M 



ft 



3-1704 

4-76910 
8-5382 



The old British Wine Gallon is ahout ^th less than an 
Imperial Gallon: so that 5 Imperial Gallons are equal to 6 
Wine Gallons. To convert Wine Gallons into Imperial Gallons, 
subtract ^th from the Wine Gallon ; and to conrert Imperial 
Gallons into Wine Gallons, add ^th to the Imperial Gallon. 
To convert prices per Wine Gallon into prices per Imperial 
Gallon, add ^th or 20 per Cent, to the price per Wine Gallon, 
and to convert prices per Imperial Gallon into prices per Wine 
Gallon, subtract ^th from the price per Imperial Gallon. 



OAPE OF GOOD HOPS. 



263 



Old British Ale, Beer, and Porter Measures. 



Old Englith «alM«. 


SiftUmatic NaiM 


r. 


Snglhh value. 


Metric value. 


4 Gills 
2 Pints 
4 Qaarts 


»» 


IPint 
1 Quart 
IGaUon 


1) 


Imperial Piuta. 

1-017045 » 
Imperial Quart 

1-017045 „ 
ImMrial Oallons. 
F017045 „ 


Litr«e, 

*5771 
1-1542 
4-6209 


9 Gallons 


») 


1 Firkin 


19 


8*158405 „ 


41*5881 


2 Firkins 


tf 


1 Kilderkin 


»* 


18*80681 „ 


83*1762 


2 EUderkins 
8 Kilderkins 


»» 


1 Barrel 
1 Hogshead 


1* 
1* 


86*61862 „ 
54*92043 „ 


166*8524 

Hectolitr«ii. 
2*495286 


2 Hogsheads 


1) 


IButt 


»» 


109*84086 „ 


4*990572 


2 Butts 


»» 


ITun 


1) 


218*68172 „ 


8*981144 



Old Dutch Liquid Measures. 



Old Dutch value. 

4 Maatjes 

2 Pintjes 
2 Mengeln 
8 Stoopen 
2 Steekanen 
4 Anker 



It 



»f 



j» 



n 



n 



Syttewitie na/mt, Englith value. 

Imperial Pint. 

- 1-067625 

Imperial Qalloni. 

„ -266906 
•588812 
4*2705 
8*541 



1 Pin^'e 

1 Mengel 
1 Stoop 
1 Steekan 
1 Anker 



»» 



II 
II 
II 

i> 



Metric value. 
LiUreR. 
•606342 

1-212685 

2-425370 

18*402961 

38-805922 



1 Aam 



i» 



84-164 



„ 155-223689 



WEIGHTS. 



The Weights in use are the Avoirdupois and Troy Weights of 
Great Britain, (see Great Britain) ; the old Amsterdam Ffund, 
of 82 Loth or 128 Drachmen, » 1*0803 lb. av. English, or 
484*09881 Grammes. 

92 old Amsterdam lbs. are reckoned equal to 100 l!bs. av. 
English. There is also the old Dutoh Troy Pf und of 2 Marken, 
8 Unzen, or 820 Engelsen » 1*08506 lb. av. English, or 
492*175078 Grammes. 



264 MEASUBES. 



ST. HEIiSNA. 

The Weights and MeasareB are the game as those of Great 
Britain. (See Great Britain.) 



BBITISH NOBTH AMEBICA. 

VIZ. : — 

CANADA, NOVA SOOTU, NEW BRUNSWICK, PBINCB 
EDWABD'S ISLAND, LABBADOB, THE BEBMUDAS, 
PBINCE BUPEBT'S LAND, NEWFOUNDLAND, and 

BBITISH COLUMBU. 

The Measures of Length and Surface and the Weights are 
the same as those of Great Britain. (See Great Britain.) 

The Measures of Capacity are the old British Measures for 
Dry Goods, for Wine aiid Spirits, and for Ale, given under the 
Article *' Cape of Good Hope." 

The old Paris Minot (of 3 Boisseaux) « to 1*07368 British 
Imperial Bushel, or 39*0260089 Litres, is sometimes used as a 
Measure of Capacity for Grain. 



UNITED STATES OF NOBTH AMEBICA. 

MEASUBES OF LENGTH AND DISTANCE. 

The Measures of Length and Distance are the same as those 
of Great Britain. (Seep. 106.) 

MEASUBES OF SUBFACE. 

The Measures of Surface are the same as those of Great 
Britain. (See p. 106.) 

MEASUBES OF CAPACITY. 

The Measures of Capacity for Dry Goods and Liquids are 
the same as those used in England, before the introduction of 
the Imperial System, and are as follows : — 






AMERICA. 



265 



oity for Dry 









' valuf, Metrle vuluf. 








Ill Pint. Litres 








)t47 - -65057 








"$8 „ 1-10116 

til Qallon, 

U47 „ 4-40462 


2 UU.UUU.. 

4 Pocks 
4 Bushels 
2 Coombs 


tt 
>> 


1 BuBliel 
1 Coomb 
1 Quarter 


\H „ 8-80925 

il RuHhol. 

U47 „ 85-237 

lleotutltrea 

„ 8-8777 „ 1-40948 

liiiperlttl Uuartcm. 

„ -969447 „ 2-81896 


5 Quarters 


•1 


1 Wey or Load 


„ 4-8472 „ 14-09480 


2 Wevs 


j^ 




„ 8-6944 „ 28-18960 



UNITED STATES OP NORTH AMBRICA~p. 264. 

In 1866 the Metric System of Weights aud Measures (see 
France, pp. 119-122) was legalised concurrently with the 
whole system. 



2HogBheaa8 ..(wXioh^}.. 104-971 .- 4.im 



2 Pipes 



M 



1 Tun 



,. 209-948 



M 



9*6882 



266 




MEASTJEES. 


Old Britdfih Ale, Beer, 


and Porter Measures. 


United States value. 
4 Oillfl 
2 Pints 

4 QllATtB „ 


SyMtenatic nams. Engliih value. Metric value. 

Imperiftl Pints. Litres. 

IPint - 1-017046 « -6776 

Imperial Quart. 

1 Qnart „ 1017046 „ 1-1662 

Imperial GalloDs. 

1 Gallon „ 1-017046 „ 4*6209 


9 Gallons 


»» 


1 Firkin 


„ 9-153406 „ 41-6881 


2 Firkins 
2 Kilderkins 


11 

i» 


1 Kilderkin 
1 Barrel 


„ 18-30681 ,,83-1762 

Hectolitres. 

„ 36*61362 „ 1-663524 


3 Kilderkins 


*f 


1 Hogshead 


„ 64*92043 „ 2*496286 


2 Hogsheads 


If 


IBntt 


,,109-84086 „ 4*990672 


2 Butts 


»» 


ITnn 


,,219*68172 „ 9*981144 



WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are the same as those of Great Britain, (see 
p. 106) ; but articles formerly sold by the hundredweight (cwt.) 
are now almost always sold by the Quintal or Centner of 
100 lbs. av. English. The Barrel of Flour contains 196 lbs. 
ay. ; the Barrel of Indian Com, 178| lbs. av. ; the Barrel of 
Pickled Beef or Pork, 200 lbs. ay. ; and the Hogshead of 
Indian Meal, 800 lbs. ay. 



MEXICO. 

The Weights and Measures are the old Weights, and 
Measures in use in Spain preyious to the adoption of the Metric 
System in that country in 1869. (See Spain, p. 167.) 



CENTBAIi AMEBICA. 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Mexico. 
In British Honduras the British Weights and Measures are 
in use. 



WEST INDIES-CBBITISH). 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Great 
Britain. (See p. 106.) In spite of Legislatiye enactments and 
prescribed penalties, great irregularities as to weights and 
measures exist (1867). A source of great complaint on the 
part of the lower orders in Jamaica. 



WEST INDIES. — HAYTI. 267 



WEST* INDIES~(9AKISH). 

The Weights and MeaBores are those of Dexiznark. (See 
p. 173). 



WEST INDIES-(SPANISH). 

The Weights and Measures of Spain are also the legal ones 
for the Spanish West Indies, hut the old Spanish Weights and 
Measures are still used. (See p. 167). 



WEST INDIES-(DUTCH). 

The present Weights and Measures of Holland, (see p. 171), 
are being introduced, but the old Amsterdam Weights and 
Measures referred to in the article ** Gape of Good Hope/* 
(see p. 261), are still in use. 



WEST INDIES~(SWEDISH.) 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Sweden. 
(Seep. 177.) 



WEST INDIES-CFRENCH). 

The Weights and Measures are those of France. (See p. 119). 

HAYTI, OP ST. DOMINGO. 

The Weights and Measures are those at present in use in 
France, (see p. 119), but the old French Weights and Mea- 
sures, although prohibited, are still to some extent in use. 
(See Bourbon, p. 257) » 



268 MEASTTBEB. 

UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA. 

■ 

VIZ. : 

NEW GRENADA, VENEZUELA, and ECUADOR, or 

QUITO. 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of France, 
(see p. 119), the Metric system having been introduced in 1857. 
Previous to that date the old Spanish (Castilian) Weights and 
Measures were these in use; (see Spain, p. 1C7) and these 
are still used to some extent. 



BBITISH GUIAKA. 

The Measures of Length and Surface, and the Weights are 
the same as those of Great Britain (see pp. 106—114). The 
Measures of Capacity are the old British Measures (superseded 
by the Imperial system) quoted in the articles " Cape of Gaod 
Hope," and ** United States of North America " (see p. 261 — 
264). 

FBENCH GUIANA, or, CAYENNE. 

The Weights and Measures are those of the " Ancient 
System " of France, quoted in the article " Bourbon " (see p. 
267). 



DUTCH GUIANA, or SUBINAM. 

The present Weights and Measures of Holland are being 
introduced (see p. 171) ; but the old Amsterdam Weights 
and Measures, as given in the article *' Cape of Good Hope,^' 
are still in use (see p. 261). 



BBAZIL. 

The Weights and Measures are, with some variations in 
value and name, those of the old System of Portugal, as 
follows : — 



BRAZIL. 



269 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 



Old Portuguete value* SffstemaHc name, EnglUh valu$, 

InohM. 



10 Pontos 

8 Linhas 
12 Linhas 

8 Pollegadas 
12 PoUegadas 

8 PalmoB 

5 P^linoB 

1| Varas 

2yaras 

ma Bra^as 

8 EstadioB or ) 
98891 PalmoB i •* 

8 Milhas, or 
2816f Braoas, 

or 

28168 PalmoB ) 



1 1 Linha \ 
"* t or Line t 



u 
»» 
ft 
tf 
ft 

ft 

If 

tl 
»t 



1 Dedo „ 
1 Pollegada,, 
1 Palmo 
1P6 
1 Coyado 

IVara 

1 PaBBO 

Geome- 
trico 

1 Brapa 



It 
tl 

tt 
II 



•091186 c- 

•729088 „ 

1098683 „ 

8-749064 „ 

18-1285966 „ 

26-2471988 „ 

Yards. 

1-216147 „ 



Metrie value. 
X«irM. 

•0028148 

•0185185 

•02777 

•22222 

•83888 

-66666 

nun 



tl 



1-8227217 „ 1-66666 



2-22222 



2-480296 „ 
1 Estadio „ 286'2357t)27 „ 260*6148 

IMilha ,. 1-29652 ,, 2-0865l8o 



II 



1 Legoa* 



It 



II 



8*88966 



II 



6*2595 



6 English Tarda are reckoned eqnal to 6 Varas, and 8 Yards 
to 4 Covados. The P6 is | of a Mdtre, and 100 Mdtres » 148 
GovadoB. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

Old Portuguese value, Syetematie name, SnglUh value, Metrie value, 

Bqaan Yardii. Square M etrec. 

64 Sq. PoUogadas - 1 Sq. Palmo- •05906887 « -04988271 

25 Sq. Palmos „ 1 Sq. Vara „ 1-476684271 » 1-28456791 

4 Sq. Varas „ 1 Sq. Bra^ „ 5-90688708 „ 4-98827161 

Aorea. HeoUres. 

4840 Sq. Varas „ 1 Geira ,» 1-476584271 „ 2*89012846 



* The Legoa is sometimeB eBtimated at 8,000 braoaa > thin would give 
its value as 7'i90'887u84 yards, or 4-1436 miles Bualisb, or 0666| Mitres, 
or 6$ Kilometres, but tbat is more than its real valae. 



270 MEASUBES. 



MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

Old Portuffuete value. 8y$Umatie name, EnglUh value. Aetrie value, 

Iiti)K>rial Oallon*. Litre*. 

2Salammeg - 1 Oitavo - -380794 - 1-7301 
2 0itavo „ 1 Quarto „ -761589 „ 8-4602 

Imperial Btubel. 

4Quarta8 „ 1 Alqueira* „ -380794 „ 18'841 

4 Alqneirag „ 1 Fangas ,, 1-528179 ,, 66-364 

Imperial Qoarten. Hetlfilltrei. 

15 Fangas ,, 1 Moio „ 2855961 ,, 8*3046 

The Measnrefl of Capacitj were not the same for the whole 
of Portugal. The values given in the tahle are those of the 
Lisbon Measures. At Oporto the Moio i« 28*173, the Fanga 
1-8782, and the Alqueira -4696 British Imperial Bushels. 

100 Moios, Fangas, Alqueiras, &c., of Lisbon, were reckoned 
eqnal to 79^ Moios, Fangas, Alqueiras, &c., of Oporto. The 
Fanga of Oporto was equal to 1-922 British Imperial Bushel, 
or 69*86 Litres, and its subdivisions and multiples in like pro- 
portions. Also 5i Alqueiras of Oporto were commonlj reckoned 
in practice, equal to 1 Hectolitre, and 16 Alqueiras to 1 British 
Imperial Quarter. 

In Rio Janeiro the Alqueira >» 40 French LitreSf or 1*10048 
British Imperial Bushel; and 1 Alqueira of Rio Janeiro is 
reckoned equal to 3 Alqueiras of Lisbon, 

In Bahai the Alqueira is equal to 2^ Alqueira of Lisbon, or 
-82536 British Imperial Bushel, or 81*142 Litrefs. The Moio 
of Bait is only from 18 to 20 Alqueiras. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

OUl Portugueie value, Syetematie name. EnglUh value. Me trie value. 

Imperial IMnt. LltrrM. 

IQuartUho - -61408 - -31875 

A ^ _..ii. i 1 Canada (or i *'"p«»''*V!S'a^** i ooc 

4 QuartilboH » { Medida) I " '^^^^^ " ^'^^^ 



6 Canadas 



Medida) 

' 1 Pota, or Can- ) 

taro, or Alqui- [ „ 1-84228 „ 8-37 
(era of Lisbon) J 

2Pota;^'tt- ) lAlmuda* „ 8-68450 „ 16*74 

AJijheirasi 



• In Madeira 1 Alqueira i« equal to '88777^4 British Imperial Bnnhel. 
or 14'091 Litreii, or 1-018 Alqueira of LiHbon, or two-flfthH of an old 
WincheHter Bushel. In the Azores 1 Alqueira is equal to -8:295947 British 
Imperial Bushel, or 11*98 Litres. 

f In Madeira the Madeira Wine-pipa is eqnal to 23i Madeira Almudas, 
'or about n'i British Imperial Gallons. 



BRAZIL* 271 

The MeasnreB above given were the Lisbon Standards. 

The Lisbon Pipa for Oil contained 80 Almudes of Lisbon, and 
^^as equal to 110*5368 British Imperial Gallons, or 6*022 
Hectolitres. 

In Oporto the Almnda i« 6*58266 British Imperial Gallons, 
or 26*366 Litres ; and 66 Almudas of Oporto « 100 Almudas 
of Lisbon. 

WINE MEASURE. 

Old Portugu^te value, Sy$tematto name, SnglUh value. Metrie value, 

Imp«rliil tialloni. HeotolUnw. 

18 Almudas • 1 Barril (of Wine) - 66*32208 • 8*0132 
26 Almudas „ 1 Pipa „ •• 96*798 „ 4*858 

2Pipa8 „ 1 Tonelada „ ,,191*596 „ 9*706 

The above were the Lisbon Standards. 

In Oporto the Wine Pipa contained 21 Almudas of Oporto, 
and was equal to 117*236 British Imperial Gallons, or 6*32665 
Heotolitres ; and the Oil Pipa likewise contained 21 Almudas 
of Oporto. In practice 11 Wine Pipas of Lisbon were usually 
reckoned equal to 9 Wine Pipas of Oporto. 

In Rio Janeiro the Medida or Canada ■■ 2*4^26 British Im- 
perial Quarts, or 2*66204 Litres. It is equal to about 2 
Modidas of Lisbon. The Pipa of Rio Janeiro is 180 Medidas, 
and - 109-917 British Imperial Gallons, or 479*167 Litres. 
The Tonelada » 2 Pipas. 

In Bahia the Medida "5^ Medidas of Lisbon *■ 1*584 
British Imperial Gallon » 7*2 Litres. 

The Pipa of Rum •■ 72 Canadas ; the Pipa of Molasses and 
Syrup B 100 Canadas. 

In Pernambuco the Canada - 6 066 Litres, or 1-3579 
British Imperial Gallon. 

WEIGHTS— (Commeboial). 

Old Portfugueee value, Syatematie name, Ennliah value* Metrie value, 

Troy (iraluM. OrnmmeH. 

1 Oitavo - 65-336 =■ 8*6869 
8 Oitavos - 1 Onva „ 442*687 „ 28*6875 

Ibit. av. 

leOnpas „ lArratel „ 1*01186 „ 469 

KlloKrammer. 

82Arratels „ 1 Arroba „ 32*87962 „ 14688 

4 An*oba „ 1 Quintal ,; 129*51808 „ 68*752 

Moblf*""}.. ITouolada „ 16-01156 ,. 798-152 



272 MEA8UBES, 

There is aljio the Qnintal of 100 Amtels - 101-186 lbs. 
ftv., or 46*900 KilogrammeB. Ships* freight is reckoned by the 
English ton, equal to 70 Arrobas. 

GOLD, SILVER, AND MONEY WEIGHTS. 

The unit is the Marco of 8 Oncas, with the following divi- 
sions : — 

Old Portuguese value. Byetematie name. Englith vaVue. Metric value, 

Truy OrainK. Oramroe*. 

24 Grilos • 1 Escmpnlo - 18*480 -> 11958 

8 EscrapuloB „ 1 Oitavo „ 66*341 „ 8'5859 

8 Oitavas „ 1 On^a „ 442*7208 „ 28*6875 

8 On^as „ 1 Marco „ 3641*7664 „ 229*5 

Assayers divided the Marco for fine Gold into 24 Quilates, 
each of 4 Grdos, or into 96 GrdoH, each of 8 Oitavos ; and for 
Silver into 12 Dinheros, each of 24 Grdos, that is 288 Gr&os. 

Wronght Gold was of the fineness of 20| Qnilates ; Gold 
Dust was reckoned to be of the fineness of from 21f to 22 
Quilates. Wrought Silver was of the fineness of 10^ Dinheros. 

JEWEL WEIGHT. 

Old Portuguese value. Systematic name. English value. Metric value, 

Troy OraliiN. Oraromet. 

4Grdo8 « IQuUate - 3*17645 - -205782 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS. 

Old Portug\use value. Bystematie name, English value. Metric value. 

TroT Gralu*. Onunoie*. 

24GriloB - lEscrupelo » 18*445 - 1*1953 

8 EscrupeloB „ 1 Oitavo „ 66*335 „ 3*5859 

8 Oitavus „ 1 On^a „ 442*687 „ 28*6875 

12 0nvas „ 1 Arratel „ 6312i „ 844*25 

The Apothecaries* Arratel ■> jths of the Oommercial Airatel, 
so that 4 Apothecaries' ■■ 8 Commercial Arratels. 



PERU. 

The Metric system of Weights and Measures (see France) is 
being introduced, but the Wt<ightH and Measures of the old 
Spanish system (Oantilian Standards) are still in common use 
with the following variations (sec Spain). 



PERU. — CHILI. 273 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Vara of 8 Pios - 'Siin M^tro - 1-0138 CaHtilkn Varas 
- 2-780fil Feot EiiKlisb. The Jhaza of 2 Varas or PioB - 
1*605 M(Ntr6 - 1*85874 EnglUh Yard. The Mffluh Yard is 
also frequently used, 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY. 

The Fane((a of Wheat weiRhd from 185 to 140 Castiliau 
Librafl, wliilo the Castilian Fanepfa weighed only 100 Libras. 
Rico iH Hold at ho much for the weight of an Arroha. 

In the MoaHnromcnt of Liquids the old British Wine Gallon 
iB frequently urtod (hoo the article '* United States of North 
America,*' p. 204). 

WEIGHTS. 

The Carga (Quintal Maoo) m Arrobas ■ 150 Castilian 
Libras ; the Bulto Corrienta •■ i Carga ; the Tonnelada * 
200 Libras. 



OHILI. 

The Legal Weights and Measures of Chili are now those of 
the Metric syHtem (see France), that Hyntem having been iujtro- 
duoed in lieu of the old Spanish (Castilian) Weights and 
Measures (see Spain, p. 107), but thoHo latter are still occa- 
sionally used. 

OLD MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Chilian Vara of 8 Pics • 83*867 English Inches • 
1*1014 Castilian Varas, or -8475 Mdtre. 

108 Old Varas of Chili - about 100 EngUsh Yards. 

100 Varas • about 98 EngUsh Yards. 

119 Varas - 100 Mdtres. 

OLD MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Quadra was the Square of 150 Varas, and was nearly 
equal to 4 English Acres, 



274 MEASITSES. 

OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Chilian Fanega of White Wheat and Barley ■» 155 
Libras « 1*656 Castillan Fanegas, 90*75 Litres. 

The Chilian Fanega of Indian Com i« 160 Libras. 

The Chilian Fanega of Potatoes « 200 Libras. 

At San Antonio the Fanega of Wheat « 150 Libras. 

At Concepclon the Fanega of Wheat — 175 Libras. 

OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Chilian Wine Arroba of 4 Cuartos - 2 Castilian Wine 
Arrobas - 9 old British Wine Gallons, or 7*7496 British Im- 
perial Gallons, or 86*21 Litres. 

OLD WEIGHTS. 

The Tonelada of 20 Quintals ; the Quintal of 100 Libras ; 
the Arroba of 25 Libras ; the Libra of 4 Cuaterones, each of 4 
Onzas, each of 8 Ocharas ■■ 1*00992 lbs. ay. English, or 
460*098 Grammes. 



BOLIVIA. 

The Weights and Measures are those of the old Spanish 
(CastHian) system (see Spain, p. 167). 



ABGENTINE BEFUBLIC. 

The Standard Weights and Measures are those of the Metric 
system (see France, p. 119), recently introduced, but not yet 
oome into general use. 

The Weights and Measures previously used were, the Cas- 
tilian of the old Spanish system (see Spain, p. 167), with 
some slight variations in name and value, as foUows : — 

OLD MEASURES OP LENGTH. 

The Pie of 12 Pnlgadas, each of 12 Lineas - 11'3652 
English Inches « 1'08718 old Castilian Foot « -28866 Mdtre. 

The Vara of 3 Pies - -86598 Metre » 2'841S English Feet 
» 1-03718 CastiHan Yaras. 



ABGENTIKE BEPUBLIC. 



275 



The Braza of 6 Pies « 6*6826 English Feet. 

I The English Yard was also freqnentlj ased in the sale of 
goods. 

The Cuadra of 160 Varas - 142*065 English Yards, or 
128*897 Metres. 

The Legua of 40 Cnadraa -* 3*2287 English Miles « 6'196 
Kilometres. 

OLD MEASURES OF SURFACE. 

The Cuadra Cuadrada of 22,500 Square Varas « about 4*17 
English Acres, or 168*7478 Ares. 

The S-aerta de estancia of 27,000 Square Varas » 6*004 
English Acres, or 202*49687 Ares. 

The Suerta de Chacra* of 10,000 Square Varas ■» 1-8633 
English Acre, or 74*9988 Ares. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Fanega at 4 Cuartillas, or 9856 Cubic Pulgadas - 2*50365 
old Oastilian Fanegas - 137*2 Litres ^ 3*77464 British Im- 
perial Bushels. The Last of 2 Toueladas, or 4 Cahices, or 16 
Fanegas -^ 7*07745 British Imperial Quarters, or 20*58 Hecto- 
litres. The Cuartelle « -94366 British Imperial Bushel, or 
34*3 Litres. 



OLD MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The unit of Liquid Measures was the Frasco^ of the ca- 
pacity of 170| Cubic Pulgadas, and equal to 2f Litres, or 
4*18182 British Imperial Pints. Its divisions and multiples 
were as follows : — 



Old Argentine value 
2 Ochavos 


. ' 


Syeteniaiic name, 
1 Cuarto 


English value. 
Impftrial Pints. 

- -13068 = 


Metric value. 
Litres. 

•074218 


2 Cnartos 


»» 


1 Medio 


•26136 „ 


•148487 


2 Medios 


»> 


1 Frasco 


•62273 „ 


•296876 


8 Frascos 
4 Caneoas 


It 


1 Caneca 
1 Barrile 


„ 4*18182 „ 

Imperial Gallon^, 

„ 2*09091 „ 


2-375 
8*6 


6Barriles 


1* 


IPipa 


„ 12*54649 „ 


67 



* There were three varieties of the Snerta de Ghaora, viz. :— (1) That 
oontainihg 10,000 Sgnare Varas used for measuring cultivated land in the 
oountary. (S) That containing 19,600 Square Varas, used for measuring 
cultivated land near towna. (8) That containing 26,000 Square Varas, 
used for measuring waste land in the Prairies. 



276 



HSABUBEB. 



The Old British Wine GaUon equal to -838111 British Im- 
perial Gallon, or 3*785 Litres, was also used, and 2 such 
Gallons were reckoned equal to 8 Frascos. 

The Pipa is also dirided into 4 Oargas, each of 4 Cortans, 
each of 12 Frascos. 



OLD WEIGHTS — (Oommebcial). 
Old Argentine value. Byttematie name, 

1 Grano ■ 

1 Adarme 
1 Onza 

1 Libra 

1 Arroba 
1 Quintal 

1 Tonelada 



86 Granos 
16 Adarmes 

16 Onzas 

25 Libras 
4 Arrobas 

20 Quintals 



f* 



»t 



»» 



»f 



»» 



tf 



ti 



»f 



»♦ 



EnglUh value, 
Trojr Orainii. 
•76922 . 

27-69211 

443-07375 

Ibn. av. 

1-01274 



»♦ 



ft 



Metric value, 
Qrainin«s. 

•0498 

1-7944 

28*7105 



»» 



»t 



26*3185 
101-274 

Cwt. 

19*691 



„ 469-3673 

Kilogrtuame*. 

11-48418 



»» 



»♦ 



»f 



46-93673 
918-7346 



GOLD, SILVER, AND ASSAYERS' WEIGHTS. 

For Gold and Silver the Marco of 8 Onzas • 8644*59 Troy 
Grains, or 229*684 Grammes. 

Assajers divided the Marco for Gold into 24 Quilates, each 
of 4 Granos, and each Grano of 8 Partes ; and for Silver, into 
12 Dineros, each of 24 Granos. 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHTS. 

The Apothecaries' Libra was fths of the ordinary Libra, and 
was subdivided as follows : — 



Argentine value. 


Syetemaiic name. 
1 Grano 


Sngliih value. 
I'rojr Grain 1. 

- -76922 




Metric value. 
Orammes. 

•04965 


12 Granos » 


lOvalo 


„ 9-23070 




•59469 


2 Ovalos „ 


1 Escrupelo 


„ 18-46140 




1-18982 


3 Escrupelos „ 


1 Drachma 


„ 6638422 




3-56797 


8 Drachmas „ 


1 Onza 


M 44807376 




28'64d78 


12 Onzas „ 


1 Libra 


M 6816-885 




844-5254 




UBUGUAY. 


\ 





The Metric system of Weights and Measures (see France) 
was introduced in 1864. Previously the Weights and Measures 
were the Oastilian Standards of the old Spanish system, (see 



TJEuauAT. 277 

Snain, also Argentine Republic) with Bome slight variations in 
name and valne, as follows :— 

MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

The Vara of 8 Pies « 2*9049 English Feet, or 'SCO Mdtre 
'« 10288 old OastiUan Vara - '90807 of the Vara of Baenos 

Ayres. 

The Pies - 11*6196 English Inches, or -286 Mdtre. 
100 Varas of Uruguay - 96*38 English Yards. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR DRY GOODS. 

The Fanega of 4 Cuartillos » 132*4026 Litres « 8*64264 
B itish Imperial Bushels. 

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS. 

The Pipa of 6 Barriles, each of 4 Canoeas, each of 8 Frascos, 
each of 2 Medios, or 4 Cuartos, or 8 Oohavos, is equal to 
106*638208 British Imperial Gallons, or 484*48 Litres. 

15 Pipas of Montevideo ■■ 16 Pipas of Buenos Ayres. 

100 Frasoos of Montevideo » 118*3 Frascos of Buenos 
Ayres. 

WEIGHTS. 

The Weights are the same as the Old Weights of the Argen- 
tine Repuhlic (see p. 274). 



PARAGUAY. 

The Weights and Measures are the frame as those used in 
the Argentine Repuhlic previous to the introduction of the 
Metric system (see p. 274), 



THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

The Weights and Measures are the same as those of Great 
B.itain (see p. 106). 

A A 



278 M2ABT7BES. 

HEW SOUTH WALES, VICTOBIA, SOUTH 
AUSTRALIA. WEST AUSTRALIA, TA8MA- 
KIA, or VAK DIEMEN'S LAND, AND NEW 

ZEALAND. 

The Legal Weights and Measures are the same as those of 
Great Britain (see p. lOQ; hat the old British Measares of 
Capadfy are also nuich used (see the article '* United States 
of North America," (see p. 264). 

In Land Measurement the term " Section" is used to denote 
80 British Acres. ' 

NEW CALEDONIA, THE BOTUMAH IS- 
LANDS, WALLIS ISLANDS, GAMBIEB'S 
ISLANDS, MARQUESAS, or MENDANA 

ISLANDS. 

The Weights and Measares are the same as those of France 
(see p. 119). 

THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 

The Weights and Measares are the same as those of the 
'* United States of North America" (see p. 264); hut the 
Hundredweight oontams 100 Ihs. ay., and the Ton 2000 lbs. av. 



SPANISH AUSTRALIAN POSSESSIONS, 

Yiz. : 
THE MABUH ISLANDS AND TINIAK. 

The Weights and Measares are the same as those of Spain 
(seep. 167). 

OTAHSITE, or TOHITI. 

The Weights and Measores are chiefly those of Great Britain 

isee p. 106) ; hot the Metrio f^stem is ahoat heing introdaoed 
see France, p. 119). 



APPENDIX I. 



INDIAN COINAGE AND ACCOUNTS. 

By W. H. Batley, Esq.. oj the Madmu Civil Sirviw, 



ThroughoHt India, ftoootints are kept in R. A. P., the three 
colnmns, denoting Rupees, Annas, Fies. 

12 Pies ■■ 1 Anna 
16 Annas — 1 Bapee 

For all ordinary purposes, the Rupee may be considered equal 
to two shillings (its intrinsic yalne will be given below), so tibat 
100 Rs. - £10 ; 155 Rs. — £15. lOs., &o. A lac of Rnpees 
is 100,000, or £10,000 ; and a crore of Rnpees » 100 lacs, or 
£1 million. 

The Coinage of all the Presidencies was assimilated by Act 
XYII of 1885. Silver is the only legal tender, though lately a 
gold standard on a limited scale has been much pressed. Ru- 
pees, i Rupees, i Rnpees, and i Rupees, or " Double Annas,'* 
are silver. Silver Single Annas were coined for some thne, 
but not of late years. Act XVII of 1835 sanctioned the coin- 
age of " Double Rupees,'' but they have never been struck. 
The Copper coins are \ Anna (known in Bengal as " Pysa") — 
3 Pies ; and the Single Pie or ^ ol an Aima. In Bombay 
accounts are sometimes kept in Rnpees, Quarters, and Raes ; 
25 Raes » 1 Anna. 

In Madras, accounts were formerly kept (and are now in some 
places) in P. F. C, or Pagodas, Fanams, Cash. 

80 Cash ^ 1 Fanam 

45 Fanams «■ 1 Star Pagoda 

But in the old Government accounts the Pagoda was divided 
into 32 Fanams. The Star Pagoda was always considered as 
8i Rs. ; or ^ Pagoda (for in some aoconnts it is divided into 
16 lbs.) *■ 8i Annas. There were all kinds of Pagodas, but 
the British or Star Pagoda was a gold ooin of 52*56 grains 
weight, and 19 ( carats fine ; oontaimng 42*7 grains of pure 
gol^ which at the English standard (of £8. 17s. lOfd. per Troy 
ounce standard) » 7*49 Shillings. 



11 JLPPEKDIX I. 

The " Sicca Bnpee *' of Bengal, which was abolished in 1835, 
weighed 192 grains, whereof \i or 176 grains were pnre silver ; 
and in all acconnts 15 Sicca ftupees are considered 16 of the 
Indian Hnpees* of the present day, or 100 Sicca Bnpees « 
106i2. 10a. 8p. ; or 100 Siccas - 106| Indian Bs. 

The Indian Bnpee weighs 180 grains, whereof 165 parts or 
W (a touch of *9167) are pure silver; so that of silver is 
valued at 61d. per Troy ounce of English standard (which con- 
tains 444 grains of pure silver) the Bupee, as buUion « 22f d. ; 
though, as before said, it is generally spoken of as » 2s. ; the 
'' Anna*' as lid, and the '' Pie" at id. 

Though Gold is not as yet a legal tender ^ the Act XVII of 1835 
authorized the coinage of the " Gold Mohur," or 15 Bupee 
piece ; as also gold pieces of 10 and 5 Bupees. The Gold 
Mohur was exactly the same weight and fineness as the Bupee, 
but the ratio of 15 to 1 between gold and silver was found to 
be too low a valuation of gold (it is not so now, and the Govern- 
ment soon left off coining gold at all. In Bengal the term 
** Gold Mohur" is often used as meaning 16 Bupees ; this is 
because previous to 1835 that coin weighed 204*710 grains, of 
which \i or 187*651 grains were pure gold, and it was a legal 
tender for 16 Sicca Rupees. 

The Indian Silver coinage having a fineness of •^^, or |}^, 
would by English assay be called 2 W., i.e. 2 dwts. worse, or 
below the English standard of f|^ ; the one having a '* touch" 
of -9167, the other -9250. The Indian Gold coinage is of the 
same fineness exactly as the English Gold coin, i.e. 22 carats 
fine « IJ, or ii, or -9167. 

INDIAN MEA8UBES— (Linear and Superficial). 

The Native linear measures are founded on indefinite ideas 
of the breadth of a finger, or length of the fore-arm. What is 
generally translated cubit averages 19| inches ; but in some 
places it is 18, and in others 20 inches. The " Guz" (except 
where it is synonymous with the English yard) is from 39 to 
32 inches. The " Illahi Guz" of the N.W. Provinces is 
88 inches. 

BENGAL. 

14 Tussoos «■ 1 Hfit'h or Cubit of 19§ inches. 
2 Hdt'hs - 1 Guz - 89J inches. 
2 Guz » 1 Danda or Bood » 6*72 feet. 
20,000 Dundas •» 1 Coss - 2 '46 miles. 

* In 1885 it was directed that the Bapee then strack should be called 
the " Company's Rupee," and this was stamped on it. Since 1862, the 
stamp has been Victoria on one side, and " India " on the other. 



• •• 



▲PPIKDIX !• lU 

The HtiVh :b sometimeB subdiyidel into 84 UngvlU or finger 
breadths of ^ inch each. 

The HaVh ip, howeyer, now generally an SaglUh onbit of 16 
inehes, and the Chu an English yard of 86 inshes. The C( 88 
is reckoned 2 miles. 

For Land Measure in the North West Pronnoes, the follow- 
ing is the measure in all Government srrreys :-» 

1 Gnz V 33 inches. 

8 Gnz • 1 Bans cr Rod of 8^ feet 

1 8q. Bod -> 68*0625 Square feet 

400 Sq. Bods « 3025 Sq. yards, or 1 Beegah^ •626 acre. 

Bat in Bengal Proper — 

4 Sq. H&t*hB of IS inches -t 1 Cowrie — 1 Bq. yard. 

4 Cowries » 1 Ganda » 4 8 1. yards. 
20 Gnndas « 1 Cottah - 80 Sq. yards. 
flO Cottahs » 1 Beegah of 1600 Sq. yards — *3026 acres. 

The Cottah is also suhdiylded intd Chitt4ks or IGths, of 5 
Square yards each. 



MADBA8. 

The NatiTe Kole or Artificers* rod, as also the Quz introduced 
by the Mahomedans, is about 33 inches, ^e Moohim (trans- 
lated ** cubit ") averages lOf inches, and is subdivided into 24 
Ungulums or finger-breadths. The Bavm (translated ** fathom") 
is about 6i feet. For long distances the teim ** ntiUi'imUi *' is 
used, from nalli a space of time of 24 minutes, and vuUi a road ; 
i. e. tike distance walked in 24 minutes, or rather under 1 j 
EngHsh miles. 7 nAlU vtilli » 1 E&dam, or about 10 miles. 

The English foot and yard are now used by almost aU native 
workmen. 

For Land Measure, the native method is, to estimate the 
spftoe which a certain quantity of seed will sow; and this makes 
the native terms quite uncertain. Sometimes a term is given 
to BO many "rods," or "ropes" square; but these rods and 
ropes differ In every district. 

In Madras itself, and some other districts, the Cawnie is 
67600 Sqr. feet, or 1'322 acres, subdivided into 24 ** Grounds," 
or else into 100 " CooUes." During the last few years, in con- 
sequence of the Bevenue Field Survey, the English acre has 
oome to be generally known. In this Survey the Gunter's 
ohain is used, and in the accounts, the acre is subdivided into 
lOOOths, as in the English Ordnanoe Svrfey. 



ir A7PZKDIX II. 



BOMBAY. 

2 UsgliB, or finger-breadths e 1 Tusboo « li incli. 
24*Tn8B008 •> 1 Oqz 27 inches. 

The SaVh of 18 inckes, and the k IIat% or VenVh are also 
nsed. 

In Bnperfidal Measure — 

20 KotiicB - 1 Pnnd. 

20 Pnn 1b - 1 Beoga of 3927 Sq. yards • -8114 acre. 

But the Kntty Taries in every district. 
In the Rerenne Field Sorrej, the acre is nsed, suhdiyided 
into 40 Goontas, and each Goonta into Annas, or 16ths. 

INDIAN WEIGHTS. 

By Act Vn of 1888, the Tola or Bnpec weight of 180 graiuH 
was established as the unit of weight in all Government trans- 
actions in Bengal; but the Madras and Bombay Presidencies 
have not adopted the multiples thereof; and as far as the 
native population is conoemed, almost every dihtrict has its 
own weights, founded on no reliable data at all. In Bengal, 
tbe Government and Mercantile Houses have adopted the 
following : — 

1 Tola, or Rupee weight ■■ ISO grains. 
6 Tolas « 1 CUttAlL 

16 ChittAks, or 80 Tolas — 1 Seer » 2'05714 lbs. avoir., or 
d| lbs. Troy. 

5 Seers » 1 Passeeree. 

40 Seers, or 8200 Tolas « 1 Maund - 82f lbs. avoir., or 
100 lb I. Troy. 

H<'nce 850 Tolas ■> lbs. avoir., 85 Seers ^ 72 lbs. avoir., 7 
Mnnnds ^ 576 Ibf. avoir., and 49 Maunds, 86 cwts., or 1*8 
tons. 

Tbe old ** Factory Maunds*' adopted by the Bengal Govern- 
ment in A.D. 1787, was exactly li cwt., or 744 lbs. avoir. The 
old ** Bazaar Maund'* (subdivided into 40 Seers) weighed 
724 lbs. avoir. 

In the Interior, the Seer varies from 60 to 84 Tolas weight. 

The Jewellers subdivide tbe Tola into 12 M/lshas, of 16 
grains each ; and the Masha into 8 Buttees. 

In Madras, the Government in the ** Gazette'* of 20th Oct. 
1646, adopted the following, for all Government transactions. 



APPSVDIX I. T 

1 PoUnm » 3 ToIm, or 540 gnifui. 

8 roUnms - 1 (Catch*) Seer - 84 Tolas. 

5 Seers — 1 ^^ss « IM Tolis -t 8*0857 Hb. av. 
40 Seers » 1 Mannd - 24 Gd57 lbs. av. 
20 Maands - 1 Candy <- 488 714 llw. av. 

Bat by Commerdal usage, the Yiss is always considered 
Z\ lbs. avoir. ; the Maond 25 lbs. ; and the Candy 500 lbs. 

In the Inteiior, the Coteha Seer of 24 Tolas (or Bnpees) 
weight is common, as also the Packa Seer of 80 Bapees weight ; 
thoagh in some places it is 72 and in others 84 Bapees weight. 
On the Western Coast the Maond is 85 lbs. The Bengal 
Maand of 82f lbs. (see ante) is known as the ** Indian Maond/* 
and is in general nse in the Castom Houses and Shipping trade. 
The **Gtfce" is osed in the Orain trade. It is supposed to 
be 92561 lbs. ; but though it may hare been eo 70 years ago, it 
has for many yean been a mere Custom House term applied to 
92 Indian Mannds of Paddy (unhuaked rice), or to 123 Indian 
Maunds of Bice. Oiain, howerer, is sola wholesale at the 
Ports at so much a hag of 2 Indian Maunds. Sugar aud Oil 
Seeds are generally shipped in bagt of 2 Indian Mannds each, 
reckoned 13 bags the ton. Cotton in bale$ of 800 lbs. Salt* 
petre in bagt of 1 cwt. Indigo in cke$t$ of 10 or 11 cable 
feet. 

The Jewellen^ weights are the MonjAdi of about 5 grains ; 
and the Pagoda weight of 54 grains, or ^ Pollam. 

BOMBAY W£IGHT8. 

72 Tanks, or 80 Pice «• 1 Seer of 2:f Tolas, or *7 Us. av. 
40 Seers « 1 Maond of 28 lbs. avoir. 
20 Maunds • 1 Gaadj of 530 lbs. avoir. 

These have been introduoed to make the Maund ■■ \ cwt., 
but in the Interior ther vaij greatly. The Sunt Maind is 
82 lbs. avoir. The Candy for Cotton is 28 Maunds, or 7 ewt 
The Pucka Seer of 72'5 Tolas «- 1*867 lbs. avoir., and is used 
in some places. 

I19DIAH MEA8UBB8 OF CAPACITT. 

There am not in Uie MaUve mtcm aay Measures of 
Capadty^ yrapmif so oaOed^ yet aliu, among the mass of the 
peo|^« the so-eaUed "Measaies'* are of more importance than 
the Weigltts, inamBaeh as the popnlatioa live chiefly on noe 
awl other tfnutt. The UmOd Mmmum for Milk, Oil, and 
«bee, (elarified hrdUfr^) Mkm no Und of standard of mmuurt- 
meni. The Qttih» Mmmmm wf aoyposed to eontain, when 
filightly heaped, (kff §ifwh mmmu§ Is an ahomiaatioB to native 



Tl APPEITOIX I. 

eyes,) a certain weight of gnun ; Imt m the Weights differ in 
ereiy localify, so do the Mettims. Bren Measures bearing 
the same name, by no means indioaie the same qoantitj in 
eveiy district. Goyemment have neTor yet in Bengal deiUned 
any Measures of Capacity. 



BENGAL.— (North- West Provinces.) 



4 ChittAkfl 


■■ 


1 Koonki. 


4 Eoonldfl 


a 


IBaik. 


4 Raikfl 


■> 


IPalli. 


20Pallis 


» 


ISoaH. 


leSoalis 


tm 


1 Khahoon. 



Eight slightly heaped Pallia were supposed to contain a 
qiiantity of Rice, eqnal in weight to 1 old /' Bazaar Mannd " of 
724 lbs. Avoir, or 1 Palli 9*041 lbs. Avoir. It had a capacity of 
about 2800 Cubic Inches, when struck, 

« 

The ** Seer " of Grain is sapposed to be 16 of the above 
Chitt&ks, or a Btruek- capacity of abont 57 Cnbic Inches ; bat 
in practice, the Seer is a vessel contahiing, when slightly 
heaped, 80 Bnpees* weight, (or a Seer weight) of Rice. Ite 
struck capacity is abont 68 Cnbio laches. For Liqnid Measure, 
the smallest vessel is a Chittilk, supposed to hold 5 Rupees' 
weight of Oil, and 16 Chittaks - 1 Beer. 



MADRAS. 

In the Gazette of October 20th, 1846, the Government 
defined the ** Puddee,'* or Measure, to be used in all Govern- 
ment transactions, at 100 Cublo Inoihes ;~3lihe Olluok, or ^ 
Measure, and the MercM of 8 Measures ; but this has never 
been attended to, either in (Government or any other transao- 
tkms. In the Shipping Trade grain is sold in bags of 8 Bengal 
Maunds, 164f lbs. Avoir. In the Baaaar of the town of Madna, 
the " Puddee '* or Measure, baa a capaeify of 104 Cubic Inches, 
and contains, when heaped in tiie usual way, about 128 Rupeea' 
weight, or 3'8 lbs. of Rice. The *' Merott," has a eapad^ of 
882 Cubic Inches, but when heaped in the usual way, is eiqnal 
to 8 heaped Measures. 



APPENDIX I. Vll 

This ** Madras Measure " is in use in some of the large 
Towns and Cantoonments, bat eTeiy locality has its own deno- 
mination of Measure, and almost all different. Perhaps the 
most common is the Seer-measnre, supposed to contain, when 
heaped, a Pucka Seer, or 80 Bupees^ weight, or 2 lbs. of Hioe. 
For Lime, the ** Parrah '' of from 8800 to 4000 Cubic Inches is 
used. Salt is measured in Mercfils, 424 of which are consi- 
dered a '* Garce," which is supposed to weigh 120 Bengal or 
Indian Matinds, or 4*41 Tons. Oil is sold per ** Visa ^' of 16 
Cliitties ; the Visa is about 2 ordinary wine bottles. 



BOMBAY. 

2 Tipprees ■■ 1 Seer. 

4 Seers « 1 Fylee. 

16 Fylees » 1 Parah. 

8 Parahs — 1 Candy. 

The Seer is a vessel, which, when heaped, contains about 
7i lbs. of Bice, which makes the. Candy about 780 lbs. av. 
Faddy ^ or Bice in the husk, is sold at 25 Parahs — 1 Mooda of 
about 2450 lbs. 

Salt is sold by the Parah of 10^ Adholees. The Parah 
contains about 1608 Cubic Inches. 100 Parahs » 1 Anna, and 
16 Annas » 1 Bass, estimated at 1120 Ben^pid Maunds' weight, 
or 41^ Tons. 

For Liquids. 1 Seer ■■ 60 Bs. weight, or l-541bs. 

50 Seers -• 1 Maxmd, of 77 lbs. 



APPENDIX n. 



« 



Memorandum forwarded by H. B* M.^ Consul-General for 
Borneo^ with regard to Lr, Browne's tabulated series of questions 
on the Currency^ Weights and Meamres of Borneo ^ dtc* 

A.— MONEY. 

On the N.W. coast of Borneo, goods and produce are ex- 
changed for each other, the reckoning being made in bo many 
Picnls of brass guns, a Pionl being worth abont $35. 

This is not altogether an imaginaxy mode of keeping accounts, 
for the gnns are actnally cast in quantities at Brunei, and 
weigh from 2 to 8 guns to the PicuL At Brunei fines are levied 
in Piculs of guns. Dollars and Cents are also a me^um of 
exchange. 

In the south of Borneo, under Dutch rule, the Real and 
Guilder are used in reckonings, the Beal being an imaginary 
coin worth 2 Guilders. 

In Lootoo and the territories in Borneo belonging to that 
coxmtry the currency consists of Doubloons, Dollars, and Pitis, 
6,000 of which are equal in value to a dollar. These small 
zinc coins are made in Ohina and Manilla for the Lootoo 
market, and are similar to the copper cash used in China, but 
are much smaller and thinner. In the extreme north of Borneo 
money is almost unknown, and accounts are kept in pieces of 
cloth, each piece equal to $1'50. In the mountains of the 
same district reckonings are made in bundles of iron for large 
accounts, each bundle, so far as I could learn, being in wei^t 
about 81bs. For small accounts they reckon in charges of 
gunpowder. 

The mountaineers (Legal) in the N.E. of Borneo reckon in 
cakes of salt for small accounts and pieces of doth, each re- 
presenting $8, for large accounts. 

In the western part of New Guinea accounts are calculated 
in pieces of black cloth, each valued at 10 Guilders. 

WEIGHTS USED AT BRUNEI. 

16 Taels - 1 Catty. 

« 100 Catties - 1 Picul - 188ilbB» 

40 Piculs - 1 Koyan. 



APPANBIX II. 11 

MEASURES OF QUANTITY. 

2 Pahus or Bambos » 1 Chapa. 

4 Ghnpahs * 1 Gantang 

10 GantangB » 1 Para. 

20 ,, » 1 PicQl. 

40 Pionls * 1 Koyan. 

MEASURES OE LENGTH. 

2 Jankals ■> 1 Hasta. 

2 Hastas (Cubits) « 1 Ella or Yard. 

2 Ellas — 1 Dapa or Fathom. 



APPENDIX III. 



Monetary Convention, cor eluded at ParU, Leeemher 23rd, 
1865, beticeen France, Italy, Bdjium and Switzerland, 

A Monetazj GonTeiitUm wm oonclnded at Paris, December 
2'^rd, 1865, between France, Italy, Belgimn and Switzerland. 
It is an agreement between those connines to assimilate their 
coinage to the monetary system of France, except as regards 
copper money. The following are the gold and silver coins 
specified by the Convention : — 

GOLD COINS. 
Pieces of 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 Francs. 

SILYEB COINS. 

Pieces of 5, 2 and 1 Francs, and of 50 and 20 Centimes. 

The coinage of each of the four countries will be a legal 
tender in all the others. The old coinage is to be withdrawn 
from circnlation before Jannaiy, 1869, with the exception of 
Swiss 2 and 1 Franc pieces, which will be withdrawn by 
January let, 1878. The fdlowing is a translation of the 
Convention : — 

" His Majesty the Kin;;^ of the Belgians, Hi<i Majesty the 
Emperor of the French, His Majesty the King of Italy, and 
the Swiss Confederation, being equally desirous of estabUshiog 
a more complete harmony between their monetary legislation, 
to remedy the inconveniences which press upon the communi- 
cations and transactions between the inhabitants of their 
respective States in consequence of the diverse values of their 
coined moneys, and to contribute, by the formation of a 
Monetary Union, to the progress of uniformity in weights, 
measures and currency, have resolved to conclude a Convention 
to that effect, and have named as their Commissionei^ 
Plenipotentiary as follows — 



APFEsrpix m. 



11 



** His Majesiy the Eing of the Belgians, M. Fr6d6ric Fortamps, 
Director of tiie Bank of Belginm, &o., and M. Erelinger ; 

" His Majesty the Emperor of the French — M. Marie Louis 
F61ix Esqniron de Parien, Vice-President of the Council of 
State, &c., and M. E. J. Pelouze, President of the Goinage 
Commission ; 

** His Majesty the King of Italy — ^M. Isaac Artom, Council- 
lor of Legation at Paris, and M. V. Pratolongo ; 

** The Swiss Confederation — M. Eem, EnToy Extraordinary 
to His Majesty the Emperor of the French, and M. Feer- 
Herzog; 

** Who, after mutually exhibiting their respective full powers 
in good and due form, have agreed upon the following Articles : — 

** Article 1. Belgium, France, Italy, and Switzerland are 
constituted a Union as respects the weights, values, form, and 
currency of their respective coinages in gold and silver. No 
change is made at present in the legislation relating to the 
copper money of each of the States. 

** Article 2. The high contracting parties engage not to coin 
nor allow to be coined, bearing their impressions and designs, 
any gold moneys in any other forms than those of gold pieces of 
lOOf., 60f., 20f., lOf., 6f., fixed as to weight, values, allowance 
for loss, and diameter as follows :^- 



Nature 

of 
Pieces. 

Francs. 


Pull 
Weifbt 

Grammes. 


Allowance 

in Weiffht 

at borne 

and abroad. 

Thousand 
Parts. 


Allowance 
Standard. from 

Standard. 
Thousand Thousand 
Parts. Parts. 


Diameter. 

MUli. 
metres. 


100 .. 


32268-06) 


1 




f 36 


60 .. 


16129-8 




28 


20 .. 


6461-61 


2 


■900 2 - 


21 


10 .. 


8225-80 




19 


6 .. 


1612-90 


3 




I 17 



"They. shall receive without distinction into their public 
treasuries gold pieces coined according to the foregoing condi- 
tions in one or other of the four States, with the reservation, 
nevertheless, of excluding all coins whose weight shall have been 
reduced by wear to the extent of } per cent, below the allow- 
ances mentioned above, or where the stamped impressions 
shall have become effaced. 

** Article 8. The contracting Governments bind themselves 
not to make, nor allow to be made, silver pieces of 6f., except 
according to the conditions of weight, standard, allowance, and 
diameter fixed as follows :— 

BB 



Ill APPEKDIX m. 

FanWefffht. AUowaaoe. Full Standard. Alloirandl. Dlamater. 

25gramineB 8,000ths 900,000tli8 2,000tlis 87 millimetreB. 

They shftll mntaally receive the said coined pieces into their 
public treasuries, with the right of exclnding those which shall 
have lost weight by wear to a greater extent than 1 per cent, 
below the allowance above-mentioned, or where the stamped 
impression shall have become eilaced. 

" Article 4. The high contracting parties henceforth shall 
not manufacture silver pieces of 2f., If., 50c., and 20c., except 
according to th« conditions of weight, stiajidard, allowance, and 
diameter as follows : — 



Deaerlp- 

ti*n. 

Franca. 


Fall 
Weight. 

Qrammes. 


Allowance 

in Weigrht. 

Thonsand 

Parts. 


FaU 
Standard. 
TbiMuand 
Partg. 


Allowance. 

Thonsand 

Parts. 


Diameter. 
Milli. 

metres. 


2 


..10 1 


5 

7 






f 27 


1 

0-50 


.. 6-00 
. . 2-50 


885 


3 


23 
18 


O-20 


1-00 


10 J 






i 16 



** These pieces shall be recast by the Governments that 
issued them when they shall have become reduced by T^ar to 
the extent of 5 per cent, below the above-mentioned allowance, 
or when their stamped impressions shall have become effiiced. 

** Article 5. The silver pieces of 2f., of If., of 50c., and of 
20c. manufactured otherwise than according to the various 
conditions speci%d in the foregoing Article shall be withdrawn 
from circulation before January 1, 1869. This period is ex- 
tended -until January 1, 1878, in respect of pieces of 2f. and ilf 
issued in Switzerland by virtue of the law of January 81, 1860. 

"Article 6. Silver pieces manufactured according to the 
conditions of Article 4 shall have legal currency among private 
individuals in the State which has manufactured them to the 
extent of 50f . in a single payment. The State which has issued 
them shall receive them from its own countrymen without any 
limit of quantity. 

" Article 7. The public treasuries of each of the four 
countries shall accept silver moneys coined by one or several 
of the other contracting States, in conformity with Article 4, to 
the extent of lOOf . in each single payment to such mentioned 
treasuries. 

*' The Governments of Belgium, France, and Italy shall 
receive upon the same terms until January 1, 1878, the Swiss 
pieces of 2f. and If. issued by virtue of the law of the 8l8t of 
January, 1860, and which are assimilated in all respects during 
the same period to pieces manufactured in accordance with the 



APPENDIX III. IV 

oonditions of Article 4. The reservation in respect of wear 
mentioned in Article 4 applies in all oases. 

" Article 8. Each of the contracting Governments under- 
take to receive back from individuMls or from the public 
treasuries of the other States the old coinage which it has 
issued, and to exchange it for an equal value in current coin 
(gold pieces or five -franc pieced in silver), upon condition that 
the sum presented for exchange shall not be less than lOOf . 
This oblifration shall be prolonged for a period of two years 
from the date of the expiration of the present Treaty. 

** Article 9. The high contracting parties shall not issue 
silver pieces of 2f., of If., of 50c., and of 20c. struck according 
to the conditions mentioned in Article 4 beyond the ratio of 6f . 
in value for each inhabitant. This amount, upon the basis of 
the last census in each StatOn and reckoning the presumed 
increase of population nntil the expiration of the present 
Treaty, is fixed thus : — 

Francs. 

For Belgium i .. 82,000,000 

For France 239,000,000 

For Italy , 141,000,000 

For Switzerland 17,000,000 

** Taken on account of the sums above mentioned which the 
Governments have the right to stamp of the values already 
issned : — 

** By France, in virtue of the law of the 25th of May, 1864, 
in pieces of 50o. and 20o. for about 16 milUons. 

*' By Italy, in virtue of the law of the 24th of August, 1862, 
in pieces of 2f. of If., of 50c., and of 20c., for about 100 
millions. 

** By Switzerland, in virtue of the law of the Slst of January, 
1860, in pieces of 2f. and If. for 106,000f. 

** Article 10. The date of coinage shall hereafter be stamped 
upon pieces of gold and silver struck in any of the four States. 

** Article 11. The contracting Governments shall communi- 
cate to each other annuallv the total amount of their issues of 
gold and silver coins, their position as to the withdrawal and 
remelting of the old coinage ; all the arrangements and all the 
administrative documents relating to coinages. 

** They shall also give to each other information of all facts 
which concern the reciprocal circulation of their gold and ^- 
yer moneys. 



V AFPEITDIX ni. 

Article 12. The right of acceding to this Conyention is 
reserved to any other State which shall accept its ohligations, 
and which shall adopt the monetary system of the union in 
whatever relates to gold and silver specie. 

Article 13. The execution of the mntoal engagements con- 
tained in the present Convention is snhject, as far as may he 
necessary, to the fulfilment of formalities and regidations pre- 
scribed by the Gonstitational laws of those of the high con- 
tracting parties which have detennined to obtain their applica- 
tion, and which they hind themselves to do with the least 
possible delay. 

Article 14. The present Convention shall rjemain in force 
nntil January 1st, 1880. If one year prior to that date notice 
to determine it shall not hate*^ been given {dSnonc^)^ it shall 
remain obligatory in full force for a further period of 15 years, 
and, in like manner, for further periods of 15 years in the 
absence of denunciation. 

'* Article 15. The present Convention shall be ratified, and 
the ratification thereof shall be exchanged at Paris within the 
space of six months, or sooner if possible. 

"In faith of which the respective Commissioners Pleni- 
potentaries have signed the present Convention, and have 
aflixed to it the seals of their arms. 

» 

'' Made in four parts at Paris, December 23rd, 1865." 



APPENDIX IV. 



AVEBAGE COURSE OF 

Fob the Ybab 1866. 



XCHANG 



LONDON receives from or gives to— 








Amsterdam 


• • 


Short 


.. 11 Gulden 


17 


oents 


For £1 Sterling. 


Amsterdam 


■ • 


8 months 


. . 11 Golden 


71i cents 


N II II 


Betterdam 


■ • 


II 


. . 11 Gulden 


81i cents .. 


fi 11 m 


Antwerp 


• • 


If 


.. 25 Francs 


Sa^ centimes 


II II •* 


Brussels 


• « 


II 


. . 85 Francs 


S2i centimes 


•I 11 11 


Hamburg 


• • 


M 


.. 18 Marks 


9\ 


^sohillinge 


•1 II II 


Paris 


• m 


Short 


. . 25 Francs * 


19 


centimes 


>* II ti 


Paris 


m • 


8 months 


. . 25 Francs 


4Si centimes 


II II II 


MarseiUes 


• • 


II 


. . 26 Francs 


47} centimes 


II r II 


Frankfort-on- 


Main 


II 


.. 120 Florins 






II iBlO ., 


Vienna .. 


• • 


n 


.. 12 Florins 


88i cents ' 


„ *l ,. 


Trieste .. 


• • 


tt 


.. 12 Florins 


88 


cents 


1* 11 II 


8t Petersburg. . 


m 


. . 9S\d. sterling 






For 1 Ruble. 


Oopenhagen 




II 


.. 9 BigBdalerslSiskimng 


For £1 St<)r11ng. 


Madrid .. 




M 


.. 46d. sterling 






„ 1 Dollar. 


OadiB .. 




n 


.. 46id. sterling 






•1 II 


Leghorn.. 




M 


.. 26 Lire 


97i cents 


„ £1 Sterling. 


MUsB .. 




•1 


. 26 Lire 


98 


oents 


M II W 


Milan .. 




8 months 


.. 26 Lire 


97 


oents 


'* II II 


Oenea .. 




II 


.. 26 Lire 


96 


cents 


M II W 


Genoa .. 




Short 


.. 26 Lire 


96 


cents 


11 II *ll 


Naples .. 




II 


.. 26 Lire 


98 


oents 


II II M 


Palermo 




II 


.. 26 Lire 


98 


cents 


1* It II 


Messina. . 




•« 


.. 26 Lire 


96 


cents 


II II n 


Oporto .. 




90 days 


.. Slid, sterling 






» 1 Milreia. 


Lisbon .. 




II 


.. Slid. ,. 






II II 


New York 




60 days 


. . 146 J» 






Per cent. Sterling. 


Bombay 






28. lid. ,. 






„ 1 Rupee. 


Oaloatta 






28. Oid. 1, 






II II 


Oanton .. 






4a. 7id. .. 






„ 1 Dollar 


flhangbai 






6b. 8id. » 






II II 


Hon^^Kong 






48. 6id. n 






II II 


Baenos Ayres 


.. 




SOid. „ 






II 11 


Bio Janeiro 






a4|d. „ 




■ 


» 1 Milreis. 


Bahia 






asid. „ 






II II 


Montevideo 






S2id. „ 






„ 1 Dollar. 


Pemambnoo 






Mid. „ 






nlMihreis. 


Santiago (Ohili) 




4<id. .. 






n 1 Dollar. 




• • 


90 days 


«7d. „ 






»t 11 



* This l8 the exchange Ibr "frreenbeokf,'* a paper enrrenoy eatabliahed dnxinc the oItU war 
(1861-4). A zetam to the gold itaadard b loon antioiiMtted. 



APPENDIX V. 



GBEECE. 

The old system of oarreney, that is the system in use from 
the year 1833 to the year 1872, was as follows :— 

1 Lepton -> ^d. English. 
100 Lepta — 1 Draohmai -> 8id. „ 

In this system the Drachma divided into 100 Lepta, was the 
hasis and fundamental unit of aceonnt. • 





Weight in 
QraminM, 


Fineness. 


Aiix- . EnffUsh 
AUoy. |. ^J„g, 


QoLD Coins : — 






£ 8. d. 


40 Draohmai 


11*658 


ftjths gold 


^th copper 18 4 


20 


6-776 


, It ti 


It It 14 2 


Silver Coins: — 








5 Draohmai 


22-885 i^ths silver 


^th copper 8 6i 


1 Drachma 


4-477 


It tt 


„ ,. 84 


i 


2-288 


It It 


„ .,0 4i 


i 


1-119 


It It 


.. „ 24 ^ 


Copper Coins: — 




t 




lOLepU 


12-99 1 Pure copper 


No Alloy O^i 


6 n 


6-495 .. „ 


OiS 


2 „ 


2-698 „ „ 


0^\, 


1 Lepton 


1-299 


It i» 


n ■ 0^0^, 



The silver Drachma contained 4-029 grammes of pure silver, 
and -448 grammes of alloy (copper). The 5 dracmai piece con- 
tained 20' 147 grammes of pure silver and 2*238 grammes of 
alloy. 

The half drachma piece contained 2 016 grammes pf pure 
silver and -223 grammes of alloy. 

The Quarter-Drachma piece contained 1*007 grammes of 
pure silver, and *112 grammes of alloy. 

The 20 Drachmai piece (gold) contained 5*199 grammes of 
pure gold, and -677 grammes of alloy (copper). 

The 40 Drachmai piece contained 10*398 grammes of pure 
gold, and 1 155 grammes of alloy. 

Not more than -^ (or 2 per cent.) of the amount of any 
deht or account could be paid in copper coins. 

The Drachma, estimating its value in gold, was worth B\d, 
sterling; its value, estimated in silver, was djd. stcrliug. 

Gold and silver coins were very scarce, and copper coins 
were alone abundant. Under the law of February, 1833, the 
undermentioned rates were assigned to foreign coins ; — 



11. 



•AfPEWDlX. — ^V. 



NAMB OF THE COIN. 



SiLTxm Oonri. 




French Frano 

French Flye Ff ano Piece 

English Orown ([Shilling piece of 1816). . . . 

,, ShiUlng (of 1816) 

„ Sixpence (of 1816) 

RiiMiAnSllyerBnble(ofl796) 

„ „ (ofl799) 

„ „ (ofl802) 

Half SlWer Bnble (of 1778) 



M 



If 



n 



M 



(of 1800) 
(of 



1767) 



fiO-Oopec Piece 
Spaniah Piaitre (Oolonato) 

Half Spanlah Piastre „ (of 1780) 

„ M Jofl792) 

Spanish Piastre of 1788-1706 

Sslf Spanish Piastre (of 1778) 

„ .. „ (ofl793) 

Oennan Onrntn. Thaler ( Anstrian, BaTarian) 

Anstrian Theresa Thaler 

German Thaler [90 Gulden Standard) 

(Zwanzlger)] [ 

Crown of Bavaria and Brabant 

Venetian Thaler or Ducat of 10 Lire (of 1797) 

„ tire(ofl800) 

„ fofl803) 

Half-Venetian Lire (of 1802) 

Tuscan Thaler (Frandscone) 

Roman Thsler of 10 Paell , 

Bolognese Thaler of 10 Paoll 

Neapolitan Thaler of 120 Qr%nl, of 1805 
Turkish Ginmnh, or Dollar, or Beal Medjidie 

. Gold Oonrs. 



French 90 Frano Piece (old) 

„ Napoleon (20 Franc Piece, new). . . . 

English SoTerelgn,or £ sterling of 20 shillings 

„ Half* Sovereign of 10 shillings , , . 

Spanish Quadraple (1772-1786) 

Half-Quttdmple (1772-1786) 

Pistole or i-quadrupel (1772-1786). . . . 
Half -Pistofe or i-q aadmpel(1772-1786/ 
Small Gold Piastre or -L) 

quadrapel (1772-1786) ^ f 

Anstrian Souverein d'or 

Anstrian Half -Souverein d'or 

Austrian and Bavarian Ducat 

Dutch Ducat • 

Venetian Segnin 

Portuguese Old Dobra of 12800 Reis 

Half -Dobra of 6400 Reis 

Turkish Gold Medjidie, or Lira Turca (New) 



tt 



n 
»f 



900 
900 
926 
925 
926 
748 
868 
876 
748 
668 
760 

flOA 

OOA 
OvD 

896 
896 

880 
888 

580 

868 
826 
286 
246 
289 
918 
906 
918 
881 



900 
902 
916 
916 
898 
898 
998 
891 

886 

911 
916 
984 
979 
997 
916 
916 



Weight 
in Grammes. 



Pure 
MetaL 




4,600 

92.500 

26.180 

6.226 

2.618 

17.799 

18,165 

18.811 

8,919 

9,088 

4.028 

24.176 

12.088 

11.998 

24.176 

12 068 

11.998 

28.977 

98,861 

8851 

26.684 

28.691 

1,128 

2.012 

0,978 

25.028 

24 063 

24,151 

28,068 



5,806 
6.609 
7.810 
8655 
24095 
12,047 
6.028 
2,981 

1,551 

10,108 
5,054 
8,897 
8.880 
8,442 
26,196 
18,074 



•600 
2-600 
2120 
424 
919 
6,156 
9,769 
9,616 
8.085 
1.881 
1341 
9306 
1408 
1.892 
2806 
1,408 

ijm 

4-766 
4664 

2-788 

8.898 
4.991 
8.652 
6.168 
8,112 
2384 
2,496 
2301 
4,707 



6.466 

750 

671 

885 

2.887 

1,444 

•722 

•866 



5,000 
25.000 
98350 

5.615 

9307 
98,966 
20397 
90.927 
12,004 
10,464 

5364 
26.982 
18.491 
18885 
26,982 
18.491 
18.885' 
280451 
28,045 

6,689 

29.582 

28682 

4.780 

4,180 

4090 

27,407 

26.558 

26.452 

27,770 



Greek 
Value. 



6-4516 
7349 
7.98J 
8.990 
26,982 
18.491 
6.746 
8346 



•202 , 1,768 

•998 11,101 
470^ 5.524 



•35? 

•072 

•010 

2-488 

1.214 



8,469 

8,462 

8.452 

28.629 

14,288 



1 
5 
6 
1 

• • 

4 
4 
4 



6 
8 
9 
6 
8 
2 
6 
6 



6 
5 



6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



22 
26 
98 
14 
92 
46 
28 
11 



8" 



11^66 
58-40 
48 50 
28-70 
64-85 
41-74 
50«2 
54-44 
91-86 
96-42 
99-84 



97-64 



97-64 
77*69 

J79-78 

96-57 

86-19 
87-97 
27-99 
49-98 
24-27 
21-02 
9718 
99-89 
72-88 
20 



88*60 
68-97 
12-06 
6-08 
6909 
;84-64 
117-27 
^» 



6 ,96-«6 

as 88-48 
19 '44 2i 
IS] e-89 

18 124-09 
100 '60-00 
60 29*80 
26 . 



J